Difference between pages "Cloud Backup" and "Create a boot option for easy nvidia or nouveau display driver switching"

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This howto will describe a method for automatically backing up your funtoo install to the internet, in this case dropbox, but any online storage will do. Gentoo describes a method of creating a stage 4 archive. The problem with a stage 4 is that it is large and it archives a lot of unnecessary files. Such as applications that can be reinstalled from an emerge world. Instead, this method will aim for more of a "stage 3.5."
+
This howto describes how to use nvidia and nouveau drivers on the same computer and kernel.
 +
<br>
 +
{{Fancynote|You must know how to install {{Package|x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers}} and {{package|x11-drivers/nouveau}} (references at the end of the page). First, you need to configure your kernel and install nvidia drivers and nouveau. We assume that this stage is successfully passed.}}
  
{{fancynote| This method does not attempt to backup everything. The intention is only to backup the system. Optionally you can also archive and copy your <tt>/home</tt> folder if you have enough online storage.}}
+
== boot-update ==
 +
The most important change: edit <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt>:
  
== Use Case ==
+
{{file|name=/etc/boot.conf|desc= |body=
A backup machine currently provides network drives on a home LAN to allow clients on the LAN to backup to, using apps such as Time Machine (Mac) and Genie Timeline (Windows). As this machine ''is'' the backup machine it doesn't have anywhere to backup to itself. In this situation a backup solution is provided by backing up to somewhere online - dropbox. If a restore from the backup is required, the client machine's backups would be trashed, and the backup machine restored.
+
boot {
 +
generate grub
 +
default "Funtoo Linux [nvidia]"
 +
# or
 +
# default "Funtoo Linux [nouveau]"
 +
timeout 3
 +
}
  
== Automatic Backup Archives With Etckeeper ==
+
color {
Etckeeper is a tool that is used to save versions of <tt>/etc</tt>, including meta-data in a version control repository such as git.
+
normal cyan/blue
As etckeeper is not in the funtoo portage tree, layman is used to provide an overlay.
+
highlight blue/cyan
 +
}
  
=== Install etckeeper via layman ===
+
display {
Before you install layman it is worth mentioning that you probably want <tt>USE="git subversion"</tt> in <tt>/etc/portage/make.conf</tt>. After adjusting use flags, to install layman you run:
+
#gfxmode 1280x800
<console>
+
#font unifont.pf2
###i## emerge layman
+
}
</console>
+
In order to backup the layman configuration, but not the portage overlay trees, make the following modifications to the default install.
+
Tell Portage about layman-fetched repositories by adding the following line to <tt>/etc/portage/make.conf</tt>:
+
<pre>
+
source /etc/layman/make.conf
+
</pre>
+
  
Modify the following lines in <tt>/etc/layman/layman.cfg</tt>:
+
"Funtoo Linux [nvidia]" {
<pre>
+
kernel vmlinuz[-v]
storage  : /var/lib/layman
+
params += ro console=tty1 quiet <other standard boot options>
installed : /etc/layman/installed.xml
+
params += nouveau.blacklist=true vga=791 # nouveau.blacklist=true is important
make_conf : /etc/layman/make.conf
+
# or
</pre>
+
# params += nouveau.blacklist=true video=uvesafb:1440x900-8,mtrr:2
 +
}
  
Add the bgo-overlay. As described on their web page, [http://bgo.zugaina.org/ bgo.zugaina.org].
+
"Funtoo Linux [nouveau]" {
<console>
+
kernel vmlinuz[-v]
###i## layman -o http://gpo.zugaina.org/lst/gpo-repositories.xml -L
+
params += ro console=tty1 quiet <other standard boot options>
###i## layman -a bgo-overlay -o http://gpo.zugaina.org/lst/gpo-repositories.xml
+
params += nvidia.blacklist=true # nvidia.blacklist=true is important
</console>
+
}
 
+
}}
More information about layman can be found here: http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/overlays/userguide.xml
+
Next, run [[Boot-Update | <tt>boot-update</tt>]].
  
Then unmask and install etckeeper.
+
After boot-update has been run, you should have something like:
 
<console>
 
<console>
###i## emerge etckeeper --autounmask-write
+
###i## grep menuentry /boot/grub/grub.cfg | wc -l
###i## emerge etckeeper
+
2
 +
###i## grep menuentry /boot/grub/grub.cfg
 +
menuentry "Funtoo Linux [nouveau] - vmlinuz-2.6.32.71_p14-rh" {
 +
menuentry "Funtoo Linux [nvidia] - vmlinuz-2.6.32.71_p14-rh" {
 
</console>
 
</console>
{{fancynote| To update layman overlays do:}}
 
  
<console>
+
== xcfgmaker deamon ==
###i## layman -S
+
</console>
+
  
If you see the following error, apply this fix:
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
###i## emerge etckeeper
+
###i## mkdir /etc/X11/video/;
Calculating dependencies... done!
+
###i## cd /etc/X11/video/;
>>> Verifying ebuild manifests
+
###i## nano 10-monitor.conf.nouveau # make default config for nouveau. or copy existing config…
!!! A file is not listed in the Manifest: '/var/lib/layman/bgo-overlay/sys-apps/etckeeper/files/etckeeper-gentoo-0.58.patch'
+
###i## nano 10-monitor.conf.nvidia # also for nvidia
 
+
###i## cd /var/lib/layman/bgo-overlay/sys-apps/etckeeper
+
###i## ebuild etckeeper-0.58-r2.ebuild manifest
+
###i## emerge etckeeper
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
== Configure etckeeper ==
+
Then create a new daemon. Edit the file <tt>/etc/init.d/xcfgmaker</tt>:
Move any config files that do not live in <tt>/etc</tt>. i.e.
+
Check <tt>/root</tt> for any files to be archived, such as iptables scripts, and move them to <tt>/etc</tt>.
+
 
+
{{fancynote| because funtoo uses [[Boot-Update]], this means that <tt>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</tt> does not need to be archived.}}
+
 
+
To ensure your portage world file is archived, make the following link:
+
<console>
+
###i## ln /var/lib/portage/world /etc/world
+
</console>
+
 
+
Initialize the git repository:
+
<console>
+
###i## etckeeper init
+
Initialized empty Git repository in /etc/.git/
+
###i## etckeeper commit "Initial commit."
+
</console>
+
 
+
If you don't already have a cron daemon installed, emerge one now:
+
<console>
+
###i## emerge vixie-cron
+
</console>
+
 
+
{{fancynote| git will only create a new version (commit) if there are changes from the previous one.}}
+
Write a cron job to save an hourly version of <tt>/etc</tt> by creating the file <tt>/etc/cron.hourly/etckeeper</tt>:
+
 
+
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="bash">
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="bash">
#! /bin/bash
+
#!/sbin/runscript
etckeeper commit "Hourly auto-commit"
+
</syntaxhighlight>
+
  
== Encrypt and copy backups online ==
+
# by http://wiki.sabayon.org/index.php?title=HOWTO:_Create_a_boot_option_for_easy_dual_to_single_display_switching
=== Copy To Dropbox ===
+
# To be placed in /etc/init.d/
<console>
+
# Run Command: rc-update add xcfgmaker boot
###i## emerge dropbox
+
</console>
+
  
Add a dropbox user:
+
depend()
<console>
+
{
###i## useradd dropbox
+
  need localmount
</console>
+
  before xdm-setup
 +
  before xdm
 +
  before alsasound
 +
}
  
Write the dropbox init files in <tt>/etc/conf.d/dropbox</tt>:
+
start()
<syntaxhighlight lang="bash">
+
{
#!/sbin/runscript
+
# Copyright 1999-2004 Gentoo Foundation
+
# Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License, v2 or later
+
# $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo-x86/sys-fs/dropbox/files/dropbox.init-1.0,v 1.4 2007/04/04 13:35:25 cardoe Exp $
+
  
DROPBOX_USERS="dropbox"
+
  cmdline_display_mode_exist=$(cat /proc/cmdline | grep -e "nouveau.blacklist=" -e "nvidia.blacklist=")
NICENESS=5
+
  display_mode_nvidia_exist=$(ls /etc/X11/video/ | grep "10-monitor.conf.nvidia")
 
+
  display_mode_nouveau_exist=$(ls /etc/X11/video/ | grep "10-monitor.conf.nouveau")
depend() {
+
  cmdline_display_mode=$(cat /proc/cmdline | awk -Fnvidia.blacklist= '{print $2}' | awk '{print $1}')
    need localmount net
+
  if [ -n "$cmdline_display_mode_exist" ]; then
    after bootmisc
+
      if [ -n "$display_mode_nvidia_exist" ] && [ -n "$display_mode_nouveau_exist" ]; then
}
+
            #Choose the xorg file to be copied over
 
+
            if [ "$cmdline_display_mode" == "true" ]; then
start() {
+
              ebegin "Configuring X display with nouveau"
    ebegin "Starting dropbox..."  
+
              cp /etc/X11/video/10-monitor.conf.nouveau /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/10-monitor.conf
    for dbuser in $DROPBOX_USERS; do
+
              eselect opengl set xorg-x11 >/dev/null 2>&1;
        start-stop-daemon -S -b -m --pidfile /var/run/dropbox-$dbuser.pid  -N $NICENESS -u $dbuser -v -e HOME="/home/$dbuser" -x /opt/dropbox/dropboxd
+
            else
    done
+
              ebegin "Configuring X display with nvidia"
    eend $?
+
              cp /etc/X11/video/10-monitor.conf.nvidia /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/10-monitor.conf
}
+
              eselect opengl set nvidia >/dev/null 2>&1;
 
+
            fi
stop() {
+
        sleep 5
    ebegin "Stopping dropbox..."
+
        eend 0
    for dbuser in $DROPBOX_USERS; do
+
      else
        start-stop-daemon --stop --pidfile /var/run/dropbox-$dbuser.pid
+
        ebegin "Xorg file missing. Exitting"
    done
+
        eend 0
    eend $?
+
      fi
}
+
  fi
  
status() {
 
    for dbuser in $DROPBOX_USERS; do
 
        if [ -e /var/run/dropbox-$dbuser.pid ] ; then
 
            echo "dropboxd for USER $dbuser: running."
 
        else
 
            echo "dropboxd for USER $dbuser: not running."
 
        fi
 
    done
 
    eend $?
 
 
}
 
}
</syntaxhighlight>
 
Start dropbox now and at boot time:
 
<console>
 
###i## chmod 0755 /etc/init.d/dropbox
 
###i## /etc/init.d/dropbox start
 
###i## rc-update add dropbox default
 
</console>
 
 
After starting the dropbox daemon, it will provide a http link. You will need to visit this site just once to associate your computer with your dropbox account.
 
 
Write the cron job to make the backup archive and move it online. Create the file <tt>/etc/cron.daily/backup</tt>:
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="bash">
 
#! /bin/bash
 
cd /etc
 
git bundle create /tmp/backup.bundle --all
 
cd /tmp
 
mv -v -f backup.bundle /home/dropbox/Dropbox/Private/
 
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</syntaxhighlight>
  
Make the script executable:
+
Do not forget:
 
<console>
 
<console>
###i## chmod +x /etc/cron.daily/backup
+
###i## chmod +x /etc/init.d/xcfgmaker
 +
###i## rc-update add xcfgmaker boot
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
=== Encrypt Backups ===
+
== Additional Resources ==
It is a good idea to encrypt your backup before moving it online. This can be done with gpg, using a symmetric (password only) or public/private key encryption. Additionally you can chose to sign the backup to check its integrity before restoring.
+
*[http://en.gentoo-wiki.com/wiki/Nvidia Nvidia how-to on gentoo-wiki]
<console>
+
*[http://en.gentoo-wiki.com/wiki/Nouveau Nouveau how-to on gentoo-wiki]
###i## emerge gpg
+
*[http://sudormrf.wordpress.com/2011/02/14/create-a-boot-option-for-easy-nvidia-or-nouveau-display-driver-switching The same text on my blog(in Russian)]
</console>
+
 
+
==== Symmetric Encryption ====
+
There is no preparation required to use a symmetric key as all that is required is simply a passphrase.  Just modify the cron job. Edit <tt>/etc/cron.daily/backup</tt>:
+
 
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="bash">
+
#! /bin/bash
+
cd /etc
+
git bundle create /tmp/backup.bundle --all
+
cd /tmp
+
echo 'encryption_password' | gpg -o backup.gpg --batch --homedir /root/.gnupg -vvv  --passphrase-fd 0 --yes -c backup.bundle
+
mv -v -f router.gpg /home/dropbox/Dropbox/Private/
+
</syntaxhighlight>
+
{{fancyimportant| Remember to change <tt>encryption_password</tt>}}
+
{{fancywarning| If you forget this password the backup will be unusable. Lose the password and you lose the backup.}}
+
 
+
As there is now sensitive information in this file, you might want to remove read permission:
+
<console>
+
###i## chmod og-r /etc/cron.daily/backup
+
</console>
+
 
+
==== Private/Public key Encryption ====
+
Make a private/public encryption/decryptions key pair. The public key will be used to encrypt and the private key to decrypt.
+
<console>
+
###i## gpg --gen-key
+
</console>
+
The public key is used to create the encrypted backup and needs to live on the computer being backed up. A copy of the private key needs to be made and stored securely in another place. If this machine becomes unbootable, and this is the only place the private key lives, the backup dies with it.
+
The private key should not be kept:
+
* In the same place as the back up
+
* On the machine being backed up
+
{{fancynote| The private key is the only key that will decrypt the backup. Lose this key and/or it's password and you lose the backup.}}
+
 
+
List the private keys:
+
<console>
+
###i## gpg -K
+
/root/.gnupg/secring.gpg
+
------------------------
+
sec  2048R/0EF13559 2012-01-21
+
uid                  my_key <noone@example.com>
+
ssb  2048R/67417FEB 2012-01-21
+
</console>
+
 
+
The private key can be exported using either the key name or key number. In this case "my_key" or "0EF13559".
+
To cut and paste the key. Ie, if logging in remotely.
+
<console>
+
###i## gpg -a --export-secret-key 0EF13559
+
</console>
+
 
+
To create a key file:
+
<console>
+
###i## gpg -o private_decryption.gpgkey --export-secret-key 0EF13559
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now store this key somewhere secure. The backup is only as secure as the private key.
+
 
+
Modify the cron job at <tt>/etc/cron.daily/backup</tt>:
+
 
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="bash">
+
#! /bin/bash
+
cd /etc
+
git bundle create /tmp/backup.bundle --all
+
cd /tmp
+
gpg -o backup.gpg -r 'my-key' --batch --homedir /root/.gnupg -vvv  --passphrase-fd 0 --yes -e backup.bundle
+
mv -v -f backup.gpg /home/dropbox/Dropbox/Private/
+
</syntaxhighlight>
+
 
+
{{fancynote| Replace "my-key" with the appropriate name from the key list. Also note the change from -c for symmetric encryption to -e for private/public key encryption. }}
+
 
+
==== Sign Backups ====
+
Create a 2nd private/public (signing) key pair. The private key is used to sign and the public key is used to check the authenticity/integrity.
+
<console>
+
###i## gpg --gen-key
+
</console>
+
 
+
{{fancynote| The password for this key will be required in the script below.}}
+
In this case the private key is required to sign the backup and the public key is used to check the integrity of the backup.
+
Follow a similar process as above to copy the public key to to another computer/storage media.
+
 
+
List the private keys:
+
<console>
+
###i## gpg -k
+
</console>
+
{{fancynote| <tt>-K</tt> lists private keys while <tt>-k</tt> lists public keys.}}
+
 
+
Then export this public key via cut and paste:
+
<console>
+
###i## gpg -a --export <key name or number>
+
</console>
+
 
+
Or to create a key file:
+
<console>
+
###i## gpg -o public_signing.gpgkey --export <key name or number>
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now store this key somewhere secure.
+
 
+
Modify the backup cron job at <tt>/etc/cron.daily/backup</tt>:
+
 
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="bash">
+
#! /bin/bash
+
cd /etc
+
git bundle create /tmp/backup.bundle --all
+
cd /tmp
+
echo 'signing_key_password' | gpg -s -o backup.gpg -r 'my-encryption-key' --batch --homedir /root/.gnupg -vvv  --passphrase-fd 0 --yes -e backup.bundle
+
mv -v -f backup.gpg /home/dropbox/Dropbox/Private/
+
</syntaxhighlight>
+
 
+
{{fancynote| the script will require the password for your private (signing) key to sign the backup. Replace "password" with the password for your signing private key.
+
And as there is sensitive information in this file don't forget to remove read permission.}}
+
<console>
+
###i## chmod og-r /etc/cron.daily/backup
+
</console>
+
 
+
== To Restore From A Backup ==
+
This restore will assume your are starting with a new blank disk.
+
Start by performing a stage 3 install, upto and including section 5 "Chroot into your new system." http://www.funtoo.org/wiki/Funtoo_Linux_Installation
+
 
+
Then the restore process is:
+
# Download backup from dropbox
+
# Decrypt
+
# Clone
+
# Link world file
+
# Emerge world
+
# Compile the kernel
+
# Restore grub bootloader
+
# Reboot
+
 
+
== Download backup from dropbox ==
+
Log into your dropbox account and find your backup file. Move it to a public area if it isn't already in one. Then right click on it and click "copy public link."
+
Now on the computer to be restored, delete the contents of the /etc folder and download the backup file.
+
 
+
(Need to check if this needs done before chrooting into the new install).
+
<console>
+
###i## cd /etc
+
###i## rm -rf *
+
###i## cd /tmp
+
###i## wget http://dl.dropbox.com/link-to-backup-file/backup.gpg
+
</console>
+
 
+
{{fancynote| if you have to copy the link from another computer and therefore can not cut and paste it, there is a "shorten link" option.}}
+
 
+
== Decrypt ==
+
If you used a public/private key to encrypt, and optionally signed the backup, import the decryption and signing keys.
+
 
+
Note:
+
# The decryption key is the private key of the encryption key pair - private_decryption.gpgkey
+
# The signing key is the public key of the signing key pair - public_signing.gpgkey
+
 
+
To import the keys by cut and paste:
+
<console>
+
###i## gpg --import <<EOF
+
</console>
+
{{fancynote| The last line after pasting the key should be "EOF"}}
+
Repeat for both keys.
+
 
+
To import the keys by file:
+
<console>
+
###i## gpg --import private_decryption.gpgkey
+
###i## gpg --import public_signing.gpgkey
+
</console>
+
 
+
Decrypt the backup:
+
<console>
+
###i## gpg -d backup.gpg > backup.bundle
+
</console>
+
 
+
If the backup was signed and you have correctly imported the signing public key you should see a message similar to:
+
<console>
+
gpg: Good signature from "my_signing_key <noone@example.com>"
+
</console>
+
 
+
== Clone ==
+
<console>
+
###i## git clone /tmp/backup.bundle /etc/
+
</console>
+
 
+
== Link world file ==
+
<console>
+
###i## ln /etc/world /var/lib/portage/world
+
</console>
+
 
+
== Emerge world ==
+
<console>
+
###i## emerge --sync
+
###i## layman -S
+
###i## emerge -uDaNv world
+
</console>
+
 
+
== Compile the kernel (genkernel)==
+
If you have genkernel set to save config files (the default):
+
<console>
+
###i## cp /etc/kernels/kernel-config-x86_64-<latest version>-gentoo /usr/src/linux/.config
+
</console>
+
 
+
Otherwise use the currently loaded kernel's config:
+
<console>
+
###i## zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/src/linux/.config
+
</console>
+
 
+
Then compile the kernel:
+
<console>
+
###i## genkernel --oldconfig --no-mrproper all
+
</console>
+
 
+
== Restore grub bootloader ==
+
<console>
+
###i## grub-install --no-floppy /dev/sda
+
###i## boot-update
+
</console>
+
 
+
Adjust the device as required if installing to another location.
+
 
+
== Reboot ==
+
<console>
+
###i## reboot
+
</console>
+
  
 +
[[Category:HOWTO]]
 
[[Category:First Steps]]
 
[[Category:First Steps]]
[[Category:HOWTO]]
 

Latest revision as of 18:33, 27 June 2014

This howto describes how to use nvidia and nouveau drivers on the same computer and kernel.

Note: You must know how to install x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers and x11-drivers/nouveau (references at the end of the page). First, you need to configure your kernel and install nvidia drivers and nouveau. We assume that this stage is successfully passed.

boot-update

The most important change: edit /etc/boot.conf:

/etc/boot.conf
boot {
	generate grub
	default "Funtoo Linux [nvidia]" 
	# or
	# default "Funtoo Linux [nouveau]"
	timeout 3 
}

color {
	normal cyan/blue
	highlight blue/cyan
}

display {
	#gfxmode 1280x800
	#font unifont.pf2
}

"Funtoo Linux [nvidia]" {
	kernel vmlinuz[-v]
	params += ro console=tty1 quiet <other standard boot options>
	params += nouveau.blacklist=true vga=791 # nouveau.blacklist=true is important
	# or
	# params += nouveau.blacklist=true video=uvesafb:1440x900-8,mtrr:2
}

"Funtoo Linux [nouveau]" {
	kernel vmlinuz[-v]
	params += ro console=tty1 quiet <other standard boot options>
	params += nvidia.blacklist=true # nvidia.blacklist=true is important
}

Next, run boot-update.

After boot-update has been run, you should have something like:

# grep menuentry /boot/grub/grub.cfg | wc -l
2
# grep menuentry /boot/grub/grub.cfg
menuentry "Funtoo Linux [nouveau] - vmlinuz-2.6.32.71_p14-rh" {
menuentry "Funtoo Linux [nvidia] - vmlinuz-2.6.32.71_p14-rh" {

xcfgmaker deamon

# mkdir /etc/X11/video/;
# cd /etc/X11/video/;
# nano 10-monitor.conf.nouveau # make default config for nouveau. or copy existing config… 
# nano 10-monitor.conf.nvidia # also for nvidia

Then create a new daemon. Edit the file /etc/init.d/xcfgmaker:

#!/sbin/runscript
 
# by http://wiki.sabayon.org/index.php?title=HOWTO:_Create_a_boot_option_for_easy_dual_to_single_display_switching
# To be placed in /etc/init.d/
# Run Command: rc-update add xcfgmaker boot
 
depend()
{
   need localmount
   before xdm-setup
   before xdm
   before alsasound
}
 
start()
{
 
   cmdline_display_mode_exist=$(cat /proc/cmdline | grep -e "nouveau.blacklist=" -e "nvidia.blacklist=")
   display_mode_nvidia_exist=$(ls /etc/X11/video/ | grep "10-monitor.conf.nvidia")
   display_mode_nouveau_exist=$(ls /etc/X11/video/ | grep "10-monitor.conf.nouveau")
   cmdline_display_mode=$(cat /proc/cmdline | awk -Fnvidia.blacklist= '{print $2}' | awk '{print $1}')
   if [ -n "$cmdline_display_mode_exist" ]; then
      if [ -n "$display_mode_nvidia_exist" ] && [ -n "$display_mode_nouveau_exist" ]; then
            #Choose the xorg file to be copied over
            if [ "$cmdline_display_mode" == "true" ]; then
               ebegin "Configuring X display with nouveau"
               cp /etc/X11/video/10-monitor.conf.nouveau /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/10-monitor.conf
               eselect opengl set xorg-x11 >/dev/null 2>&1;
            else
               ebegin "Configuring X display with nvidia"
               cp /etc/X11/video/10-monitor.conf.nvidia /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/10-monitor.conf
               eselect opengl set nvidia >/dev/null 2>&1;
            fi
         sleep 5
         eend 0
      else
         ebegin "Xorg file missing. Exitting"
         eend 0
      fi
   fi
 
}

Do not forget:

# chmod +x /etc/init.d/xcfgmaker
# rc-update add xcfgmaker boot

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