Difference between pages "Install/Partitioning" and "Install/ru/Overview"

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(Live CD)
 
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<noinclude>
{{InstallPart|the process of partitioning and filesystem creation}}
+
{{InstallPart|начальный обзор процесса установки, включая скачивние LiveCD и инструкцию по загрузке.}}
 
</noinclude>
 
</noinclude>
=== Prepare Hard Disk ===
+
== Обзор Установки ==
  
In this section, we'll learn about the different ways that Funtoo Linux can be installed on -- and boot from -- a hard disk.
+
Общий обзор по установке Funtoo:
  
==== Introduction ====
+
# [[#Live CD|Скачивание и загрузка живого диска]].
 +
# [[#Подготовка жесткого диска|Подготовка диска]].
 +
# [[#Создание файловой системы|Создание]] и [[#Монтирование файловых систем|монтирование]] файловых систем.
 +
# [[#Установка архива Stage 3|Установка  архива Funtoo stage]] по Вашему выбору.
 +
# [[#Изменение корневого каталога в Funtoo|Изменение корневого каталога в новую систему]].
 +
# [[#Скачивание дерева Portage |Скачивние дерева Portage]].
 +
# [[#Настройка Вашей системы|Настройка вашей системы]] и [[#Настройка сети|сети]].
 +
# [[#Конфигурация и установка ядра Линукс|Установка ядра]].
 +
# [[#Установка загрузчика|Установка загрузчика]].
 +
# [[#Заключительные Шаги|Заключительные шаги]].
 +
# [[#Перегрузка системы|Перегрузка системы]].
  
In earlier times, there was only one way to boot a PC-compatible computer. All of our desktops and servers had a standard PC BIOS, all our hard drives used Master Boot Records to boot the system, and our hard drives were partitioned into different regions using the MBR partition scheme. That was just how it was done. And we liked it that way!
+
=== Загрузочный Диск ===
  
Then, along came EFI and UEFI, which are new-style firmware designed to boot systems, along with GPT partition tables to define disk partitions on disks larger than 2.2TB. All of the sudden, we had a variety of options to boot Linux systems, turning what once was a one-method-fits-all approach into something a lot more complex.
+
Funtoo не предоставляет оффициального загрузочного диска Funtoo Live CD. Мы рекомендуем основанный на Gentoo- [http://www.sysresccd.org/ System Rescue CD]. Он содержит множество полезных программ и утилит и поддерживает 32-битные и 64-битные системы соответственно. Скачайте диск по следующей ссылке:
  
Let's take a moment to review the options available to you for configuring a hard drive to boot Funtoo Linux. This Install Guide uses, and recommends, the old-school method of BIOS booting and using an MBR. It works and (except for rare cases) universally supported. There's nothing wrong with it. If your system disk is 2TB or smaller in size, it won't prevent you from using all of your disk's capacity, either.
+
http://www.sysresccd.org/Download
  
But, there are some situations where the old-school method isn't optimal. If you have a system disk >2TB in size, then MBR partitions won't allow you to access all your storage. So that's one reason. Another reason is that there are some so-called "PC" systems out there that don't support BIOS booting anymore, and force you to use UEFI to boot. So, out of compassion for people who fall into this predicament, this Install Guide documents UEFI booting too.
+
{{Note|Если Вы используете старую версию System Rescue CD, '''убедитесь, что Вы выбрали <code>rescue64</code> ядро в меню загрузки, если Вы устанавливаете 64-битную систему'''. По-умолчанию, System Rescue CD ранее загружался в 32-битном режиме, хотя последние версии пытаются автоматически распознать 64-битные процессоры.}}
  
Our recommendation is still to go old-school unless you have reason not to. The boot loader we will be using to load the Linux kernel in this guide is called GRUB, so we call this method the '''BIOS + GRUB (MBR)''' method. It's the traditional method of setting up a PC-compatible system to boot Linux.
+
==== Доступ к интернету ====
  
If you need to use UEFI to boot, we recommend not using the MBR at all for booting, as some systems support this, but others don't. Instead, we recommend using UEFI to boot GRUB, which in turn will load Linux. We refer to this method as the '''UEFI + GRUB (GPT)''' method.
+
Once you have booted System Rescue CD, see if you have Internet access. Internet access is required for installing Funtoo Linux:
 
+
And yes, there are even more methods, some of which are documented on the [[Boot Methods]] page. We used to recommend a '''BIOS + GRUB (GPT)''' method but it is not consistently supported across a wide variety of hardware.
+
 
+
'''The big question is -- which boot method should you use?''' Here's how to tell.
+
 
+
;Principle 1 - Old School: If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial light blue menu, you are booting the CD using the BIOS, and it's likely that you can thus boot Funtoo Linux using the BIOS. So, go old-school and use BIOS booting, ''unless'' you have some reason to use UEFI, such as having a >2.2TB system disk. In that case, see Principle 2, as your system may also support UEFI booting.
+
 
+
;Principle 2 - New School: If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial black and white menu -- congratulations, your system is configured to support UEFI booting. This means that you are ready to install Funtoo Linux to boot via UEFI. Your system may still support BIOS booting, but just be trying UEFI first. You can poke around in your BIOS boot configuration and play with this.
+
 
+
;What's the Big Difference between Old School and New School?: Here's the deal. If you go with old-school MBR partitions, your <code>/boot</code> partition will be an ext2 filesystem, and you'll use <code>fdisk</code> to create your MBR partitions. If you go with new-school GPT partitions and UEFI booting, your <code>/boot</code> partition will be a vfat filesystem, because this is what UEFI is able to read, and you will use <code>gdisk</code> to create your GPT partitions. And you'll install GRUB a bit differently. That's about all it comes down to, in case you were curious.
+
 
+
{{Note|'''Some motherboards may appear to support UEFI, but don't.''' Do your research. For example, the Award BIOS in my Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD7 rev 1.1 has an option to enable UEFI boot for CD/DVD. '''This is not sufficient for enabling UEFI boot for hard drives and installing Funtoo Linux.''' UEFI must be supported for both removable media (so you can boot System Rescue CD using UEFI) as well as fixed media (so you can boot your new Funtoo Linux installation.) It turns out that later revisions of this board (rev 3.0) have a new BIOS that fully supports UEFI boot.  This may point to a third principle -- know thy hardware.}}
+
 
+
==== Old-School (BIOS/MBR) Method ====
+
 
+
{{Note|Use this method if you are booting using your BIOS, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was light blue. If you're going to use the new-school method, [[#New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method|click here to jump down to UEFI/GPT.]]}}
+
 
+
===== Preparation =====
+
 
+
First, it's a good idea to make sure that you've found the correct hard disk to partition. Try this command and verify that <code>/dev/sda</code> is the disk that you want to partition:
+
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##fdisk -l /dev/sda
+
# ##i##ping www.google.com
 
+
PING www.google.com (216.58.217.36) 56(84) bytes of data.
Disk /dev/sda: 640.1 GB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
+
64 bytes from den03s10-in-f4.1e100.net (216.58.217.36): icmp_seq=1 ttl=57 time=30.1 ms
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
+
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
+
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
+
Disk label type: gpt
+
 
+
 
+
#        Start          End    Size  Type            Name
+
1         2048  1250263694  596.2G  Linux filesyste Linux filesystem
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Now, it's recommended that you erase any existing MBR or GPT partition tables on the disk, which could confuse the system's BIOS at boot time. We do this using <code>sgdisk</code>:
+
If the ping is successful (you see <code>64 bytes</code> messages as above,) then your Network is set up. Hit Control-C to stop the ping.  
{{fancywarning|This will make any existing partitions inaccessible! You are '''strongly''' cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.}}
+
  
<console>
+
If you need to set up a WiFi connection for Internet access, then this needs to be done using the System Rescue CD graphical environment. Run <code>startx</code> to start a graphical session:
# ##i##sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda
+
 
+
Creating new GPT entries.
+
GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or
+
other utilities.
+
</console>
+
 
+
This output is also nothing to worry about, as the command still succeded:
+
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
***************************************************************
+
# ##i##startx
Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format
+
in memory.
+
***************************************************************
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
===== Partitioning =====
+
Then, use the NetworkManager applet (icon in lower right) to connect to a WiFi network of your choice. Next, open a terminal inside your graphical environment, and you should be able to use the terminal to complete the rest of the steps.
  
Now we will use <code>fdisk</code> to create the MBR partition table and partitions:
+
==== Remote Install ====
  
<console>
+
Alternatively, you can log into System Rescue CD over the network via SSH to perform the install from another computer, and this may be more convenient way to install Funtoo Linux.
# ##i##fdisk /dev/sda
+
</console>
+
  
Within <code>fdisk</code>, follow these steps:
+
If you'd like to complete the install remotely, here's how. First, you will need to ensure that System Rescue CD has a functioning network connection. Then, you will need to set a root password for System Rescue CD:
 
+
'''Empty the partition table''':
+
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
Command (m for help): ##i##o ↵
+
# ##i##passwd
 +
New password: ##i##********
 +
Retype new password: ##i##********
 +
passwd: password updated successfully
 +
#
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
+
Once you have typed in a password, you will now need to determine the IP address of System Rescue CD, and then you can use <code>ssh</code> to connect to it. To determine the IP address currently being used by System Rescue CD, type <code>ifconfig</code>:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
+
# ##i##ifconfig
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
+
Partition number (1-4, default 1): ##i##↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+128M ↵
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
+
One of the interfaces should have an IP address (listed as <code>inet addr:</code>) from your LAN. You can then connect remotely, from another system on your LAN, to System Rescue CD, and perform steps from the comfort of an existing OS. On your remote system, type the following, replacing <code>1.2.3.4</code> with the IP address of System Rescue CD. Connecting from an existing Linux or MacOS system would look something like this:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
+
(remote system) $ ##i##ssh root@1.2.3.4
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
+
Password: ##i##**********
Partition number (2-4, default 2): ##i##↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+2G ↵
+
Command (m for help): ##i##t ↵
+
Partition number (1,2, default 2): ##i## ↵
+
Hex code (type L to list all codes): ##i##82 ↵
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
'''Create the root partition:'''
+
{{Note|If you'd like to connect remotely from an existing Microsoft Windows system, you'll need to download an SSH client for Windows, such as [http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/ PuTTY].}}
  
<console>
+
After you've logged in via SSH, you're now connected remotely to System Rescue CD and can perform the installation steps.
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
+
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
+
Partition number (3,4, default 3): ##i##↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Verify the partition table:'''
+
 
+
<console>
+
Command (m for help): ##i##p
+
 
+
Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
+
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
+
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
+
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
+
Disklabel type: dos
+
Disk identifier: 0x82abc9a6
+
 
+
Device    Boot    Start      End    Blocks  Id System
+
/dev/sda1          2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
+
/dev/sda2        264192  4458495  2097152  82 Linux swap / Solaris
+
/dev/sda3        4458496 625142447 310341976  83 Linux
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Write the parition table to disk:'''
+
 
+
<console>
+
Command (m for help): ##i##w
+
</console>
+
 
+
Your new MBR partition table will now be written to your system disk.
+
 
+
{{Note|You're done with partitioning! Now, jump over to [[#Creating filesystems|Creating filesystems]].}}
+
 
+
==== New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method ====
+
 
+
{{Note|Use this method if you are booting using UEFI, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was black and white. If it was light blue, this method will not work.}}
+
 
+
The <tt>gdisk</tt> commands to create a GPT partition table are as follows. Adapt sizes as necessary, although these defaults will work for most users. Start <code>gdisk</code>:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##gdisk
+
</console>
+
 
+
Within <tt>gdisk</tt>, follow these steps:
+
 
+
'''Create a new empty partition table''' (This ''will'' erase all data on the disk when saved):
+
 
+
<console>
+
Command: ##i##o ↵
+
This option deletes all partitions and creates a new protective MBR.
+
Proceed? (Y/N): ##i##y ↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
+
 
+
<console>
+
Command: ##i##n ↵
+
Partition Number: ##i##1 ↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+500M ↵
+
Hex Code: ##i##↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
+
 
+
<console>
+
Command: ##i##n ↵
+
Partition Number: ##i##2 ↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+4G ↵
+
Hex Code: ##i##8200 ↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Create Partition 3''' (root):
+
 
+
<console>
+
Command: ##i##n ↵
+
Partition Number: ##i##3 ↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##↵##!i## (for rest of disk)
+
Hex Code: ##i##↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
Along the way, you can type "<tt>p</tt>" and hit Enter to view your current partition table. If you make a mistake, you can type "<tt>d</tt>" to delete an existing partition that you created. When you are satisfied with your partition setup, type "<tt>w</tt>" to write your configuration to disk:
+
 
+
'''Write Partition Table To Disk''':
+
 
+
<console>
+
Command: ##i##w ↵
+
Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): ##i##Y ↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
The partition table will now be written to disk and <tt>gdisk</tt> will close.
+
 
+
Now, your GPT/GUID partitions have been created, and will show up as the following ''block devices'' under Linux:
+
 
+
* <tt>/dev/sda1</tt>, which will be used to hold the <tt>/boot</tt> filesystem,
+
* <tt>/dev/sda2</tt>, which will be used for swap space, and
+
* <tt>/dev/sda3</tt>, which will hold your root filesystem.
+
 
+
==== Creating filesystems ====
+
 
+
{{Note|This section covers both BIOS ''and'' UEFI installs. Don't skip it!}}
+
 
+
Before your newly-created partitions can be used, the block devices need to be initialized with filesystem ''metadata''. This process is known as ''creating a filesystem'' on the block devices. After filesystems are created on the block devices, they can be mounted and used to store files.
+
 
+
Let's keep this simple. Are you using old-school MBR partitions? If so, let's create an ext2 filesystem on /dev/sda1:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
+
</console>
+
 
+
If you're using new-school GPT partitions for UEFI, you'll want to create a vfat filesystem on /dev/sda1, because this is what UEFI is able to read:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now, let's create a swap partition. This partition will be used as disk-based virtual memory for your Funtoo Linux system.
+
 
+
You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, since it is not used to store files. But it is necessary to initialize it using the <code>mkswap</code> command. Then we'll run the <code>swapon</code> command to make your newly-initialized swap space immediately active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkswap /dev/sda2
+
# ##i##swapon /dev/sda2
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now, we need to create a root filesystem. This is where Funtoo Linux will live. We generally recommend ext4 or XFS root filesystems. If you're not sure, choose ext4. Here's how to create a root ext4 filesystem:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3
+
</console>
+
 
+
...and here's how to create an XFS root filesystem, if you choose to use XFS:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkfs.xfs /dev/sda3
+
</console>
+
 
+
Your filesystems (and swap) have all now been initialized, so that that can be mounted (attached to your existing directory heirarchy) and used to store files. We are ready to begin installing Funtoo Linux on these brand-new filesystems.
+
 
+
{{fancywarning|1=
+
When deploying an OpenVZ host, please use ext4 exclusively. The Parallels development team tests extensively with ext4, and modern versions of <code>openvz-rhel6-stable</code> are '''not''' compatible with XFS, and you may experience kernel bugs.
+
}}
+
 
+
==== Mounting filesystems ====
+
 
+
Mount the newly-created filesystems as follows, creating <code>/mnt/funtoo</code> as the installation mount point:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/funtoo
+
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot
+
</console>
+
 
+
Optionally, if you have a separate filesystem for <code>/home</code> or anything else:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/home
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/funtoo/home
+
</console>
+
 
+
If you have <code>/tmp</code> or <code>/var/tmp</code> on a separate filesystem, be sure to change the permissions of the mount point to be globally-writeable after mounting, as follows:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##chmod 1777 /mnt/funtoo/tmp
+
</console>
+

Revision as of 16:05, December 29, 2014


Note

This is a template that is used as part of the Installation instructions which covers: начальный обзор процесса установки, включая скачивние LiveCD и инструкцию по загрузке.. Templates are being used to allow multiple variant install guides that use most of the same re-usable parts.


Обзор Установки

Общий обзор по установке Funtoo:

  1. Скачивание и загрузка живого диска.
  2. Подготовка диска.
  3. Создание и монтирование файловых систем.
  4. Установка архива Funtoo stage по Вашему выбору.
  5. Изменение корневого каталога в новую систему.
  6. Скачивние дерева Portage.
  7. Настройка вашей системы и сети.
  8. Установка ядра.
  9. Установка загрузчика.
  10. Заключительные шаги.
  11. Перегрузка системы.

Загрузочный Диск

Funtoo не предоставляет оффициального загрузочного диска Funtoo Live CD. Мы рекомендуем основанный на Gentoo- System Rescue CD. Он содержит множество полезных программ и утилит и поддерживает 32-битные и 64-битные системы соответственно. Скачайте диск по следующей ссылке:

http://www.sysresccd.org/Download

Note

Если Вы используете старую версию System Rescue CD, убедитесь, что Вы выбрали rescue64 ядро в меню загрузки, если Вы устанавливаете 64-битную систему. По-умолчанию, System Rescue CD ранее загружался в 32-битном режиме, хотя последние версии пытаются автоматически распознать 64-битные процессоры.

Доступ к интернету

Once you have booted System Rescue CD, see if you have Internet access. Internet access is required for installing Funtoo Linux:

# ping www.google.com
PING www.google.com (216.58.217.36) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from den03s10-in-f4.1e100.net (216.58.217.36): icmp_seq=1 ttl=57 time=30.1 ms

If the ping is successful (you see 64 bytes messages as above,) then your Network is set up. Hit Control-C to stop the ping.

If you need to set up a WiFi connection for Internet access, then this needs to be done using the System Rescue CD graphical environment. Run startx to start a graphical session:

# startx

Then, use the NetworkManager applet (icon in lower right) to connect to a WiFi network of your choice. Next, open a terminal inside your graphical environment, and you should be able to use the terminal to complete the rest of the steps.

Remote Install

Alternatively, you can log into System Rescue CD over the network via SSH to perform the install from another computer, and this may be more convenient way to install Funtoo Linux.

If you'd like to complete the install remotely, here's how. First, you will need to ensure that System Rescue CD has a functioning network connection. Then, you will need to set a root password for System Rescue CD:

# passwd
New password: ********
Retype new password: ********
passwd: password updated successfully
#

Once you have typed in a password, you will now need to determine the IP address of System Rescue CD, and then you can use ssh to connect to it. To determine the IP address currently being used by System Rescue CD, type ifconfig:

# ifconfig

One of the interfaces should have an IP address (listed as inet addr:) from your LAN. You can then connect remotely, from another system on your LAN, to System Rescue CD, and perform steps from the comfort of an existing OS. On your remote system, type the following, replacing 1.2.3.4 with the IP address of System Rescue CD. Connecting from an existing Linux or MacOS system would look something like this:

(remote system) $ ssh root@1.2.3.4
Password: **********
Note

If you'd like to connect remotely from an existing Microsoft Windows system, you'll need to download an SSH client for Windows, such as PuTTY.

After you've logged in via SSH, you're now connected remotely to System Rescue CD and can perform the installation steps.