Difference between pages "Install/Stage3" and "ZFS Install Guide"

< Install(Difference between pages)
(Which Build?)
 
(Extlinux (Optional if you are using another bootloader))
 
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<noinclude>
+
== Introduction ==
{{InstallPart|the process of installing the Stage3 tarball}}
+
</noinclude>
+
==== Setting the Date ====
+
  
{{fancyimportant|If your system's date and time are too far off (typically by months or years,) then it may prevent Portage from properly downloading source tarballs. This is because some of our sources are downloaded via HTTPS, which use SSL certificates and are marked with an activation and expiration date. However, if you system time is relatively close to correct, you can probably skip this step for now.}}
+
This tutorial will show you how to install Funtoo on ZFS (rootfs). This tutorial is meant to be an "overlay" over the [[Funtoo_Linux_Installation|Regular Funtoo Installation]]. Follow the normal installation and only use this guide for steps 2, 3, and 8.
  
Now is a good time to verify the date and time are correctly set to UTC. Use the <code>date</code> command to verify the date and time:
+
=== Introduction to ZFS ===
 +
 
 +
Since ZFS is a new technology for Linux, it can be helpful to understand some of its benefits, particularly in comparison to BTRFS, another popular next-generation Linux filesystem:
 +
 
 +
* On Linux, the ZFS code can be updated independently of the kernel to obtain the latest fixes. btrfs is exclusive to Linux and you need to build the latest kernel sources to get the latest fixes.
 +
 
 +
* ZFS is supported on multiple platforms. The platforms with the best support are Solaris, FreeBSD and Linux. Other platforms with varying degrees of support are NetBSD, Mac OS X and Windows. btrfs is exclusive to Linux.
 +
 
 +
* ZFS has the Adaptive Replacement Cache replacement algorithm while btrfs uses the Linux kernel's Last Recently Used replacement algorithm. The former often has an overwhelmingly superior hit rate, which means fewer disk accesses.
 +
 
 +
* ZFS has the ZFS Intent Log and SLOG devices, which accelerates small synchronous write performance.
 +
 
 +
* ZFS handles internal fragmentation gracefully, such that you can fill it until 100%. Internal fragmentation in btrfs can make btrfs think it is full at 10%. Btrfs has no automatic rebalancing code, so it requires a manual rebalance to correct it.
 +
 
 +
* ZFS has raidz, which is like RAID 5/6 (or a hypothetical RAID 7 that supports 3 parity disks), except it does not suffer from the RAID write hole issue thanks to its use of CoW and a variable stripe size. btrfs gained integrated RAID 5/6 functionality in Linux 3.9. However, its implementation uses a stripe cache that can only partially mitigate the effect of the RAID write hole.
 +
 
 +
* ZFS send/receive implementation supports incremental update when doing backups. btrfs' send/receive implementation requires sending the entire snapshot.
 +
 
 +
* ZFS supports data deduplication, which is a memory hog and only works well for specialized workloads. btrfs has no equivalent.
 +
 
 +
* ZFS datasets have a hierarchical namespace while btrfs subvolumes have a flat namespace.
 +
 
 +
* ZFS has the ability to create virtual block devices called zvols in its namespace. btrfs has no equivalent and must rely on the loop device for this functionality, which is cumbersome.
 +
 
 +
The only area where btrfs is ahead of ZFS is in the area of small file
 +
efficiency. btrfs supports a feature called block suballocation, which
 +
enables it to store small files far more efficiently than ZFS. It is
 +
possible to use another filesystem (e.g. reiserfs) on top of a ZFS zvol
 +
to obtain similar benefits (with arguably better data integrity) when
 +
dealing with many small files (e.g. the portage tree).
 +
 
 +
For a quick tour of ZFS and have a big picture of its common operations you can consult the page [[ZFS Fun]].
 +
 
 +
=== Disclaimers ===
 +
 
 +
{{fancywarning|This guide is a work in progress. Expect some quirks.}}
 +
{{fancyimportant|'''Since ZFS was really designed for 64 bit systems, we are only recommending and supporting 64 bit platforms and installations. We will not be supporting 32 bit platforms'''!}}
 +
== Downloading the ISO (With ZFS) ==
 +
In order for us to install Funtoo on ZFS, you will need an environment that already provides the ZFS tools. Therefore we will download a customized version of System Rescue CD with ZFS included.
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
Name: sysresccd-4.2.0_zfs_0.6.2.iso  (545 MB)
 +
Release Date: 2014-02-25
 +
md5sum 01f4e6929247d54db77ab7be4d156d85
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
'''[http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/funtoo/distfiles/sysresccd/ Download System Rescue CD with ZFS]'''<br />
 +
 
 +
== Creating a bootable USB from ISO (From a Linux Environment) ==
 +
After you download the iso, you can do the following steps to create a bootable USB:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##date
+
Make a temporary directory
Fri Jul 15 19:47:18 UTC 2011
+
# ##i##mkdir /tmp/loop
 +
 
 +
Mount the iso
 +
# ##i##mount -o ro,loop /root/sysresccd-4.2.0_zfs_0.6.2.iso /tmp/loop
 +
 
 +
Run the usb installer
 +
# ##i##/tmp/loop/usb_inst.sh
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
If the date and/or time need to be corrected, do so using <code>date MMDDhhmmYYYY</code>, keeping in mind <code>hhmm</code> are in 24-hour format. The example below changes the date and time to "July 16th, 2011 @ 8:00PM" UTC:
+
That should be all you need to do to get your flash drive working.
 +
 
 +
== Booting the ISO ==
 +
 
 +
{{fancywarning|'''When booting into the ISO, Make sure that you select the "Alternate 64 bit kernel (altker64)". The ZFS modules have been built specifically for this kernel rather than the standard kernel. If you select a different kernel, you will get a fail to load module stack error message.'''}}
 +
 
 +
== Creating partitions ==
 +
There are two ways to partition your disk: You can use your entire drive and let ZFS automatically partition it for you, or you can do it manually.
 +
 
 +
We will be showing you how to partition it '''manually''' because if you partition it manually you get to create your own layout, you get to have your own separate /boot partition (Which is nice since not every bootloader supports booting from ZFS pools), and you get to boot into RAID10, RAID5 (RAIDZ) pools and any other layouts due to you having a separate /boot partition.
 +
 
 +
==== gdisk (GPT Style) ====
 +
 
 +
'''A Fresh Start''':
 +
 
 +
First lets make sure that the disk is completely wiped from any previous disk labels and partitions.
 +
We will also assume that <tt>/dev/sda</tt> is the target drive.<br />
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##date 071620002011
+
# ##i##sgdisk -Z /dev/sda
Fri Jul 16 20:00:00 UTC 2011
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Once you have set the system clock, it's a very good idea to copy the time to the hardware clock, so it persists across reboots:
+
{{fancywarning|This is a destructive operation and the program will not ask you for confirmation! Make sure you really don't want anything on this disk.}}
 +
 
 +
Now that we have a clean drive, we will create the new layout.
 +
 
 +
First open up the application:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##hwclock --systohc
+
# ##i##gdisk /dev/sda
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
=== Installing the Stage 3 tarball ===
+
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
 +
<console>
 +
Command: ##i##n ↵
 +
Partition Number: ##i##↵
 +
First sector: ##i##↵
 +
Last sector: ##i##+250M ↵
 +
Hex Code: ##i##↵
 +
</console>
  
Now that filesystems are created and your hardware and system clock are set, the next step is downloading the initial Stage 3 tarball. The Stage 3 is a pre-compiled system used as a starting point to install Funtoo Linux.
+
'''Create Partition 2''' (BIOS Boot Partition):
 +
<console>Command: ##i##n ↵
 +
Partition Number: ##i##↵
 +
First sector: ##i##↵
 +
Last sector: ##i##+32M ↵
 +
Hex Code: ##i##EF02 ↵
 +
</console>
  
To download the correct build of Funtoo Linux for your system, head over to the [[Subarches]] page. Subarches are builds of Funtoo Linux that are designed to run on a particular type of CPU, to offer the best possible performance. They also take advantage of the instruction sets available for each CPU.
+
'''Create Partition 3''' (ZFS):
 +
<console>Command: ##i##n ↵
 +
Partition Number: ##i##↵
 +
First sector: ##i##↵
 +
Last sector: ##i##↵
 +
Hex Code: ##i##bf00 ↵
  
The [[Subarches]] page lists all CPU-optimized versions of Funtoo Linux. Find the one that is appropriate for the type of CPU that your system has, and then click on its name in the first column (such as <code>corei7</code>, for example.) You will then go to a page dedicated to that subarch, and the available stage3's available for download will be listed.
+
Command: ##i##p ↵
  
For most subarches, you will have several stage3's available to choose from. This next section will help you understand which one to pick.
+
Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size      Code  Name
 +
  1            2048          514047  250.0 MiB  8300  Linux filesystem
 +
  2          514048          579583  32.0 MiB    EF02  BIOS boot partition
 +
  3          579584      1953525134  931.2 GiB  BF00  Solaris root
  
==== Which Build? ====
+
Command: ##i##w ↵
 +
</console>
  
'''If you're not sure, pick <code>funtoo-current</code>.'''
 
  
Funtoo Linux has various different 'builds':
+
=== Format your /boot partition ===
  
{{TableStart}}
+
<console>
<tr><th class="info">Build</th><th class="info">Description</th></tr>
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 -m 1 /dev/sda1
<tr><td><code>funtoo-current</code></td><td>The most commonly-selected build of Funtoo Linux. Receives rapid updates and preferred by desktop users.</td></tr>
+
</console>
<tr><td><code>funtoo-stable</code></td><td>Emphasizes less-frequent package updates and trusted, reliable versions of packages over the latest versions.</td></tr>
+
{{TableEnd}}
+
  
==== Which Variant? ====
+
=== Create the zpool ===
 +
We will first create the pool. The pool will be named `tank` and the disk will be aligned to 4096 (using ashift=12)
 +
<console># ##i##zpool create -f -o ashift=12 -o cachefile= -O compression=on -m none -R /mnt/funtoo tank /dev/sda3</console>
  
'''If you're not sure, pick <code>(None)</code>.'''
+
=== Create the zfs datasets ===
 +
We will now create some datasets. For this installation, we will create a small but future proof amount of datasets. We will have a dataset for the OS (/), and your swap. We will also show you how to create some optional datasets: <tt>/home</tt>, <tt>/var</tt>, <tt>/usr/src</tt>, and <tt>/usr/portage</tt>.
  
Besides our "regular" stage3's (listed with a variant of <code>(None)</code>, the following variant builds are available:
+
<console>
 +
Create some empty containers for organization purposes, and make the dataset that will hold /
 +
# ##i##zfs create -p tank/funtoo
 +
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/ tank/funtoo/root
  
{{TableStart}}
+
Optional, but recommended datasets: /home
<tr><th class="info">Variant</th><th class="info">Description</th></tr>
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/home tank/funtoo/home
<tr><td>(None)</td><td>The "standard" version of Funtoo Linux</td></tr>
+
<tr><td><code>pure64</code></td><td>A 64-bit build that drops multilib (32-bit compatibility) support. Can be ideal for server systems.</td></tr>
+
<tr><td><code>hardened</code></td><td>Includes PIE/SSP toolchain for enhanced security. PIE does require the use of PaX in the kernel, while SSP works with any kernel, and provides enhanced security in user-space to avoid stack-based exploits.</td></tr>
+
{{TableEnd}}
+
  
==== Download the Stage3 ====
+
Optional datasets: /usr/src, /usr/portage/{distfiles,packages}
 +
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/src tank/funtoo/src
 +
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage -o compression=off tank/funtoo/portage
 +
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/distfiles tank/funtoo/portage/distfiles
 +
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/packages tank/funtoo/portage/packages
 +
</console>
  
Once you have found the stage3 that you would like to download, use <code>wget</code> to download the Stage 3 tarball you have chosen to use as the basis for your new Funtoo Linux system. It should be saved to the <code>/mnt/funtoo</code> directory as follows:
+
=== Create your swap zvol ===
 +
For modern machines that have greater than 4 GB of RAM, A swap size of 2G should be enough. However if your machine doesn't have a lot of RAM, the rule of thumb is either 2x the RAM or RAM + 1 GB.
  
<console># ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
+
For this tutorial we will assume that it is a newer machine and make a 2 GB swap.
# ##i##wget http://build.funtoo.org/funtoo-current/x86-64bit/generic_64/stage3-latest.tar.xz
+
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##zfs create -o sync=always -o primarycache=metadata -o secondarycache=none -o volblocksize=4K -V 2G tank/swap
 
</console>
 
</console>
 +
{{fancywarning|ZFS swap is not stable and should be used with precautions.}}
  
Note that 64-bit systems can run 32-bit or 64-bit stages, but 32-bit systems can only run 32-bit stages. Make sure that you select a Stage 3 build that is appropriate for your CPU. If you are not certain, it is a safe bet to choose the <code>generic_64</code> or <code>generic_32</code> stage. Consult the [[Subarches]] page for more information.
+
=== Format your swap zvol ===
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##mkswap -f /dev/zvol/tank/swap
 +
# ##i##swapon /dev/zvol/tank/swap
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Now we will continue to install funtoo.
 +
 
 +
== Installing Funtoo ==
 +
 
 +
=== Pre-Chroot ===
  
Once the stage is downloaded, extract the contents with the following command, substituting in the actual name of your stage 3 tarball:
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##tar xpf stage3-latest.tar.xz
+
Go into the directory that you will chroot into
 +
# ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
 +
 
 +
Make a boot folder and mount your boot drive
 +
# ##i##mkdir boot
 +
# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 boot
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
{{important|It is very important to use <code>tar's</code> "<code>'''p'''</code>" option when extracting the Stage 3 tarball - it tells <code>tar</code> to ''preserve'' any permissions and ownership that exist within the archive. Without this option, your Funtoo Linux filesystem permissions will be incorrect.}}
+
[[Funtoo_Linux_Installation|Now download and extract the Funtoo stage3 ...]]
 +
 
 +
Once you've extracted the stage3, do a few more preparations and chroot into your new funtoo environment:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
Bind the kernel related directories
 +
# ##i##mount -t proc none proc
 +
# ##i##mount --rbind /dev dev
 +
# ##i##mount --rbind /sys sys
 +
 
 +
Copy network settings
 +
# ##i##cp -f /etc/resolv.conf etc
 +
 
 +
Make the zfs folder in 'etc' and copy your zpool.cache
 +
# ##i##mkdir etc/zfs
 +
# ##i##cp /etc/zfs/zpool.cache etc/zfs
 +
 
 +
Chroot into Funtoo
 +
# ##i##env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
=== In Chroot ===
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
Create a symbolic link to your mountpoints
 +
# ##i##ln -sf /proc/mounts /etc/mtab
 +
 
 +
Sync your tree
 +
# ##i##emerge --sync
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
=== Add filesystems to /etc/fstab ===
 +
 
 +
Before we continue to compile and or install our kernel in the next step, we will edit the <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> file because if we decide to install our kernel through portage, portage will need to know where our <tt>/boot</tt> is, so that it can place the files in there.
 +
 
 +
Edit <tt>/etc/fstab</tt>:
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
# <fs>                  <mountpoint>    <type>          <opts>          <dump/pass>
 +
 
 +
/dev/sda1              /boot          ext2            defaults        0 2
 +
/dev/zvol/tank/swap    none            swap            sw              0 0
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Kernel Configuration ==
 +
...wip
 +
 
 +
== Installing the ZFS userspace tools and kernel modules ==
 +
Emerge {{Package|sys-fs/zfs}}. This package will bring in {{Package|sys-kernel/spl}}, and {{Package|sys-fs/zfs-kmod}} as its dependencies:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##emerge zfs
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Check to make sure that the zfs tools are working. The <code>zpool.cache</code> file that you copied before should be displayed.
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##zpool status
 +
# ##i##zfs list
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
If everything worked, continue.
 +
 
 +
== Create the initramfs ==
 +
There are two ways to do this, you can use "genkernel" or "bliss-initramfs". Both will be shown.
 +
 
 +
=== genkernel ===
 +
Install genkernel and run it:
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##emerge genkernel
 +
 
 +
You only need to add --luks if you used encryption
 +
# ##i##genkernel --zfs --luks initramfs
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
== Installing & Configuring the Bootloader ==
 +
 
 +
=== GRUB 2 (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##emerge grub
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
You can check that grub is version 2.00 by typing the following command:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##grub-install --version
 +
grub-install (GRUB) 2.00
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Now install grub to the drive itself (not a partition):
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##grub-install /dev/sda
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
You should receive the following message:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
Installation finished. No error reported.
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
You should now see some a grub directory with some files inside your /boot folder:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##ls -l /boot/grub
 +
total 2520
 +
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    1024 Jan  4 16:09 grubenv
 +
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    8192 Jan 12 14:29 i386-pc
 +
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    4096 Jan 12 14:28 locale
 +
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2555597 Feb  4 11:50 unifont.pf2
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
=== LILO (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
 +
To install lilo you can type the following:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##emerge lilo
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
=== boot-update ===
 +
boot-update comes as a dependency of grub2, so if you already installed grub, it's already on your system!
 +
 
 +
==== Genkernel ====
 +
If your using genkernel you must add 'real_root=ZFS=<root>' and 'dozfs' to your params.
 +
Example entry for <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt>:
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
"Funtoo ZFS" {
 +
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
 +
        initrd initramfs-genkernel-x86_64[-v]
 +
        params real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root
 +
        params += dozfs=force
 +
        # Also add 'params += crypt_root=/dev/sda3' if you used encryption
 +
        # Adjust the above setting to your system if needed
 +
 
 +
        # You should also add 'root=none' to your params (not 'params +=') if you plan to use it along with boot-update
 +
        # If root variable will not be set, boot-update will fail to generate boot.conf
 +
        # This is right for <=sys-boot/boot-update-1.6.11 on 16.08.2014 date
 +
}
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
==== Bliss Initramfs Creator ====
 +
If you used Bliss Initramfs Creator then all you need to do is add 'root=<root>' to your params.
 +
Example entry for <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt>:
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
"Funtoo ZFS" {
 +
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
 +
        initrd initrd[-v]
 +
        params root=tank/funtoo/root quiet
 +
        # If you have an encrypted device with a regular passphrase,
 +
        # you can add the following line
 +
        params += enc_root=/dev/sda3 enc_type=pass
 +
}
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
After editing /etc/boot.conf, you just need to run boot-update to update grub.cfg
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
###i## boot-update
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
=== bliss-boot ===
 +
This is a new program that is designed to generate a simple, human-readable/editable, configuration file for a variety of bootloaders. It currently supports grub2, extlinux, and lilo.
 +
 
 +
You can install it via the following command:
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##emerge bliss-boot
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
==== Bootloader Configuration ====
 +
In order to generate our bootloader configuration file, we will first configure bliss-boot so that it knows what we want. The 'bliss-boot' configuration file is located in '''/etc/bliss-boot/conf.py'''. Open that file and make sure that the following variables are set appropriately:
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
# This should be set to the bootloader you installed earlier: (grub2, extlinux, and lilo are the available options)
 +
bootloader = "grub2"
 +
 
 +
# This should be set to the kernel you installed earlier
 +
default = "3.12.13-KS.02"
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Scroll all the way down until you find 'kernels'. You will need to add the kernels and the options
 +
you want for these kernels here. Below are a few configuration options depending if you are using
 +
'''bliss-initramfs''' or '''genkernel'''.
 +
 
 +
===== Genkernel =====
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
kernel = {
 +
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root dozfs=force quiet',
 +
}
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
'''If you are using encryption you can add the crypt_root option:'''
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
kernel = {
 +
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root dozfs=force crypt_root=/dev/sda3 quiet',
 +
}
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
===== Bliss Initramfs Creator =====
 +
<pre>
 +
kernel = {
 +
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'root=tank/funtoo/root quiet',
 +
}
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
'''If you are using encryption then you would let the initramfs know:'''
 +
 
 +
#"What type of encryption authentication you want to use? ('''enc_type=''')
 +
::* pass = will ask for passphrase directly
 +
::* key = a plain unencrypted key file
 +
::* key_gpg = an encrypted key file
 +
#"Where is the encrypted drive?" ('''enc_root=''')
 +
#"Where is the root pool after it has been decrypted?" ('''root=''')
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
kernel = {
 +
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'root=tank/funtoo/root enc_root=/dev/sda3 enc_type=pass quiet',
 +
}
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
==== Generate the configuration ====
 +
Now that we have configure our '''/etc/bliss-boot/conf.py''' file, we can generate our config. Simply run the following command:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##bliss-boot
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
This will generate a configuration file for the bootloader you specified previously in your current directory. You can check your config file before hand to make sure it doesn't have any errors. Simply open either: grub.cfg, extlinux.conf, or lilo.conf.
 +
 
 +
Once you have checked it for errors, place this file in the correct directory:
 +
 
 +
* grub2 = /boot/grub/
 +
* extlinux = /boot/extlinux/
 +
* lilo = /etc/lilo.conf
 +
 
 +
=== LILO (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
 +
Now that bliss-boot generated the lilo.conf file, move that config file to its appropriate location
 +
and install lilo to the MBR:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##mv lilo.conf /etc
 +
# ##i##lilo
 +
 
 +
You should see the following:
 +
 
 +
Warning: LBA32 addressing assumed
 +
Added Funtoo + *
 +
One warning was issued
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
== Final configuration ==
 +
=== Add the zfs tools to openrc ===
 +
<console># ##i##rc-update add zfs boot</console>
 +
 
 +
=== Clean up and reboot ===
 +
We are almost done, we are just going to clean up, '''set our root password''', and unmount whatever we mounted and get out.
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
Delete the stage3 tarball that you downloaded earlier so it doesn't take up space.
 +
# ##i##cd /
 +
# ##i##rm stage3-latest.tar.xz
 +
 
 +
Set your root password
 +
# ##i##passwd
 +
>> Enter your password, you won't see what you are writing (for security reasons), but it is there!
 +
 
 +
Get out of the chroot environment
 +
# ##i##exit
 +
 
 +
Unmount all the kernel filesystem stuff and boot (if you have a separate /boot)
 +
# ##i##umount -l proc dev sys boot
 +
 
 +
Turn off the swap
 +
# ##i##swapoff /dev/zvol/tank/swap
 +
 
 +
Export the zpool
 +
# ##i##cd /
 +
# ##i##zpool export tank
 +
 
 +
Reboot
 +
# ##i##reboot
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
{{fancyimportant|'''Don't forget to set your root password as stated above before exiting chroot and rebooting. If you don't set the root password, you won't be able to log into your new system.'''}}
 +
 
 +
and that should be enough to get your system to boot on ZFS.
 +
 
 +
== After reboot ==
 +
 
 +
=== Forgot to reset password? ===
 +
==== System Rescue CD ====
 +
If you aren't using bliss-initramfs, then you can reboot back into your sysresccd and reset through there by mounting your drive, chrooting, and then typing passwd.
 +
 
 +
Example:
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##zpool import -f -R /mnt/funtoo tank
 +
# ##i##chroot /mnt/funtoo bash -l
 +
# ##i##passwd
 +
# ##i##exit
 +
# ##i##zpool export -f tank
 +
# ##i##reboot
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
==== Using bliss-initramfs ====
 +
If you forgot to reset your password and are using '''bliss-initramfs''', you can add the '''su''' option to your bootloader parameters and the initramfs will throw you into the rootfs of your drive. In there you can run 'passwd' and then type 'exit'. Once you type 'exit', the initramfs will continue to boot your system as normal.
 +
 
 +
=== Create initial ZFS Snapshot ===
 +
Continue to set up anything you need in terms of /etc configurations. Once you have everything the way you like it, take a snapshot of your system. You will be using this snapshot to revert back to this state if anything ever happens to your system down the road. The snapshots are cheap, and almost instant.
 +
 
 +
To take the snapshot of your system, type the following:
 +
<console># ##i##zfs snapshot -r tank@install</console>
 +
 
 +
To see if your snapshot was taken, type:
 +
<console># ##i##zfs list -t snapshot</console>
 +
 
 +
If your machine ever fails and you need to get back to this state, just type (This will only revert your / dataset while keeping the rest of your data intact):
 +
<console># ##i##zfs rollback tank/funtoo/root@install</console>
 +
 
 +
{{fancyimportant|'''For a detailed overview, presentation of ZFS' capabilities, as well as usage examples, please refer to the [[ZFS_Fun|ZFS Fun]] page.'''}}
 +
 
 +
== Troubleshooting ==
 +
 
 +
=== Starting from scratch ===
 +
If your installation has gotten screwed up for whatever reason and you need a fresh restart, you can do the following from sysresccd to start fresh:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
Destroy the pool and any snapshots and datasets it has
 +
# ##i##zpool destroy -R -f tank
 +
 
 +
This deletes the files from /dev/sda1 so that even after we zap, recreating the drive in the exact sector
 +
position and size will not give us access to the old files in this partition.
 +
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
 +
# ##i##sgdisk -Z /dev/sda
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Now start the guide again :).
 +
 
 +
[[Category:HOWTO]]
 +
[[Category:Filesystems]]
 +
[[Category:Featured]]
 +
[[Category:Install]]
 +
 
 +
__NOTITLE__

Revision as of 14:57, January 5, 2015

Introduction

This tutorial will show you how to install Funtoo on ZFS (rootfs). This tutorial is meant to be an "overlay" over the Regular Funtoo Installation. Follow the normal installation and only use this guide for steps 2, 3, and 8.

Introduction to ZFS

Since ZFS is a new technology for Linux, it can be helpful to understand some of its benefits, particularly in comparison to BTRFS, another popular next-generation Linux filesystem:

  • On Linux, the ZFS code can be updated independently of the kernel to obtain the latest fixes. btrfs is exclusive to Linux and you need to build the latest kernel sources to get the latest fixes.
  • ZFS is supported on multiple platforms. The platforms with the best support are Solaris, FreeBSD and Linux. Other platforms with varying degrees of support are NetBSD, Mac OS X and Windows. btrfs is exclusive to Linux.
  • ZFS has the Adaptive Replacement Cache replacement algorithm while btrfs uses the Linux kernel's Last Recently Used replacement algorithm. The former often has an overwhelmingly superior hit rate, which means fewer disk accesses.
  • ZFS has the ZFS Intent Log and SLOG devices, which accelerates small synchronous write performance.
  • ZFS handles internal fragmentation gracefully, such that you can fill it until 100%. Internal fragmentation in btrfs can make btrfs think it is full at 10%. Btrfs has no automatic rebalancing code, so it requires a manual rebalance to correct it.
  • ZFS has raidz, which is like RAID 5/6 (or a hypothetical RAID 7 that supports 3 parity disks), except it does not suffer from the RAID write hole issue thanks to its use of CoW and a variable stripe size. btrfs gained integrated RAID 5/6 functionality in Linux 3.9. However, its implementation uses a stripe cache that can only partially mitigate the effect of the RAID write hole.
  • ZFS send/receive implementation supports incremental update when doing backups. btrfs' send/receive implementation requires sending the entire snapshot.
  • ZFS supports data deduplication, which is a memory hog and only works well for specialized workloads. btrfs has no equivalent.
  • ZFS datasets have a hierarchical namespace while btrfs subvolumes have a flat namespace.
  • ZFS has the ability to create virtual block devices called zvols in its namespace. btrfs has no equivalent and must rely on the loop device for this functionality, which is cumbersome.

The only area where btrfs is ahead of ZFS is in the area of small file efficiency. btrfs supports a feature called block suballocation, which enables it to store small files far more efficiently than ZFS. It is possible to use another filesystem (e.g. reiserfs) on top of a ZFS zvol to obtain similar benefits (with arguably better data integrity) when dealing with many small files (e.g. the portage tree).

For a quick tour of ZFS and have a big picture of its common operations you can consult the page ZFS Fun.

Disclaimers

Warning

This guide is a work in progress. Expect some quirks.

Important

Since ZFS was really designed for 64 bit systems, we are only recommending and supporting 64 bit platforms and installations. We will not be supporting 32 bit platforms!

Downloading the ISO (With ZFS)

In order for us to install Funtoo on ZFS, you will need an environment that already provides the ZFS tools. Therefore we will download a customized version of System Rescue CD with ZFS included.

Name: sysresccd-4.2.0_zfs_0.6.2.iso  (545 MB)
Release Date: 2014-02-25
md5sum 01f4e6929247d54db77ab7be4d156d85


Download System Rescue CD with ZFS

Creating a bootable USB from ISO (From a Linux Environment)

After you download the iso, you can do the following steps to create a bootable USB:

Make a temporary directory
# mkdir /tmp/loop

Mount the iso
# mount -o ro,loop /root/sysresccd-4.2.0_zfs_0.6.2.iso /tmp/loop

Run the usb installer
# /tmp/loop/usb_inst.sh

That should be all you need to do to get your flash drive working.

Booting the ISO

Warning

When booting into the ISO, Make sure that you select the "Alternate 64 bit kernel (altker64)". The ZFS modules have been built specifically for this kernel rather than the standard kernel. If you select a different kernel, you will get a fail to load module stack error message.

Creating partitions

There are two ways to partition your disk: You can use your entire drive and let ZFS automatically partition it for you, or you can do it manually.

We will be showing you how to partition it manually because if you partition it manually you get to create your own layout, you get to have your own separate /boot partition (Which is nice since not every bootloader supports booting from ZFS pools), and you get to boot into RAID10, RAID5 (RAIDZ) pools and any other layouts due to you having a separate /boot partition.

gdisk (GPT Style)

A Fresh Start:

First lets make sure that the disk is completely wiped from any previous disk labels and partitions. We will also assume that /dev/sda is the target drive.

# sgdisk -Z /dev/sda
Warning

This is a destructive operation and the program will not ask you for confirmation! Make sure you really don't want anything on this disk.

Now that we have a clean drive, we will create the new layout.

First open up the application:

# gdisk /dev/sda

Create Partition 1 (boot):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 
First sector: 
Last sector: +250M ↵
Hex Code: 

Create Partition 2 (BIOS Boot Partition):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 
First sector: 
Last sector: +32M ↵
Hex Code: EF02 ↵

Create Partition 3 (ZFS):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 
First sector: 
Last sector: 
Hex Code: bf00 ↵

Command: p ↵

Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size       Code  Name
   1            2048          514047   250.0 MiB   8300  Linux filesystem
   2          514048          579583   32.0 MiB    EF02  BIOS boot partition
   3          579584      1953525134   931.2 GiB   BF00  Solaris root

Command: w ↵


Format your /boot partition

# mkfs.ext2 -m 1 /dev/sda1

Create the zpool

We will first create the pool. The pool will be named `tank` and the disk will be aligned to 4096 (using ashift=12)

# zpool create -f -o ashift=12 -o cachefile= -O compression=on -m none -R /mnt/funtoo tank /dev/sda3

Create the zfs datasets

We will now create some datasets. For this installation, we will create a small but future proof amount of datasets. We will have a dataset for the OS (/), and your swap. We will also show you how to create some optional datasets: /home, /var, /usr/src, and /usr/portage.

Create some empty containers for organization purposes, and make the dataset that will hold /
# zfs create -p tank/funtoo
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/ tank/funtoo/root

Optional, but recommended datasets: /home
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/home tank/funtoo/home

Optional datasets: /usr/src, /usr/portage/{distfiles,packages}
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/src tank/funtoo/src
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage -o compression=off tank/funtoo/portage
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/distfiles tank/funtoo/portage/distfiles
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/packages tank/funtoo/portage/packages

Create your swap zvol

For modern machines that have greater than 4 GB of RAM, A swap size of 2G should be enough. However if your machine doesn't have a lot of RAM, the rule of thumb is either 2x the RAM or RAM + 1 GB.

For this tutorial we will assume that it is a newer machine and make a 2 GB swap.

# zfs create -o sync=always -o primarycache=metadata -o secondarycache=none -o volblocksize=4K -V 2G tank/swap
Warning

ZFS swap is not stable and should be used with precautions.

Format your swap zvol

# mkswap -f /dev/zvol/tank/swap
# swapon /dev/zvol/tank/swap

Now we will continue to install funtoo.

Installing Funtoo

Pre-Chroot

Go into the directory that you will chroot into
# cd /mnt/funtoo

Make a boot folder and mount your boot drive
# mkdir boot
# mount /dev/sda1 boot

Now download and extract the Funtoo stage3 ...

Once you've extracted the stage3, do a few more preparations and chroot into your new funtoo environment:

Bind the kernel related directories
# mount -t proc none proc
# mount --rbind /dev dev
# mount --rbind /sys sys

Copy network settings
# cp -f /etc/resolv.conf etc

Make the zfs folder in 'etc' and copy your zpool.cache
# mkdir etc/zfs
# cp /etc/zfs/zpool.cache etc/zfs

Chroot into Funtoo
# env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l

In Chroot

Create a symbolic link to your mountpoints
# ln -sf /proc/mounts /etc/mtab

Sync your tree
# emerge --sync

Add filesystems to /etc/fstab

Before we continue to compile and or install our kernel in the next step, we will edit the /etc/fstab file because if we decide to install our kernel through portage, portage will need to know where our /boot is, so that it can place the files in there.

Edit /etc/fstab:

# <fs>                  <mountpoint>    <type>          <opts>          <dump/pass>

/dev/sda1               /boot           ext2            defaults        0 2
/dev/zvol/tank/swap     none            swap            sw              0 0

Kernel Configuration

...wip

Installing the ZFS userspace tools and kernel modules

Emerge No results. This package will bring in No results, and No results as its dependencies:

# emerge zfs

Check to make sure that the zfs tools are working. The zpool.cache file that you copied before should be displayed.

# zpool status
# zfs list

If everything worked, continue.

Create the initramfs

There are two ways to do this, you can use "genkernel" or "bliss-initramfs". Both will be shown.

genkernel

Install genkernel and run it:

# emerge genkernel

You only need to add --luks if you used encryption
# genkernel --zfs --luks initramfs

Installing & Configuring the Bootloader

GRUB 2 (Optional if you are using another bootloader)

# emerge grub

You can check that grub is version 2.00 by typing the following command:

# grub-install --version
grub-install (GRUB) 2.00

Now install grub to the drive itself (not a partition):

# grub-install /dev/sda

You should receive the following message:

Installation finished. No error reported.

You should now see some a grub directory with some files inside your /boot folder:

# ls -l /boot/grub
total 2520
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    1024 Jan  4 16:09 grubenv
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    8192 Jan 12 14:29 i386-pc
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    4096 Jan 12 14:28 locale
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2555597 Feb  4 11:50 unifont.pf2

LILO (Optional if you are using another bootloader)

To install lilo you can type the following:

# emerge lilo

boot-update

boot-update comes as a dependency of grub2, so if you already installed grub, it's already on your system!

Genkernel

If your using genkernel you must add 'real_root=ZFS=<root>' and 'dozfs' to your params. Example entry for /etc/boot.conf:

"Funtoo ZFS" {
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
        initrd initramfs-genkernel-x86_64[-v]
        params real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root
        params += dozfs=force
        # Also add 'params += crypt_root=/dev/sda3' if you used encryption
        # Adjust the above setting to your system if needed

        # You should also add 'root=none' to your params (not 'params +=') if you plan to use it along with boot-update
        # If root variable will not be set, boot-update will fail to generate boot.conf
        # This is right for <=sys-boot/boot-update-1.6.11 on 16.08.2014 date
}

Bliss Initramfs Creator

If you used Bliss Initramfs Creator then all you need to do is add 'root=<root>' to your params. Example entry for /etc/boot.conf:

"Funtoo ZFS" {
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
        initrd initrd[-v]
        params root=tank/funtoo/root quiet
        # If you have an encrypted device with a regular passphrase,
        # you can add the following line
        params += enc_root=/dev/sda3 enc_type=pass
}

After editing /etc/boot.conf, you just need to run boot-update to update grub.cfg

# boot-update

bliss-boot

This is a new program that is designed to generate a simple, human-readable/editable, configuration file for a variety of bootloaders. It currently supports grub2, extlinux, and lilo.

You can install it via the following command:

# emerge bliss-boot

Bootloader Configuration

In order to generate our bootloader configuration file, we will first configure bliss-boot so that it knows what we want. The 'bliss-boot' configuration file is located in /etc/bliss-boot/conf.py. Open that file and make sure that the following variables are set appropriately:

# This should be set to the bootloader you installed earlier: (grub2, extlinux, and lilo are the available options)
bootloader = "grub2"

# This should be set to the kernel you installed earlier
default = "3.12.13-KS.02" 

Scroll all the way down until you find 'kernels'. You will need to add the kernels and the options you want for these kernels here. Below are a few configuration options depending if you are using bliss-initramfs or genkernel.

Genkernel
kernel = {
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root dozfs=force quiet',
}

If you are using encryption you can add the crypt_root option:

kernel = {
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root dozfs=force crypt_root=/dev/sda3 quiet',
}
Bliss Initramfs Creator
kernel = {
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'root=tank/funtoo/root quiet',
}

If you are using encryption then you would let the initramfs know:

  1. "What type of encryption authentication you want to use? (enc_type=)
  • pass = will ask for passphrase directly
  • key = a plain unencrypted key file
  • key_gpg = an encrypted key file
  1. "Where is the encrypted drive?" (enc_root=)
  2. "Where is the root pool after it has been decrypted?" (root=)
kernel = {
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'root=tank/funtoo/root enc_root=/dev/sda3 enc_type=pass quiet',
}

Generate the configuration

Now that we have configure our /etc/bliss-boot/conf.py file, we can generate our config. Simply run the following command:

# bliss-boot

This will generate a configuration file for the bootloader you specified previously in your current directory. You can check your config file before hand to make sure it doesn't have any errors. Simply open either: grub.cfg, extlinux.conf, or lilo.conf.

Once you have checked it for errors, place this file in the correct directory:

  • grub2 = /boot/grub/
  • extlinux = /boot/extlinux/
  • lilo = /etc/lilo.conf

LILO (Optional if you are using another bootloader)

Now that bliss-boot generated the lilo.conf file, move that config file to its appropriate location and install lilo to the MBR:

# mv lilo.conf /etc
# lilo

You should see the following:

Warning: LBA32 addressing assumed
Added Funtoo + *
One warning was issued

Final configuration

Add the zfs tools to openrc

# rc-update add zfs boot

Clean up and reboot

We are almost done, we are just going to clean up, set our root password, and unmount whatever we mounted and get out.

Delete the stage3 tarball that you downloaded earlier so it doesn't take up space.
# cd /
# rm stage3-latest.tar.xz

Set your root password
# passwd
>> Enter your password, you won't see what you are writing (for security reasons), but it is there!

Get out of the chroot environment
# exit

Unmount all the kernel filesystem stuff and boot (if you have a separate /boot)
# umount -l proc dev sys boot

Turn off the swap
# swapoff /dev/zvol/tank/swap

Export the zpool
# cd /
# zpool export tank

Reboot
# reboot
Important

Don't forget to set your root password as stated above before exiting chroot and rebooting. If you don't set the root password, you won't be able to log into your new system.

and that should be enough to get your system to boot on ZFS.

After reboot

Forgot to reset password?

System Rescue CD

If you aren't using bliss-initramfs, then you can reboot back into your sysresccd and reset through there by mounting your drive, chrooting, and then typing passwd.

Example:

# zpool import -f -R /mnt/funtoo tank
# chroot /mnt/funtoo bash -l
# passwd
# exit
# zpool export -f tank
# reboot

Using bliss-initramfs

If you forgot to reset your password and are using bliss-initramfs, you can add the su option to your bootloader parameters and the initramfs will throw you into the rootfs of your drive. In there you can run 'passwd' and then type 'exit'. Once you type 'exit', the initramfs will continue to boot your system as normal.

Create initial ZFS Snapshot

Continue to set up anything you need in terms of /etc configurations. Once you have everything the way you like it, take a snapshot of your system. You will be using this snapshot to revert back to this state if anything ever happens to your system down the road. The snapshots are cheap, and almost instant.

To take the snapshot of your system, type the following:

# zfs snapshot -r tank@install

To see if your snapshot was taken, type:

# zfs list -t snapshot

If your machine ever fails and you need to get back to this state, just type (This will only revert your / dataset while keeping the rest of your data intact):

# zfs rollback tank/funtoo/root@install
Important

For a detailed overview, presentation of ZFS' capabilities, as well as usage examples, please refer to the ZFS Fun page.

Troubleshooting

Starting from scratch

If your installation has gotten screwed up for whatever reason and you need a fresh restart, you can do the following from sysresccd to start fresh:

Destroy the pool and any snapshots and datasets it has
# zpool destroy -R -f tank

This deletes the files from /dev/sda1 so that even after we zap, recreating the drive in the exact sector
position and size will not give us access to the old files in this partition.
# mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
# sgdisk -Z /dev/sda

Now start the guide again :).