Difference between pages "User:Pytony" and "Package:Vim"

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{{Person
+
{{Ebuild
|Geoloc=48.123028496893525, -1.671895980834961
+
|Summary=Vim is an improved, vi-style text editor with many features.
|Location name=Rennes, Bretagne, France
+
|CatPkg=app-editors/vim
|Full name=Antoine Pinsard
+
|Maintainer=
|Email=antoine.pinsard@gmail.com
+
|Repository=Gentoo Portage Tree
|Nick=pytony
+
 
}}
 
}}
 +
== Introduction ==
  
== About Me ==
+
So you thought you could get by with gedit? Not when you must configure an application on your server in a data center two states away! When it comes to remote system administration, all roads lead back to Vim. Not a Vim expert? No problem, you just need a handful of commands to do everything you need to do.
  
I am a 23 years old French developer. I am currently working as lead dev for a web start-up called ''Aladom'' (home services sector) in Rennes (Brittany, France). I started developing websites at the age of 11, which, bit by bit, led me to programming and GNU/Linux. I moved to Gentoo in 2010 and then Funtoo about three years later, since I wanted to be the master of my computer and not the opposite.
+
Entire books have been written about Vim, and they still fail to capture all of its functionality. But the core command set is all you really need if you're just making a few changes to a few files over SSH. You might not do it as efficiently as a Vim expert, but it's good enough to get the job done. In fact, if you're working with Vim (the pre-eminent vi-clone) on a server, there's a good chance it's "vim-tiny," a stripped-down Vim that offers the traditional vi functionality but not the full set of Vim features.
  
I'm glad to help the community by adding and improving documentation in the wiki, as much as I can. I'm also trying to help people facing issues on freenode #funtoo and fix some minor bugs.
+
==Insert Mode==
 +
The first thing you must grok is that Vim has several modes -- command mode, insert mode, visual mode, and last-line mode (also known as ex mode). When you start Vim, you'll be in command mode. Here, all of the keys are used to perform commands, not input text. To switch to input mode, hit <span style="color:green">i</span>, and you're able start editing the file, adding text, using Backspace, etc.
 +
To return to command mode, hit <span style="color:green">Esc</span>. To enter last-line or Ex mode, use :, and then input the command you wish to enter.
 +
 
 +
==Vim Command Mode==
 +
I could go on for days about the commands needed in command mode, but we're just here for the basics, so let's look at movement. Movement is based on the standard alphabetic keys:
 +
 
 +
* '''h''' Move the cursor to the left one character.
 +
* '''l''' Move the cursor to the right one character.
 +
* '''j''' Move the cursor down one line.
 +
* '''k''' Move the cursor up one line.
 +
 
 +
You can move faster by using <span style="color:green">b</span> and  <span style="color:green">w</span> to move backward and forward by one "word" at a time, respectively. Vim looks at "words" as a string of alphanumeric characters. So "eix" is a word, but "eix-sync" is multi-word because it's broken up by a non-alphanumeric character.
 +
 
 +
You can also move from one "paragraph" to the other thanks to {{c|<nowiki>{</nowiki>}} and {{c|<nowiki>}</nowiki>}} that respectively move the cursor to the previous and next blank line.
 +
 
 +
Deleting is done with  <span style="color:green">d</span> or  <span style="color:green">x</span>. To delete a single character, move the cursor over that character and use <span style="color:green">x</span>. Using <span style="color:green">dw</span> will delete the word the cursor is over, and <span style="color:green">db</span> will delete the previous word.
 +
 
 +
To delete an entire line, use <span style="color:green">dd</span>. To delete from the cursor to the end of the line, use <span style="color:green">d$</span>. To delete from the cursor to the beginning of the line, use <span style="color:green">d0</span>. The $ is shorthand for "end of the line," and 0 is shorthand for beginning of the line. You can also use ^ (shorthand for "first non-blank character of the line").
 +
 
 +
To copy a line, use {{c|yy}} (yank). To copy from the cursor the the end of the line, use {{c|y$}}. To copy 3 lines, use {{c|3yy}}, ...
 +
 
 +
Yanked lines are stored in a buffer, to paste the content of the buffer after the cursor, use {{c|p}}, to paste it before the cursor, use {{c|P}}. Note that {{c|d}} and {{c|x}} also copy the deleted content to the buffer.
 +
 
 +
==Search and Replace==
 +
To search through the document, use the / key to initiate a forward search, or ? to initiate a backward search.
 +
 
 +
To search and replace, use <span style="color:green">:s</span> (substitute) with the range of lines and search terms. Like so:
 +
<pre>
 +
:%s/old/new/
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
The % means "global," but you can replace that with a range of lines, like this:
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
:1,15s/old/new/
 +
</pre>
 +
Another example of search/replace functions
 +
<pre>Command        Outcome
 +
:s/xxx/yyy/    Replace xxx with yyy at the first occurence
 +
:s/xxx/yyy/g  Replace xxx with yyy first occurrence, global (whole sentence)
 +
:s/xxx/yyy/gc  Replace xxx with yyy global with confirm
 +
:%s/xxx/yyy/g  Replace xxx with yyy global in the whole file</pre>
 +
 +
I prefer to use the <span style="color:green">c</span> (confirm) and <span style="color:green">g</span> (global) options too, so when searching it will search the entire line and not just the first occurrence of a string.
 +
 
 +
A usual search would look something like :%s/old/new/gc, and when you hit Enter you'll be prompted before you make changes. I recommend using confirm; otherwise you can wind up with unexpected results.
 +
 
 +
If the "search" part of the substitute command is omitted, the last searched term will be used. The following exemple will search for the string "hello" and then substitute all "hello" occurrences by "salut".
 +
 
 +
<pre>/hello
 +
:%s//salut/g</pre>
 +
 
 +
==Undo==
 +
What if you've made an edit you didn't want to make? Easy, use the undo <span style="color:green">u</span> command. If you didn't mean to undo what you did -- and it's easy to accidentally hit u -- use <span style="color:green">Ctrl-r</span> to redo the last change.
 +
Quick note: If Vim is in vi-compatibility mode, it will have only one "level" of undo. In normal Vim mode, you can undo many, many changes. But vi undoes only the most recent change.
 +
 
 +
==Saving, Quitting and More ...==
 +
One of the things that's severely non-obvious while working with Vim the first time is how do I get the heck out of here? You can quit Vim in a number of ways, but I'll show the most usual ones.
 +
 
 +
First, if you want to save your changes before exiting Vim, use  <span style="color:green">:w</span> or save and exit in one action with <span style="color:green">:wq</span>.
 +
Don't want to save your changes? It happens. No problem, just use <span style="color:green">:q!</span> if you realize that you've made some edits that you don't want to save, and they are too complex to easily undo before exiting. Note that you can also write changes to a different filename by using :w newfile.
 +
 
 +
This is just a short and sweet intro to Vim for emergencies or minimal usage. You could do much, much more with Vim if you wanted. Be sure to read through the Vim tutorial by running vimtutor, and look through Vim's documentation by running :help. But in a pinch, this list of commands should get you through.
 +
 
 +
== Good Starter Vimrc ==
 +
 
 +
The following file makes a very good starter <tt>.vimrc</tt> file. Place it in your home directory, and you will get true tabs (displayed indented 4 spaces) and you will be able to see all the whitespace in your document, which is handy when editing critical files:
 +
 
 +
{{file|name=~/.vimrc|desc=A good starter .vimrc file|body=
 +
set noexpandtab
 +
set shiftwidth=4
 +
set tabstop=4
 +
set listchars=eol:%,tab:>-,trail:~,extends:>,precedes:<
 +
set list
 +
filetype indent off
 +
filetype plugin off
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
By default, copying and pasting into a vim window will cause things to horribly auto-indent. To fix this, you can temporarily switch to "paste mode" before pasting with <span style="color:green">:set paste</span>. You will see <tt>-- INSERT (paste) --</tt> in the status bar when you are in insert mode. Don't forget to disable paste mode with <span style="color:green">:set nopaste</span> after pasting. You can also use bang to switch between "paste" and "nopaste" so that you just have to recall the last command : <span style="color:green">:set paste!</span>. ([http://vim.wikia.com/wiki/Toggle_auto-indenting_for_code_paste See also])
 +
 
 +
This is more often experienced while pasting text copied to the X clipboard, so a map that does the work is useful, if one doesn't want to turn off autoident.
 +
{{file|name=~/.vimrc|desc=a map for pasting from the X clipboard avoiding autoindent|body=
 +
<nowiki>map <leader>px :set paste<CR>"+p<ESC>:set nopaste<CR\></nowiki>
 +
}}
 +
If <leader> is set to the default backslash '\' the combination of keys '\px' pastes the text from the X clipboard(register +), setting paste mode temporarily, this requires a vim built with the "X" USE flag.
 +
 
 +
== Visual mode ==
 +
 
 +
I noticed that some of my friends that use Vim as their main editor, do not use the visual mode at all. However, it is of a great power and will save you a lot of time. Basically, it allows you to select some text (as you would do with your pointer in any graphic base editor) and process almost any command available from the command mode on the selected part.
 +
 
 +
To switch to the visual mode, type {{c|v}} ({{c|<nowiki><Esc></nowiki>}} to go back to the command mode). Then you can move just as in the command mode ({{c|h}}, {{c|j}}, {{c|k}}, {{c|l}}, {{c|w}}, {{c|$}}, {{c|<nowiki>}</nowiki>}}, etc). If you want to delete the selection, type {{c|d}}. If you want to copy the selection, type {{c|y}}.
 +
 
 +
If you type {{c|:}}, you will notice that it automatically appends {{c|'<,'>}} in the command-line. This means that the following command will be applied in the range of the selection. If you append the following command {{c|s/foo/bar/g}}, all occurences of "foo", will be replaced by "bar" within the selection.
 +
 
 +
When a command is processed, you go back to the command mode. Typing {{c|1v}} will restore the previous selection, starting from the current position of the cursor. The former is often useful when you work in "visual line" mode. To enter "visual line" mode, type {{c|V}} (upper V). This mode allows you to select lines instead of characters. This is especially useful when you want to delete a bunch of lines, large enough to take some time to count them all before typing {{c|17dd}} for instance.
 +
 
 +
There is also a "visual block" mode. This awesome mode, that you would probably not find in common non-text-based editors, allows you to select columns of text, instead of lines. While in "visual block" mode, type {{c|I}} to insert text before the selection, inserted text will be written on the first line, and repeated to the other lines after {{c|<nowiki><ESC</nowiki>}} is pressed.
 +
 
 +
{{EbuildFooter}}
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Editors]]

Revision as of 19:29, March 22, 2015

app-editors/vim


Source Repository:Funtoo Overlay

Summary: Vim is an improved, vi-style text editor with many features.

Use Flags

luajit
Use dev-lang/luajit instead of dev-lang/lua
racket
Enable support for Scheme using dev-lang/racket
vim-pager
Install vimpager and vimmanpager links
X
Link console vim against X11 libraries to enable title and clipboard features in xterm

News

Drobbins

Better Experiences: Ego and Vim

Info on Funtoo's new personality tool called 'ego', and user-focused updates to vim's defaults.
27 April 2015 by Drobbins
Drobbins

How We're Keeping You At the Center of the Funtoo Universe

Read about recent developments that keep you, our users, at the forefront of our focus as Funtoo moves forward.
10 April 2015 by Drobbins
Mgorny

New OpenGL management in Funtoo

Funtoo is switching to an improved system for managing multiple OpenGL providers (Mesa/Xorg, AMD and NVIDIA). The update may involve blockers and file collisions.
30 March 2015 by Mgorny
View More News...

Vim

Tip

This is a wiki page. To edit it, Create a Funtoo account. Then log in and then click here to edit this page. See our editing guidelines to becoming a wiki-editing pro.

Introduction

So you thought you could get by with gedit? Not when you must configure an application on your server in a data center two states away! When it comes to remote system administration, all roads lead back to Vim. Not a Vim expert? No problem, you just need a handful of commands to do everything you need to do.

Entire books have been written about Vim, and they still fail to capture all of its functionality. But the core command set is all you really need if you're just making a few changes to a few files over SSH. You might not do it as efficiently as a Vim expert, but it's good enough to get the job done. In fact, if you're working with Vim (the pre-eminent vi-clone) on a server, there's a good chance it's "vim-tiny," a stripped-down Vim that offers the traditional vi functionality but not the full set of Vim features.

Insert Mode

The first thing you must grok is that Vim has several modes -- command mode, insert mode, visual mode, and last-line mode (also known as ex mode). When you start Vim, you'll be in command mode. Here, all of the keys are used to perform commands, not input text. To switch to input mode, hit i, and you're able start editing the file, adding text, using Backspace, etc. To return to command mode, hit Esc. To enter last-line or Ex mode, use :, and then input the command you wish to enter.

Vim Command Mode

I could go on for days about the commands needed in command mode, but we're just here for the basics, so let's look at movement. Movement is based on the standard alphabetic keys:

  • h Move the cursor to the left one character.
  • l Move the cursor to the right one character.
  • j Move the cursor down one line.
  • k Move the cursor up one line.

You can move faster by using b and w to move backward and forward by one "word" at a time, respectively. Vim looks at "words" as a string of alphanumeric characters. So "eix" is a word, but "eix-sync" is multi-word because it's broken up by a non-alphanumeric character.

You can also move from one "paragraph" to the other thanks to { and } that respectively move the cursor to the previous and next blank line.

Deleting is done with d or x. To delete a single character, move the cursor over that character and use x. Using dw will delete the word the cursor is over, and db will delete the previous word.

To delete an entire line, use dd. To delete from the cursor to the end of the line, use d$. To delete from the cursor to the beginning of the line, use d0. The $ is shorthand for "end of the line," and 0 is shorthand for beginning of the line. You can also use ^ (shorthand for "first non-blank character of the line").

To copy a line, use yy (yank). To copy from the cursor the the end of the line, use y$. To copy 3 lines, use 3yy, ...

Yanked lines are stored in a buffer, to paste the content of the buffer after the cursor, use p, to paste it before the cursor, use P. Note that d and x also copy the deleted content to the buffer.

Search and Replace

To search through the document, use the / key to initiate a forward search, or ? to initiate a backward search.

To search and replace, use :s (substitute) with the range of lines and search terms. Like so:

:%s/old/new/

The % means "global," but you can replace that with a range of lines, like this:

:1,15s/old/new/

Another example of search/replace functions

Command        Outcome
:s/xxx/yyy/    Replace xxx with yyy at the first occurence
:s/xxx/yyy/g   Replace xxx with yyy first occurrence, global (whole sentence)
:s/xxx/yyy/gc  Replace xxx with yyy global with confirm
:%s/xxx/yyy/g  Replace xxx with yyy global in the whole file

I prefer to use the c (confirm) and g (global) options too, so when searching it will search the entire line and not just the first occurrence of a string.

A usual search would look something like :%s/old/new/gc, and when you hit Enter you'll be prompted before you make changes. I recommend using confirm; otherwise you can wind up with unexpected results.

If the "search" part of the substitute command is omitted, the last searched term will be used. The following exemple will search for the string "hello" and then substitute all "hello" occurrences by "salut".

/hello
:%s//salut/g

Undo

What if you've made an edit you didn't want to make? Easy, use the undo u command. If you didn't mean to undo what you did -- and it's easy to accidentally hit u -- use Ctrl-r to redo the last change. Quick note: If Vim is in vi-compatibility mode, it will have only one "level" of undo. In normal Vim mode, you can undo many, many changes. But vi undoes only the most recent change.

Saving, Quitting and More ...

One of the things that's severely non-obvious while working with Vim the first time is how do I get the heck out of here? You can quit Vim in a number of ways, but I'll show the most usual ones.

First, if you want to save your changes before exiting Vim, use :w or save and exit in one action with :wq. Don't want to save your changes? It happens. No problem, just use :q! if you realize that you've made some edits that you don't want to save, and they are too complex to easily undo before exiting. Note that you can also write changes to a different filename by using :w newfile.

This is just a short and sweet intro to Vim for emergencies or minimal usage. You could do much, much more with Vim if you wanted. Be sure to read through the Vim tutorial by running vimtutor, and look through Vim's documentation by running :help. But in a pinch, this list of commands should get you through.

Good Starter Vimrc

The following file makes a very good starter .vimrc file. Place it in your home directory, and you will get true tabs (displayed indented 4 spaces) and you will be able to see all the whitespace in your document, which is handy when editing critical files:

~/.vimrc - A good starter .vimrc file
set noexpandtab
set shiftwidth=4
set tabstop=4
set listchars=eol:%,tab:>-,trail:~,extends:>,precedes:<
set list
filetype indent off
filetype plugin off

By default, copying and pasting into a vim window will cause things to horribly auto-indent. To fix this, you can temporarily switch to "paste mode" before pasting with :set paste. You will see -- INSERT (paste) -- in the status bar when you are in insert mode. Don't forget to disable paste mode with :set nopaste after pasting. You can also use bang to switch between "paste" and "nopaste" so that you just have to recall the last command : :set paste!. (See also)

This is more often experienced while pasting text copied to the X clipboard, so a map that does the work is useful, if one doesn't want to turn off autoident.

~/.vimrc - a map for pasting from the X clipboard avoiding autoindent
map <leader>px :set paste<CR>"+p<ESC>:set nopaste<CR\>

If <leader> is set to the default backslash '\' the combination of keys '\px' pastes the text from the X clipboard(register +), setting paste mode temporarily, this requires a vim built with the "X" USE flag.

Visual mode

I noticed that some of my friends that use Vim as their main editor, do not use the visual mode at all. However, it is of a great power and will save you a lot of time. Basically, it allows you to select some text (as you would do with your pointer in any graphic base editor) and process almost any command available from the command mode on the selected part.

To switch to the visual mode, type v (<Esc> to go back to the command mode). Then you can move just as in the command mode (h, j, k, l, w, $, }, etc). If you want to delete the selection, type d. If you want to copy the selection, type y.

If you type :, you will notice that it automatically appends '<,'> in the command-line. This means that the following command will be applied in the range of the selection. If you append the following command s/foo/bar/g, all occurences of "foo", will be replaced by "bar" within the selection.

When a command is processed, you go back to the command mode. Typing 1v will restore the previous selection, starting from the current position of the cursor. The former is often useful when you work in "visual line" mode. To enter "visual line" mode, type V (upper V). This mode allows you to select lines instead of characters. This is especially useful when you want to delete a bunch of lines, large enough to take some time to count them all before typing 17dd for instance.

There is also a "visual block" mode. This awesome mode, that you would probably not find in common non-text-based editors, allows you to select columns of text, instead of lines. While in "visual block" mode, type I to insert text before the selection, inserted text will be written on the first line, and repeated to the other lines after <ESC is pressed.