Difference between pages "Package:Vim" and "Pt-br/Flavors and Mix-ins"

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{{Ebuild
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== Flavors ==
|Summary=Vim is an improved, vi-style text editor with many features.
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|CatPkg=app-editors/vim
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|Maintainer=
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|Repository=Gentoo Portage Tree
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}}
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== Introduction ==
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So you thought you could get by with gedit? Not when you must configure an application on your server in a data center two states away! When it comes to remote system administration, all roads lead back to Vim. Not a Vim expert? No problem, you just need a handful of commands to do everything you need to do.
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A system can have only one flavor profile enabled at a time. The following flavors are available:
  
Entire books have been written about Vim, and they still fail to capture all of its functionality. But the core command set is all you really need if you're just making a few changes to a few files over SSH. You might not do it as efficiently as a Vim expert, but it's good enough to get the job done. In fact, if you're working with Vim (the pre-eminent vi-clone) on a server, there's a good chance it's "vim-tiny," a stripped-down Vim that offers the traditional vi functionality but not the full set of Vim features.
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;minimal: This flavor defines the most minimal possible flavor. It currently only contains defaults for all Funtoo Linux flavors.
  
==Insert Mode==
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;core: The core flavor is the minimal flavor plus reasonable USE options, and is used for stage3 builds.
The first thing you must grok is that Vim has several modes -- command mode, insert mode, visual mode, and last-line mode (also known as ex mode). When you start Vim, you'll be in command mode. Here, all of the keys are used to perform commands, not input text. To switch to input mode, hit <span style="color:green">i</span>, and you're able start editing the file, adding text, using Backspace, etc.
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To return to command mode, hit <span style="color:green">Esc</span>. To enter last-line or Ex mode, use :, and then input the command you wish to enter.
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==Vim Command Mode==
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;server: The server flavor is intended for servers but at this time just tracks core.
I could go on for days about the commands needed in command mode, but we're just here for the basics, so let's look at movement. Movement is based on the standard alphabetic keys:
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* '''h''' Move the cursor to the left one character.
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;workstation: The workstation flavor is a minimal desktop system. It includes the core flavor plus these mix-ins: '''X''', '''audio''', '''dvd''', '''media''', '''console-extras'''
* '''l''' Move the cursor to the right one character.
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* '''j''' Move the cursor down one line.
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* '''k''' Move the cursor up one line.
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You can move faster by using <span style="color:green">b</span> and  <span style="color:green">w</span> to move backward and forward by one "word" at a time, respectively. Vim looks at "words" as a string of alphanumeric characters. So "eix" is a word, but "eix-sync" is multi-word because it's broken up by a non-alphanumeric character.
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;desktop: The desktop flavor is a full-featured desktop system, minus desktop environment (add KDE, GNOME or XFCE as a mix-in.) It includes the '''workstation''' flavor plus '''printing''' support.
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== Mix-ins ==
  
You can also move from one "paragraph" to the other thanks to {{c|<nowiki>{</nowiki>}} and {{c|<nowiki>}</nowiki>}} that respectively move the cursor to the previous and next blank line.
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A system can have any number of mix-ins enabled at a time. The following mix-ins are available:
  
Deleting is done with  <span style="color:green">d</span> or  <span style="color:green">x</span>. To delete a single character, move the cursor over that character and use <span style="color:green">x</span>. Using <span style="color:green">dw</span> will delete the word the cursor is over, and <span style="color:green">db</span> will delete the previous word.
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;audio: Enables core audio-related settings, currently related to ALSA.
  
To delete an entire line, use <span style="color:green">dd</span>. To delete from the cursor to the end of the line, use <span style="color:green">d$</span>. To delete from the cursor to the beginning of the line, use <span style="color:green">d0</span>. The $ is shorthand for "end of the line," and 0 is shorthand for beginning of the line. You can also use ^ (shorthand for "first non-blank character of the line").
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;console-extras: Enables things that are nice to have for console-only systems. Currently enabling gpm in USE.
  
To copy a line, use {{c|yy}} (yank). To copy from the cursor the the end of the line, use {{c|y$}}. To copy 3 lines, use {{c|3yy}}, ...
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;dvd: USE settings related to optical drives -- CDR/DVD-ROM/RW use.
  
Yanked lines are stored in a buffer, to paste the content of the buffer after the cursor, use {{c|p}}, to paste it before the cursor, use {{c|P}}. Note that {{c|d}} and {{c|x}} also copy the deleted content to the buffer.
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;gnome: USE and package.use settings required to merge GNOME.
  
==Search and Replace==
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;hardened: Enables hardened support.
To search through the document, use the / key to initiate a forward search, or ? to initiate a backward search.
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To search and replace, use <span style="color:green">:s</span> (substitute) with the range of lines and search terms. Like so:
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;kde: USE and package.use settings required to merge KDE.
<pre>
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:%s/old/new/
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</pre>
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The % means "global," but you can replace that with a range of lines, like this:
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;media: USE settings related to audio/video media encoding. Can be for desktops or servers.
  
<pre>
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;print: Enables printing capability.
:1,15s/old/new/
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</pre>
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Another example of search/replace functions
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<pre>Command        Outcome
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:s/xxx/yyy/    Replace xxx with yyy at the first occurence
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:s/xxx/yyy/g  Replace xxx with yyy first occurrence, global (whole sentence)
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:s/xxx/yyy/gc  Replace xxx with yyy global with confirm
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:%s/xxx/yyy/g  Replace xxx with yyy global in the whole file</pre>
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I prefer to use the <span style="color:green">c</span> (confirm) and <span style="color:green">g</span> (global) options too, so when searching it will search the entire line and not just the first occurrence of a string.
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A usual search would look something like :%s/old/new/gc, and when you hit Enter you'll be prompted before you make changes. I recommend using confirm; otherwise you can wind up with unexpected results.
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;rhel5-compat: settings required for running a system that uses a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5-based kernel.
  
If the "search" part of the substitute command is omitted, the last searched term will be used. The following exemple will search for the string "hello" and then substitute all "hello" occurrences by "salut".
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;vmware-guest: settings related to using Funtoo Linux as a VMWare virtual machine guest.
  
<pre>/hello
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;X: Settings related to the X Window System and hardware support.
:%s//salut/g</pre>
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==Undo==
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;xfce: USE settings required for merging XFCE.
What if you've made an edit you didn't want to make? Easy, use the undo <span style="color:green">u</span> command. If you didn't mean to undo what you did -- and it's easy to accidentally hit u -- use <span style="color:green">Ctrl-r</span> to redo the last change.
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Quick note: If Vim is in vi-compatibility mode, it will have only one "level" of undo. In normal Vim mode, you can undo many, many changes. But vi undoes only the most recent change.
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==Saving, Quitting and More ...==
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[[Category:Portage]]
One of the things that's severely non-obvious while working with Vim the first time is how do I get the heck out of here? You can quit Vim in a number of ways, but I'll show the most usual ones.
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[[Category:Funtoo features]]
 
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First, if you want to save your changes before exiting Vim, use  <span style="color:green">:w</span> or save and exit in one action with <span style="color:green">:wq</span>.
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Don't want to save your changes? It happens. No problem, just use <span style="color:green">:q!</span> if you realize that you've made some edits that you don't want to save, and they are too complex to easily undo before exiting. Note that you can also write changes to a different filename by using :w newfile.
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This is just a short and sweet intro to Vim for emergencies or minimal usage. You could do much, much more with Vim if you wanted. Be sure to read through the Vim tutorial by running vimtutor, and look through Vim's documentation by running :help. But in a pinch, this list of commands should get you through.
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== Good Starter Vimrc ==
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The following file makes a very good starter <tt>.vimrc</tt> file. Place it in your home directory, and you will get true tabs (displayed indented 4 spaces) and you will be able to see all the whitespace in your document, which is handy when editing critical files:
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{{file|name=~/.vimrc|desc=A good starter .vimrc file|body=
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set noexpandtab
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set shiftwidth=4
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set tabstop=4
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set listchars=eol:%,tab:>-,trail:~,extends:>,precedes:<
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set list
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filetype indent off
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filetype plugin off
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}}
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By default, copying and pasting into a vim window will cause things to horribly auto-indent. To fix this, you can temporarily switch to "paste mode" before pasting with <span style="color:green">:set paste</span>. You will see <tt>-- INSERT (paste) --</tt> in the status bar when you are in insert mode. Don't forget to disable paste mode with <span style="color:green">:set nopaste</span> after pasting. You can also use bang to switch between "paste" and "nopaste" so that you just have to recall the last command : <span style="color:green">:set paste!</span>. ([http://vim.wikia.com/wiki/Toggle_auto-indenting_for_code_paste See also])
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This is more often experienced while pasting text copied to the X clipboard, so a map that does the work is useful, if one doesn't want to turn off autoident.
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{{file|name=~/.vimrc|desc=a map for pasting from the X clipboard avoiding autoindent|body=
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<nowiki>map <leader>px :set paste<CR>"+p<ESC>:set nopaste<CR\></nowiki>
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}}
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If <leader> is set to the default backslash '\' the combination of keys '\px' pastes the text from the X clipboard(register +), setting paste mode temporarily, this requires a vim built with the "X" USE flag.
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== Visual mode ==
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I noticed that some of my friends that use Vim as their main editor, do not use the visual mode at all. However, it is of a great power and will save you a lot of time. Basically, it allows you to select some text (as you would do with your pointer in any graphic base editor) and process almost any command available from the command mode on the selected part.
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To switch to the visual mode, type {{c|v}} ({{c|<nowiki><Esc></nowiki>}} to go back to the command mode). Then you can move just as in the command mode ({{c|h}}, {{c|j}}, {{c|k}}, {{c|l}}, {{c|w}}, {{c|$}}, {{c|<nowiki>}</nowiki>}}, etc). If you want to delete the selection, type {{c|d}}. If you want to copy the selection, type {{c|y}}.
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If you type {{c|:}}, you will notice that it automatically appends {{c|'<,'>}} in the command-line. This means that the following command will be applied in the range of the selection. If you append the following command {{c|s/foo/bar/g}}, all occurences of "foo", will be replaced by "bar" within the selection.
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When a command is processed, you go back to the command mode. Typing {{c|1v}} will restore the previous selection, starting from the current position of the cursor. The former is often useful when you work in "visual line" mode. To enter "visual line" mode, type {{c|V}} (upper V). This mode allows you to select lines instead of characters. This is especially useful when you want to delete a bunch of lines, large enough to take some time to count them all before typing {{c|17dd}} for instance.
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There is also a "visual block" mode. This awesome mode, that you would probably not find in common non-text-based editors, allows you to select columns of text, instead of lines. While in "visual block" mode, type {{c|I}} to insert text before the selection, inserted text will be written on the first line, and repeated to the other lines after {{c|<nowiki><ESC</nowiki>}} is pressed.
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{{EbuildFooter}}
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[[Category:Editors]]
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Revision as of 19:49, March 22, 2015

Flavors

A system can have only one flavor profile enabled at a time. The following flavors are available:

minimal
This flavor defines the most minimal possible flavor. It currently only contains defaults for all Funtoo Linux flavors.
core
The core flavor is the minimal flavor plus reasonable USE options, and is used for stage3 builds.
server
The server flavor is intended for servers but at this time just tracks core.
workstation
The workstation flavor is a minimal desktop system. It includes the core flavor plus these mix-ins: X, audio, dvd, media, console-extras
desktop
The desktop flavor is a full-featured desktop system, minus desktop environment (add KDE, GNOME or XFCE as a mix-in.) It includes the workstation flavor plus printing support.

Mix-ins

A system can have any number of mix-ins enabled at a time. The following mix-ins are available:

audio
Enables core audio-related settings, currently related to ALSA.
console-extras
Enables things that are nice to have for console-only systems. Currently enabling gpm in USE.
dvd
USE settings related to optical drives -- CDR/DVD-ROM/RW use.
gnome
USE and package.use settings required to merge GNOME.
hardened
Enables hardened support.
kde
USE and package.use settings required to merge KDE.
media
USE settings related to audio/video media encoding. Can be for desktops or servers.
print
Enables printing capability.
rhel5-compat
settings required for running a system that uses a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5-based kernel.
vmware-guest
settings related to using Funtoo Linux as a VMWare virtual machine guest.
X
Settings related to the X Window System and hardware support.
xfce
USE settings required for merging XFCE.