Difference between pages "Building a Kernel from Source" and "Programming"

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Setting up a proper kernel yourself - lean, mean and tailored to your hardware,  is the challenge by which a linux user can graduate to becoming a Funtoo knight ;-)
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Programming is a skill that is helpful to contribute back to linux, gnu, and other software sources.  This page is dedicated to improving our programming & scripting skills.  The author of this page suggests bash, c, and python for funtoo users. This page is a bit of a mess for the moment, it will be broken up into sub pages.  cobol is so gangster, it's stupid....
  
Even though many of us are using enterprise-ready kernels in datacenters, there is almost nobody who hasn't at least considered building a kernel for his laptop / PC.
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==Programming Languages==
We are showing here how an intermediate Linux user can use an alternative to the standard beginners "genkernel" approach,  to compile a custom kernel,  in a relatively speedy and easy set up.
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===Assembly Language===
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{{#widget:YouTube|playlist=PL4C2714CB525C3CD7}}
  
== Minimum Requirements ==
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===Bash===
* '''Understand the command line'''
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{{#widget:YouTube|playlist=PLDOiVunkOLsEJF2toupqFubpWtVasDqOg}}
* '''Know where the kernel files are located'''
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== Assumptions ==
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===C===
You start from an installed Funtoo system on the disk, or at least, you are on stage3 in a chrooted environment from a live cd, following somehow the Funto [[Installation (Tutorial)|Installation Tutorial]].
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{{#widget:YouTube|playlist=PLkB3phqR3X40reMCBYSoNUPbDvM4kybMs}}
  
== Less advanced version ==
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===C++===
=== Emerging the kernel sources ===
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{{#widget:YouTube|playlist=PLAEwfbJn6kqFnzJjYi0vNn69VNSsL3guo}}
To begin, we have to figure out which kernel sources we will use. If you are unsure about which sources are available and what their benefits and drawbacks are, check out the [[Funtoo_Linux_Kernels| Kernels]] page.
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After you have made a decsion as to which kernel you want to install, emerge it:
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==== Qt Framework ====
<console>
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{{#widget:YouTube|playlist=PL2D1942A4688E9D63}}
###i## emerge sys-kernel/[kernel-name]
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</console>
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Portage will now go about installing the sources to ''/usr/src''. However, it is preferable to also create a symlink with eselect as such:  
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<console>
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###i## eselect kernel set 1
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</console>
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You may use
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<console>
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###i## eselect kernel list
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</console>
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to display a list of kernels currently installed.
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Using the above command is useful, because it allows you to always be able to go to the directory "/usr/src/linux" and find your current working kernel and build files.
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===Cobol===
The "/usr/src/linux" directory is simply a symlink to the kernel you selected with eselect, in the "/usr/src" directory.
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{{#widget:YouTube|playlist=PLw2d78nGwdI-FwgYrZOIHT4TIlgE6G--a}}
  
Note that portage can also set this up for you automatically, by setting the "symlink" USE flag for your kernel.
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===Fortran===
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{{#widget:YouTube|playlist=PLj1FmKKVt84VRooS72BVR1n3M1awzRbj2}}
  
=== Configuring the kernel ===
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===java===
Now that the kernel sources are on your system, you should configure them. To do this, change your directory to ''/usr/src/linux''
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{{#widget:YouTube|playlist=PLD22A26A9CD8A1A51}}
<console>
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###i## cd /usr/src/linux
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</console>
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As we are now in the kernel sources directory, we can run a script that allows us to modify them. Run:
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<console>
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###i## make menuconfig
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</console>
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While you edit the sources, keep the following in mind:
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===lua===
* To build something into your kernel, press y when you have it selected.
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{{#widget:YouTube|playlist=PL5D2E7A4DD535E276}}
* To exclude something from your kernel, press n when you have it selected.
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* To build something as a module, press m.
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===ObjectiveC===
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{{#widget:YouTube|playlist=PL54515103C712A53D}}
  
Things that you may need to include in your kernel:
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===Perl===
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{{#widget:YouTube|playlist=PLE7511681ABEA8635}}
  
as '''modules''':
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===Python===
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{{#widget:YouTube|playlist=PLEA1FEF17E1E5C0DA}}
  
* Wireless/LAN drivers
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===Ruby===
* Support for your graphics card
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{{#widget:YouTube|playlist=PL1512BD72E7C9FFCA}}
* Support for your audio card
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* Support for USB devices
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===Tex===
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{{#widget:YouTube|playlist=PLlLAyGJ7_7MFcSTHMVMErZ1GW0pGOfWtd}}
  
as '''built in''':
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== External Resources ==
* scsi sata & or ata controllers
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_programming_languages
* file system used
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{{fancynote|1=
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Many pages on the wiki will tell you the kernel requirements for the application that they are about. Keep your eyes open for the blue background, white text sections of pages. Like on this one: [[uvesafb| uvesafb]]}}
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=== Building and installing the kernel sources ===
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After you finish configuring your kernel sources, you will need to build them. To build your sources, run the following:
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<console>
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###i## make
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</console>
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{{fancytip|1=
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You can add -j<number of processing cores + 1> after make to build the kernel more quickly.}}
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When the kernel and its modules finish building, install them:
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<console>
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###i## make modules_install && make install
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</console>
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Now that you have installed your kernel and modules, it is a good idea to install an [[Building_a_Kernel_from_Source#Initramfs| Initramfs]].
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* If your system has a separate ''/usr'' partition, is encrypted, or uses some other non-standard configuration, it will probably not boot without an initramfs.
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* If your system is unencrypted, with file system, and hard drive controllers compiled in rather than as modules, it will not need an initramfs.
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== Advanced version ==
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=== Getting ready to start ===
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{{fancynote|In this case we are building a kernel that is booting root in LVM over encrypted LUKS container.
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If you don't have this setup, don't worry, you just don't need all the modules, but everything else is similar.}}
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First, there is the decision which linux kernel sources we need.
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There are plenty of them in the repositories around, often it is not easy to distinguish between them.
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I would always trust my distribution of choice and take what is has to offer - and funtoo has a lot to offer!
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I really do recommend (especially if it is your first time) to build a debian-sourced genkernel like described in chapter 5 "Using Debian-Sources with Genkernel" in the [[Funtoo_Linux_Kernels| Funtoo Kernels Tutorial]].
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From there you should have a running system booting nicely from your own build (just little bit bloated) kernel. This is more than you can expect from any other ready to go distribution.
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{{fancynote|1=
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We are using Red Hat's dracut in order to build a nice initramfs (containing all the necessary tools and extra drivers our kernel might need to start the system). Although dracut is the way to go, more sophisticated and not as buggy as gentoo's genkernel approach, more and more funtoo geeks start using slashbeast's better-initramfs, which we will cover at the end of this howto! So after having set up a genkernel from debian or gentoo sources we are going to build a kernel with either (or both) dracut or/and better-initramfs. So gentoo sources with genkernel is always my backup if anything is not working correctly on my system. For the slightly more geeky approach with my own initram I am using pf-sources, ck-sources or any other more or less heavily patched sources.}}
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Let's go!
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=== Kernel Sources ===
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The source you use on your system is up to you. For a laptop or desktop system, the following are recommended:
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* '''{{Package|sys-kernel/pf-sources}}'''
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* '''{{Package|sys-kernel/ck-sources}}'''
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* '''{{Package|sys-kernel/gentoo-sources}}'''
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* '''{{Package|sys-kernel/git-sources}}'''
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* '''{{Package|sys-kernel/sysrescue-std-sources}}'''
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* '''{{Package|sys-kernel/debian-sources}}'''
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{{fancynote|If you are unsure of which sources you would like to use, emerge <code>gentoo-sources</code>. That's always a safe bet for a general system. For more information on available kernels, check out: [[Funtoo Linux Kernels]]}}
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=== Prerequisites ===
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Regardless of the tools you already have installed, it is recommended to follow the steps below, even if you find them to be redundant.
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First, we edit our <code>/etc/portage/make.conf</code>:
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<pre>
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#These compiler flags are just tweaking (optimazation) and NOT necessary:
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CFLAGS="-O2 -pipe -march=native -ftracer -fforce-addr"
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CXXFLAGS="${CFLAGS} -fpermissive -fomit-frame-pointer"
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KDIR=/usr/src/linux
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KERNEL="symlink build"
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USE="$KERNEL ....here are your use flags...."
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## These modules are available:
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## DRACUT_MODULES="dracut_modules_biosdevname dracut_modules_btrfs dracut_modules_caps dracut_modules_crypt dracut_modules_crypt-gpg dracut_modules_dmraid dracut_modules_dmsquash-live dracut_modules_gensplash dracut_modules_iscsi dracut_modules_livenet dracut_modules_lvm dracut_modules_mdraid dracut_modules_multipath dracut_modules_nbd dracut_modules_nfs dracut_modules_plymouth dracut_modules_ssh-client dracut_modules_syslog"
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## We will use these modules for LVM / LUKS:
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DRACUT_MODULES="crypt lvm plymouth biosdevname dmraid crypt-gpg dmsquash-live ssh-client syslog"
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</pre>
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Next, we set the package keywords by adding the following to <code>/etc/portage/package.use</code>:
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<pre>
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sys-kernel/dracut dm net device-mapper crypt lvm
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</pre>
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{{fancynote|If you don't have lvm over encrypted LUKS you just add the "net" keyword here, or "selinux".}}
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Next, we build our packages:
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<console>
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###i## emerge -av app-portage/gentoolkit sys-kernel/pf-sources sys-kernel/dracut sys-boot/plymouth sys-boot/plymouth-openrc-plugin
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</console>
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=== Preparing the kernel ===
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We go now to the sources directory and enter the following commands to update the kernel's  .config  file:
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<console>
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###i## cd /usr/src/linux/
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###i## make clean
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  CLEAN  .
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  CLEAN  arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode
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  CLEAN  arch/x86/kernel/cpu
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  CLEAN  arch/x86/kernel
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  CLEAN  arch/x86/vdso
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  CLEAN  arch/x86/lib
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  CLEAN  drivers/gpu/drm/radeon
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  CLEAN  drivers/net/wan
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  CLEAN  drivers/scsi/aic7xxx
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  CLEAN  drivers/tty/vt
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  CLEAN  drivers/video/logo
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  CLEAN  firmware
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  CLEAN  kernel
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  CLEAN  lib/raid6
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  CLEAN  lib
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  CLEAN  security/apparmor
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  CLEAN  security/selinux
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  CLEAN  usr
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  CLEAN  arch/x86/boot/compressed
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  CLEAN  arch/x86/boot
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  CLEAN  .tmp_versions
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  CLEAN  vmlinux System.map .tmp_kallsyms2.S .tmp_kallsyms1.o .tmp_kallsyms2.o .tmp_kallsyms1.S .tmp_vmlinux1 .tmp_vmlinux2 .tmp_System.map
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###i## zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/src/linux/.config
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</console>
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Next, we run <tt>make localmodconfig</tt>. You will get some questions which you can answer mostly with either M (compiled as a module) or Y (compiled directly into the kernel). If you are not sure what to choose, press enter, and the default option will be selected.
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<console>
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###i## make localmodconfig
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Enable different security models (SECURITY) [Y/n/?] y
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Enable the securityfs filesystem (SECURITYFS) [Y/?] y
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Socket and Networking Security Hooks (SECURITY_NETWORK) [Y/?] y
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Security hooks for pathname based access control (SECURITY_PATH) [Y/?] y
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Low address space for LSM to protect from user allocation (LSM_MMAP_MIN_ADDR) [65536] 65536
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NSA SELinux Support (SECURITY_SELINUX) [Y/n/?] y
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  NSA SELinux boot parameter (SECURITY_SELINUX_BOOTPARAM) [N/y/?] n
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  NSA SELinux runtime disable (SECURITY_SELINUX_DISABLE) [N/y/?] n
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  NSA SELinux Development Support (SECURITY_SELINUX_DEVELOP) [Y/n/?] y
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  NSA SELinux AVC Statistics (SECURITY_SELINUX_AVC_STATS) [Y/n/?] y
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  NSA SELinux checkreqprot default value (SECURITY_SELINUX_CHECKREQPROT_VALUE) [1] 1
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  NSA SELinux maximum supported policy format version (SECURITY_SELINUX_POLICYDB_VERSION_MAX) [Y/n/?] y
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    NSA SELinux maximum supported policy format version value (SECURITY_SELINUX_POLICYDB_VERSION_MAX_VALUE) [19] 19
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TOMOYO Linux Support (SECURITY_TOMOYO) [Y/n/?] y
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  Default maximal count for learning mode (SECURITY_TOMOYO_MAX_ACCEPT_ENTRY) [2048] 2048
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  Default maximal count for audit log (SECURITY_TOMOYO_MAX_AUDIT_LOG) [1024] 1024
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  Activate without calling userspace policy loader. (SECURITY_TOMOYO_OMIT_USERSPACE_LOADER) [Y/n/?] y
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AppArmor support (SECURITY_APPARMOR) [Y/n/?] y
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  AppArmor boot parameter default value (SECURITY_APPARMOR_BOOTPARAM_VALUE) [1] 1
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Integrity Measurement Architecture(IMA) (IMA) [Y/n/?] y
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EVM support (EVM) [N/y/?] (NEW)
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Default security module
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  1. SELinux (DEFAULT_SECURITY_SELINUX)
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  2. TOMOYO (DEFAULT_SECURITY_TOMOYO)
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  3. AppArmor (DEFAULT_SECURITY_APPARMOR)
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> 4. Unix Discretionary Access Controls (DEFAULT_SECURITY_DAC)
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choice[1-4?]: 4
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warning: (ACPI_HOTPLUG_CPU) selects ACPI_CONTAINER which has unmet direct dependencies (ACPI && EXPERIMENTAL)
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warning: (MEDIA_TUNER) selects MEDIA_TUNER_TEA5761 which has unmet direct dependencies (MEDIA_SUPPORT && VIDEO_MEDIA && I2C && EXPERIMENTAL)
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#
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# configuration written to .config
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#
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warning: (GFS2_FS) selects DLM which has unmet direct dependencies (EXPERIMENTAL && INET && SYSFS && CONFIGFS_FS && (IPV6 || IPV6=n))
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warning: (IMA) selects TCG_TPM which has unmet direct dependencies (HAS_IOMEM && EXPERIMENTAL)
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warning: (MEDIA_TUNER) selects MEDIA_TUNER_TEA5761 which has unmet direct dependencies (MEDIA_SUPPORT && VIDEO_MEDIA && I2C && EXPERIMENTAL)
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warning: (ACPI_HOTPLUG_CPU) selects ACPI_CONTAINER which has unmet direct dependencies (ACPI && EXPERIMENTAL)
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</console>
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Now comes the most adventurous part!
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=== Building the Kernel ===
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<console>
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###i## make -j8  bzImage
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###i## make -j8 modules
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###i## make modules_install
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###i## make install
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</console>
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== Initramfs ==
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{{fancywarning|Make sure that you have built and installed your kernel sources / modules before building an initramfs.}}
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To get your initramfs up and running, check out the [http://www.funtoo.org/Initramfs Initramfs] page. After following all the directions on the page to get your initramfs set up, continue following the ones here.
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Update the <tt>grub.cfg</tt> with boot update, then reboot and see how it works!
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<console>
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###i## boot-update -v
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###i## reboot
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</console>
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[[Category:HOWTO]]
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[[Category:Featured]]
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[[Category:Kernel]]
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Revision as of 19:52, October 20, 2014

Programming is a skill that is helpful to contribute back to linux, gnu, and other software sources. This page is dedicated to improving our programming & scripting skills. The author of this page suggests bash, c, and python for funtoo users. This page is a bit of a mess for the moment, it will be broken up into sub pages. cobol is so gangster, it's stupid....

Programming Languages

Assembly Language

Bash

C

C++

Qt Framework

Cobol

Fortran

java

lua

ObjectiveC

Perl

Python

Ruby

Tex

External Resources

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_programming_languages