Difference between pages "Funtoo Linux Networking" and "Package:Nginx"

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<blockquote>This document explains how to configure your network settings by explaining the network configuration functionality available in Funtoo Linux. Also covered is <tt>dhcpcd 5.x</tt>, Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11) configuration, and the OpenResolv framework.
+
{{Ebuild
</blockquote>
+
|Summary=Robust, small and high performance HTTP and reverse proxy server
 +
|CatPkg=www-servers/nginx
 +
|Maintainer=Daniel Robbins, Golodhrim,
 +
|Overlay=Funtoo
 +
}}
 +
[[Image:nginx.gif|frame]]
 +
== What is nginx ==
  
== Introduction ==
+
nginx (pronounced "engin-x") is a Web and reverse proxy server for HTTP, SMTP, POP3 and IMAP protocols. It focuses on high concurrency, performance and low memory usage. Nginx quickly delivers static content with efficient use of system resources, also dynamic content is delivered on a network using FastCGI, SCGI handlers for scripts, uWSGI application servers or Phusion Passenger module (atm broken in [http://funtoo.org funtoo]), further more it can serve a very capable software load balancer. It uses an asynchronos event-driven approach to handle requests which provides more predictable performance under load, in contrast to the Apache HTTP server model, that uses a threaded or process-oriented approach to handling request. Nginx is licensed under a BSD-like license and it runs on Unix, Linux, BSD variants, Mac OS X, Solaris, AIX and Microsoft Windows.
  
Funtoo Linux has its own core network configuration system that differs somewhat from upstream network configuration systems used in [http://www.gentoo.org Gentoo Linux] and [http://roy.marples.name/projects/openrc OpenRC].
+
== Installation ==
  
In this document, I will explain the unique additions and changes to the Funtoo network configuration and show you how to use this system to configure your network.
+
=== USE flags ===
  
I'll also explain how to use <tt>dhcpcd 5.x</tt> for managing network interfaces on DHCP-based networks, and will also cover OpenRC stacked runlevel configuration, ''Wi-Fi'' (IEEE 802.11) configuration, and the OpenResolv framework, which is enabled in Funtoo Linux by default.
+
Before you can install nginx, there are the following USE-flags available, these can be set by ''/etc/portage/package.use'' or ''/etc/portage/package.use/nginx'', depending on your setup of package.use.
  
== A Gentle Introduction to Funtoo Network Configuration ==
+
* aio - Enables file AIO support
 +
* debug - Enables extra debug codepaths, like asserts and extra output.
 +
* http - Enable http serving
 +
* http-cache - Enables caching for http files
 +
* ipv6 - Enables IPv6 support
 +
* libatomic - Use libatomic instead of buildtin atomic operations
 +
* pcre - Enables support for Perl Compatible Regular Expressions
 +
* ssl - Adds support for Secure Socket Layer connections
 +
* vim-syntax - Pulls in related vim syntax scripts
  
Before I get into the technical details of configuring your network, it's important to understand that Funtoo Linux has a number of different options available to you for network configuration, with more likely to be added in the future. Each approach is different and has its own strengths and weaknesses, and this is, in my opinion, a good thing.
+
Further more you can set the nginx modules you like to use in ''/etc/make.conf'' in the NGINX_MODULES_HTTP variable as NGINX_MODULES_HTTP="variables".
  
=== The Easy (Dynamic) Way ===
+
* access
 +
* addition
 +
* auth_basic
 +
* autoindex
 +
* browser
 +
* cache_purge
 +
* charset
 +
* dav
 +
* degradation
 +
* empty_gif
 +
* ey_balancer
 +
* fastcgi
 +
* flv
 +
* geo
 +
* geoip
 +
* gzip
 +
* gzip_static
 +
* headers_more
 +
* image_filter
 +
* limit_req
 +
* limit_zone
 +
* map
 +
* memcached
 +
* perl
 +
* proxy
 +
* push
 +
* random_index
 +
* realip
 +
* referer
 +
* rewrite
 +
* scgi
 +
* secure_link
 +
* slowfs_cache
 +
* split_clients
 +
* ssi
 +
* stub_status
 +
* sub
 +
* upload
 +
* upstream_ip_hash
 +
* userid
 +
* uwsgi
 +
* xslt
  
When configuring your network, one option is to skip traditional network configuration and simply rely on DHCP. This is by far the simplest method of configuring your network. If you are on a wired network, no other steps are typically required beyond enabling a DHCP client, and Funtoo Linux includes <tt>dhcpcd 5.x</tt> by default.  
+
and the following mail modules as NGINX_MODULES_MAIL in '/etc/make.conf':
  
==== Network Manager, Wicd ====
+
* imap
 +
* pop3
 +
* smtp
  
If you are going to use a third party package such as [[Network Manager]] or [[Wicd]] to manage your network then you do not need to configure DHCP at all. These packages configure DHCP for you. Simply emerge the package you want to use and start using it.
+
=== USE Expanded flags ===
  
==== DHCP-Only Systems ====
+
nginx USE-flags go into ''/etc/portage/package.use'' or ''/etc/portage/package.use/nginx'', while the HTTP and MAIL modules go as NGINX_MODULES_HTTP or NGINX_MODULES_MAIL are stored in /etc/make.conf. And as you wouldn't server only static html files, but most commonly also php files/scripts you should also install php with fpm enabled and xcache for caching the content, what makes your nginx setup way faster. For xcache you need to set PHP_TARGETS="php5-3" in '/etc/make.conf'.
 
+
If you are not planning to use a third-party package to manage your network interfaces, it is still extremely easy to set up DHCP networking, especially if you always use DHCP to connect to networks, which is common for desktops or laptops. In this scenario, we can simply enable <tt>dhcpcd</tt> to run at system startup. It will run in the background and automatically look for DHCP servers on all your network interfaces, and will attempt to lease an IP address from any DHCP servers found.  
+
 
+
If this sounds like what you want to do, then add <tt>dhcpcd</tt> to your default runlevel as follows:
+
 
+
<console># ##i##rc-update add dhcpcd default</console>
+
 
+
To enable DHCP immediately, you would follow the previous command with an <tt>rc</tt> command, which would start the <tt>dhcpcd</tt> client you just added:
+
 
+
<console># ##i##rc</console>
+
 
+
If you're on a wired network and have the necessary drivers in your kernel, then this should get you going. For wireless networks, more steps are required to utilize your wireless hardware to associate with an access point, which will be covered later in this document.  
+
 
+
===== Tweaking Dhcpcd =====
+
 
+
For now, it's important to note that <tt>dhcpcd 5.x</tt> will manage ''all'' available network interfaces by default. If you want to run a DHCP client on ''all but one'' interface, or some other subset of interfaces, you can add the appropriate <tt>denyinterfaces</tt> or <tt>allowinterfaces</tt> [[glob pattern]] to <tt>/etc/dhcpcd.conf</tt>:
+
  
 +
Example:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
# manage all interfaces but eth0 with dhcpcd
+
echo "www-servers/nginx USE-FLAG-List" >> /etc/portage/package.use/nginx
denyinterfaces eth0
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
This can also be accomplished by modifying <tt>/etc/init.d/dhcpcd</tt> directly and adding <tt>-Z ''ifglob''</tt> or <tt>-z ''ifglob''</tt> (the equivalent command-line parameters) to <tt>command_args</tt>.
+
=== Emerging nginx ===
 
+
==== Using Funtoo Scripts for DHCP ====
+
 
+
You can also use the Funtoo Linux networking scripts to start a DHCP client just on a specific interface. This approach is best if you are planning to also do some advanced bridging, bonding or VLAN configuration on your machine along with DHCP, since you will be using the Funtoo Linux networking scripts for that too.
+
 
+
To use this variant approach, ''don't'' enable <tt>/etc/init.d/dhcpcd</tt> directly. Instead, use the Funtoo Linux <tt>dhcpcd</tt> template which will start dhcpcd on only one interface. Below, you will see the steps to do this. This is very similar to how we set up advanced network interfaces, which will be covered later in this documentation:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##cd /etc/init.d
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.eth0
+
# ##i##rc-update add netif.eth0 default
+
# ##i##echo template=dhcpcd > /etc/conf.d/netif.eth0
+
# ##i##rc
+
</console>
+
 
+
The last command, <tt>rc</tt>, causes <tt>netif.eth0</tt> to be started.
+
 
+
=== Server Network Configuration ===
+
 
+
For servers and advanced networking scenarios, Funtoo Linux offers its own modular, template-based network configuration system. This system offers a lot of flexibility for configuring network interfaces, essentially serving as a &quot;network interface construction kit.&quot; This system can be used by itself, or even combined with <tt>dhcpcd</tt>, as shown in the previous section.
+
 
+
Here are the key components of the template-based network configuration system:
+
 
+
;<tt>/etc/init.d/netif.lo</tt>: An init script that configures the localhost interface. This script is always enabled and is part of the boot process.
+
;<tt>/etc/netif.d</tt>: This is a directory that contains various network configuration templates. Each of these templates is focused on configuring a particular type of network interface, such as a general static IP-based interface, a bridge interface, a bond interface, etc.
+
;<tt>/etc/init.d/netif.tmpl</tt>: This is the master init script for the template-based network configuration system. New interfaces are added to your system by creating '''symbolic links''' to this file in <tt>/etc/init.d</tt>.
+
 
+
So, if you wanted to use this system to configure <tt>eth0</tt> with a static IP address, you would create a <tt>netif.eth0</tt> symlink to <tt>netif.tmpl</tt> as follows:
+
 
+
<console># ##i##cd /etc/init.d
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.eth0</console>
+
Then, you would create an <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.eth0</tt> configuration file that would specify which template to use from the <tt>/etc/netif.d</tt> directory:
+
  
 +
Now you are ready to install nginx with php and xcache support:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
template="interface"
+
emerge -avt nginx php xcache
ipaddr="10.0.1.200/24"
+
gateway="10.0.1.1"
+
nameservers="10.0.1.1 10.0.1.2"
+
domain="funtoo.org"
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
 +
so now just check your useflags and press enter to start emerge.
  
To complete our static IP network configuration we would need to:
+
== Configuring ==
  
<console># ##i##rc-update add netif.eth0 default</console>
+
All configuration is done in ''/etc/nginx'' with ''nginx.conf'' as the main configuration file and all virtual hosts in ''/etc/nginx/sites/available'' while you have to symlink ''/etc/nginx/sites-available/{VHOST}'' to ''/etc/nginx/sites-enabled/{VHOST}'' to activate them. An example config for such a {VHOST} looks like that:
When configuring your own static network interface, one of <tt>ipaddr</tt> or <tt>ipaddrs</tt> is required and should specify the IP address(es) to configure for this interface, in &quot;a.b.c.d/netmask&quot; format. Optional parameters include <tt>gateway</tt>, which defines a default gateway for your entire network, and if set should specify the gateway's IP address. In addition, <tt>domain</tt> and <tt>nameservers</tt> (space-separated if more than one) can be used to specify DNS information for this interface.
+
 
+
=== Configuration Variables ===
+
 
+
==== Interface Variables ====
+
 
+
The <tt>ipaddr</tt> and <tt>ipaddrs</tt> variables are supported by the <tt>interface</tt> and <tt>bridge</tt> templates, and are used to specify a single or multiple  IPv4 or IPv6 address(es) for the interface. IP addresses should be specified in 'IP/netmask' format, such as <tt>10.0.0.1/24</tt>. Multiple IP addresses can be specified delimited by whitespace:
+
 
+
<pre>ipaddrs=&quot;10.0.0.1/24 10.0.0.2/24&quot;</pre>
+
 
+
===== Broadcast Address =====
+
 
+
By default, a broadcast address will be calculated based on the IP address and network mask. If you need to manually specify a broadcast address, use the following format for your IP address:
+
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
ipaddrs="10.0.0.1/24;broadcast=10.0.1.255 10.0.0.2/24"
+
server {
</pre>
+
    listen          80;
 +
    server_name    www.example.com;
  
===== Not Specifying An Address =====
+
    access_log      /var/log/nginx/www.example.com.access_log main;
 +
    error_log      /var/log/nginx/www.example.com.error_log info;
  
Note that in some cases, you may choose to '''not''' specify <tt>ipaddr</tt> or <tt>ipaddrs</tt> for a <tt>bridge</tt> template. That is allowed. If you don't want to specify an IP address for a regular interface, you can choose to use the <tt>interface</tt> template without an IP address specified in the config, or use the <tt>interface-noip</tt> template instead, for the sake of clarity.
+
    root /var/www/www.example.com/htdocs;
 +
}
 +
</pre>  
  
===== Viewing All Configured IP Addresses =====
+
The ''nginx.conf'' and ''sites-available/localhost'' file is well commented. Customize it to your needs. Make sure you set the listen option correctly. By default, the listen option is set to listen on the loopback interface. If you leave this unchanged other computers on the network will not be able to connect to the server.
  
Also note that if you specify multiple IPv4 addresses, <tt>ifconfig</tt> will only show the first IP address. To view all IP addresses associated with the interface, use the <tt>ip addr show</tt> command.
+
== Configuring PHP FPM ==
  
=== General Variables ===
+
As we already installed php with fpm support above we just need to adjust the following settings in ''/etc/php/fpm-php5.3/php-fpm.conf''. You should enable the following settings:
 
+
The following variables are enabled by default for all network scripts, and if specified will trigger a corresponding configuration action:
+
 
+
;<tt>nameservers</tt>: Set DNS nameservers using OpenResolv. Specify multiple IPv4 or IPv6 nameservers like this: &quot;1.2.3.4 1.2.3.5 1.2.3.6&quot;. Please note that OpenResolv treats <tt>127.0.0.1</tt> specially, and it indicates that you are running a local name resolver like <tt>dnsmasq</tt> or <tt>bind</tt>. OpenResolv will ignore all other name servers specified alongside <tt>127.0.0.1</tt>. See <tt>man resolvconf</tt> and <tt>man resolvconf.conf</tt> for additional setup information.
+
;<tt>search</tt>: Set DNS search information using OpenResolv.
+
;<tt>domain</tt>: Set DNS domain using OpenResolv.
+
;<tt>gateway</tt>: Define a default IPv4 gateway on this interface.
+
;<tt>gateway6</tt>: Define a default IPv6 gateway on this interface.
+
;<tt>route</tt>: Specify a semi-colon delimited list of IPv4 routes to apply when this interface is brought up. Will be appended to <tt>ip -4 route add</tt>.
+
;<tt>route6</tt>: Specify a semi-colon delimited list of IPv6 routes to apply when this interface is brought up. Will be appended to <tt>ip -6 route add</tt>.
+
;<tt>mtu</tt>: Set Maximum Transmit Unit for the interface
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
==== VLAN Variables ====
+
 
+
VLAN support is enabled by default for all network configuration scripts. If a network script has a name in the format <tt>netif.ethX.Y</tt>, then it is assumed to be a VLAN interface referencing trunk <tt>ethX</tt> and VLAN ID <tt>Y</tt>. If you desire a custom name for your VLAN interface, you can name your interface whatever you'd like and specify the following variables in your interface config:
+
 
+
;<tt>trunk</tt>: VLAN trunk interface, e.g. &quot;eth0&quot;
+
;<tt>vlan</tt>: VLAN id, e.g. &quot;32&quot;
+
 
+
==== Bridge / Tap Variables ====
+
 
+
The following variables for configuring a functional bridge interface with optional tap interfaces:
+
 
+
;<tt>slaves</tt>: Set slave interfaces of this interface (for bridges, etc.) All slaves will automatically be depended upon, and will also automatically have their <tt>mtu</tt> set to that of the current interface, if an <tt>mtu</tt> is specified for the current interface. This setting is required for the <tt>bond</tt> template and optional for the <tt>bridge</tt> template.
+
;<tt>stp</tt>: Enables Spanning Tree Protocol on a bridge interface like this &quot;stp=on&quot;
+
;<tt>forwarding</tt>: Enables forwarding on a bridge interface by calling sysctl; as this interface does not exist when sysctl is called by init, we do it here. If this is disabled, your bridge will not forward traffic back out onto the network. useage: &quot;forwarding=1&quot;
+
;<tt>mac_addr</tt>: Sets a MAC address on a tap interface. This is usefull for avoiding layer2 address collisions when using large numbers of TUN interfaces (KVM, openVPN, ect)
+
 
+
=== OpenResolv and resolv.conf ===
+
 
+
OpenResolv will be used to set DNS information provided by the <tt>nameservers</tt>, <tt>domain</tt> and <tt>search</tt> variables when an interface is brought up. The OpenResolv framework will add entries to <tt>/etc/resolv.conf</tt>, and will also handle removing these entries when the interface is brought down. This way, <tt>/etc/resolv.conf</tt> should always contain current information and should not need to be manually edited by the system administrator. <tt>dhcpcd</tt> will use OpenResolv for updating system DNS information as well.
+
 
+
=== Network-Dependent Services ===
+
 
+
One important difference between Gentoo Linux and Funtoo Linux is that, in Funtoo Linux, network-dependent services only strictly depend on <tt>netif.lo</tt>. This means that if another network service requires an interface to be up, such as <tt>samba</tt> requiring <tt>eth0</tt>, then the system administrator must specify this relationship by adding the following line to <tt>/etc/conf.d/samba</tt>:
+
 
+
<pre>rc_need=&quot;netif.eth0&quot;</pre>
+
This will have the effect of ensuring that <tt>netif.eth0</tt> is started prior to <tt>samba</tt> and that <tt>samba</tt> is stopped prior to stopping <tt>netif.eth0</tt>.
+
 
+
Many network services, especially those that listen on all network intefaces, don't need an <tt>rc_need</tt> line in order to function properly. Avoiding the use of <tt>rc_need</tt> when required will optimize boot times and allow more network services to remain available when network interfaces are brought up and down by the system administrator.
+
 
+
=== Multiple Network Configurations ===
+
 
+
For information on how to have multiple, independent network configurations, please see [[Stacked Runlevels]].
+
 
+
=== Alternate Configs ===
+
If you need to run the same service with different configuration parameters depending upon runlevel, then you'll be happy to know that you can specify runlevel-specific conf.d files by appending a <tt>.
+
&lt;runlevel&gt;</tt> suffix. In this particular example, we could imagine a situation where we had two child runlevels named <tt>home</tt> and <tt>work</tt>:
+
 
+
<pre>/etc/conf.d/netif.eth0.home
+
/etc/conf.d/netif.eth0.work</pre>Note that this feature works for all init scripts, not just network configuration scripts.
+
 
+
=== Interface Renaming ===
+
 
+
Funtoo network scripts now support interface renaming, so you can create an interface called <tt>lan</tt> if you would like. To do this, simply specify the MAC address of the interface you would like to rename using the <tt>macaddr</tt> variable:
+
<pre>macaddr=&quot;00:15:17:19:b6:a3&quot;</pre>If this MAC address is part of the <tt>netif.lan</tt> configuration file, then when this interface starts, whatever interface currently has the MAC address of 00:15:17:19:b6:a3 (i.e. <tt>eth5</tt>) will be renamed to <tt>lan</tt> prior to the interface being brought up, and will show up in <tt>ifconfig</tt> and <tt>ip</tt> commands as being an interface named <tt>lan</tt>.
+
 
+
=== Basic VLAN Configuration ===
+
 
+
The standard <tt>interface</tt> template supports VLANs. To use VLAN support, first ensure that your kernel was compiled with VLAN support (the module name is <tt>8021q</tt>) :
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##grep CONFIG_VLAN /usr/src/linux/.config
+
CONFIG_VLAN_8021Q=m
+
CONFIG_VLAN_8021Q_GVRP=y
+
</console>
+
 
+
Then, configure the trunk interface using the <tt>interface-noip</tt> template. Assuming <tt>eth1</tt> is trunked, you would create the file <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.eth1</tt> with the following contents:
+
 
+
<pre>template=&quot;interface-noip&quot;</pre>
+
 
+
Then, create a network interface symlink for the trunk and add it to your default runlevel:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##cd /etc/init.d
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.eth1
+
# ##i##rc-update add netif.eth1 default
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now, assuming you wanted to configure a VLAN of 32, you would create a config file named <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.eth1.32</tt> that looks something like this:
+
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
template=&quot;interface&quot;
+
user = nginx
ipaddr=&quot;1.2.3.4/24&quot;
+
group = nginx
gateway=&quot;1.2.3.1&quot;# etc...
+
pm.start_servers = 20
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Then, create a VLAN network interface symlink and add it to your default runlevel:
+
The other options should all be very well documented, so make it fit your needs.
  
<console>
+
== Configuring xcache ==
# ##i##cd /etc/init.d
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.eth1.32
+
# ##i##rc-update add netif.eth1.32 default
+
</console>
+
  
The Funtoo network configuration scripts will automatically recognize the filename <tt>netif.eth1.32</tt> as being VLAN 32 of trunk interface <tt>netif.eth1</tt>.
+
For setting xcache just edit ''/etc/php/fpm-php5.3/ext-active/xcache''
 
+
When the VLAN interface is brought up, it will be named <tt>eth1.32</tt>.
+
 
+
=== Custom VLAN Names ===
+
 
+
However, sometimes you may want to turn off automatic file-based VLAN naming and give your VLAN interface a custom name, such as <tt>mgmt</tt>. To do this, you would set up the trunk interface in the exact same way as described above, but instead of creating a <tt>netif.eth1.32</tt> interface, you would create a <tt>netif.mgmt</tt> interface, and specify <tt>vlan</tt> and <tt>trunk</tt> in the <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.mgmt</tt> config file, as follows:
+
 
+
<pre>template=&quot;interface&quot;
+
vlan=&quot;32&quot;
+
trunk=&quot;eth1&quot;
+
ipaddr=&quot;1.2.3.4/24&quot;
+
gateway=&quot;1.2.3.1&quot;
+
# etc...</pre>
+
When you specify <tt>trunk</tt> and <tt>vlan</tt> in the interface config file, filename-based auto-detecting of VLAN ID and trunk is disabled. Both <tt>trunk</tt> and <tt>vlan</tt> must be specified -- you can't specify just one.
+
 
+
Then you would simply create a VLAN network interface symlink for <tt>netif.mgmt</tt>:
+
 
+
<console># ##i##cd /etc/init.d
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.mgmt
+
# ##i##rc-update add netif.mgmt default</console>
+
When the VLAN interface is brought up, it will be named <tt>mgmt</tt>.
+
 
+
=== Bonding Configuration ===
+
 
+
Bonding allows you to aggregate multiple network interfaces into a single logical network interface, allowing for benefits in throughput as well as resiliency in the case that an individual interface may go down. This example shows how you would create a bonding interface (<tt>mybond</tt>) with a simple static ip setup, containing two slave devices (<tt>eth0</tt> and <tt>eth1</tt>).
+
 
+
First, ensure that your kernel is configured to support bonding (the module name is <tt>bonding</tt>) :
+
 
+
<console>
+
$ ##i##grep CONFIG_BONDING /usr/src/linux/.config
+
CONFIG_BONDING=m
+
</console>
+
 
+
You'l want to ensure that CONFIG_BONDING is set to "m" or "y". You can find this kernel configuration option tucked under "Device Drivers" -> "Network Device Support" -> "Bonding driver support".
+
Be sure that ifenslave is emerged:
+
 
+
<console>
+
emerge ifenslave
+
</console>
+
Once bonding is enabled in the kernel, you will need to choose at least two devices to bond together. These will be set up as "slave" interfaces with no IP address.
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##cd /etc/init.d/
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.eth0
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.eth1
+
</console>
+
 
+
Then, configure the slave interfaces by creating <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.eth0</tt> and <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.eth1</tt> with the following contents:
+
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
template="interface-noip"
+
zend_extension=/usr/lib64/php5.3/lib/extensions/no-debug-zts-20090626/          xcache.so                                                                 
 +
  2 xcache.admin.enable_auth="On"
 +
  3 xcache.admin.user="admin"
 +
  4 xcache.admin.pass=""
 +
  5 xcache.cacher="On"
 +
  6 xcache.size="64M"
 +
  7 xcache.count="9"
 +
  8 xcache.slots="8k"
 +
  9 xcache.ttl="0"
 +
10 xcache.gc_interval="0"
 +
11 xcache.var_size="8M"
 +
12 xcache.var_count="1"
 +
13 xcache.var_slots="8K"
 +
14 xcache.var_ttl="0"
 +
15 xcache.var_maxttl="0"
 +
16 xcache.var_gc_interval="600"
 +
17 xcache.readonly_protection="Off"
 +
18 xcache.mmap_path="/dev/zero"
 +
19 xcache.coverager="On"
 +
20 xcache.coveragedump_directory="/tmp/coverager"
 +
21 xcache.optimizer="On"
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Now, we will create the bond interface and make <tt>netif.eth0</tt> and <tt>netif.eth1</tt> slaves of this interface. Note that our bond interface can have any name. To demonstrate this, we will give it the name of "mybond" below:
+
it might look like that for you, feel free to change the settings, and if you want to be able to log in into the admin interface set the ''xcache.admin.pass'' as a md5 encrypted password you can find it out with:
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.mybond
+
# ##i##rc-update add netif.mybond default
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now we can configure "mybond" using its configuration file <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.mybond</tt>, just as we would a regular interface, except that we specify <tt>slaves</tt>:
+
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
template="bond"
+
php -a
ipaddr="10.0.1.200/24"
+
php> echo md5(PASSWORD);
gateway="10.0.1.1"
+
nameservers="10.0.1.1 10.0.1.2"
+
domain="funtoo.org"
+
slaves="netif.eth0 netif.eth1"
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
In a bonded configuration, it is common to set the MTU to the maximum possible value supported by hardware to maximize throughput. In order to do this, simply set the MTU option in <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.mybond</tt> to the maximum value supported by your hardware. The network scripts will ensure that this MTU setting is applied to all slave interfaces:
+
and copy the admin interface to your vhost:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
mtu=9000
+
cp /usr/share/php/xcache/admin -a /var/www/{VHOST}/htdocs/xcache-admin
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
=== Bridge Configuration ===
+
== Starting the service ==
  
When hosting virtual machines, it can be convenient to use a bridge setup. This example shows how you would create a bridge (br0) with a simple static ip setup, containing two slave devices (eth0, tap0).
+
Now start the services:
 
+
First, ensure that your kernel is configured to support bridging (the module name is <tt>bridge</tt>) :
+
 
+
<console>
+
$ ##i##grep CONFIG_BRIDGE /usr/src/linux/.config
+
CONFIG_BRIDGE=m
+
CONFIG_BRIDGE_IGMP_SNOOPING=y
+
</console>
+
 
+
Second, make sure you have the required software installed:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##emerge -av bridge-utils usermode-utilities
+
</console>
+
 
+
Then, create the necessary symlinks for the interfaces and add them to your default runlevel :
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##cd /etc/init.d/
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.eth0
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.br0
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.tap0
+
# ##i##rc-update add netif.br0 default
+
# ##i##rc-update add netif.tap0 default
+
</console>
+
 
+
Then, configure the slave interface <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.eth0</tt> :
+
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
template="interface-noip"
+
/etc/init.d/php-fpm start
 +
/etc/init.d/nginx start
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Then, configure the slave interface <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.tap0</tt> - note you only require group OR user, not both :
+
and make them default:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
template="tap"
+
rc-update add php-fpm default
group="kvm"
+
rc-update add nginx default
user="kvm"
+
mac_addr="10:20:30:40:50:66"
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
... and the bridge interface <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.br0</tt> :
+
== See also ==
 
+
<pre>
+
template="bridge"
+
ipaddr="10.0.1.200/24"
+
gateway="10.0.1.1"
+
nameservers="10.0.1.1 10.0.1.2"
+
domain="funtoo.org"
+
slaves="netif.eth0 netif.tap0"
+
stp="on"
+
forwarding=1
+
</pre>
+
 
+
If you are using dhcpcd, you should ensure that it does not attempt to configure <tt>eth0</tt> or <tt>br0</tt> by adding the following to <tt>/etc/dhcpcd.conf</tt> :
+
 
+
<pre>
+
# don't attempt to pull an ip address for br0 or its slave device
+
denyinterfaces eth0 br0
+
</pre>
+
 
+
=== More Complex Network Configuration ===
+
 
+
If the standard templates don't work for your needs, simply create a new template -- I recommend starting from the <tt>interface</tt> template for most things:
+
 
+
<console># ##i##cd /etc/netif.d
+
# ##i##cp interface custom</console>
+
You can now call whatever commands you need to <tt>/etc/netif.d/custom</tt>. The following shell functions can be defined in a network script:
+
 
+
==== netif_create ====
+
 
+
In <tt>netif_create</tt>, you should call any commands to create the interface if it does not yet exist.
+
 
+
==== netif_depend ====
+
 
+
In <tt>netif_depend</tt>, you can define dependencies, using the functions <tt>need</tt> and <tt>use</tt>.
+
 
+
==== netif_pre_up ====
+
 
+
In <tt>netif_pre_up</tt>, you can define network configuration actions to perform prior to bringing the interface up. You can also ensure certain variables are specified by calling <tt>require var1 [var2...]</tt> here.
+
 
+
==== netif_post_up====
+
 
+
In <tt>netif_post_up</tt>, you can define network configuration actions to perform after bringing the interface up.
+
 
+
==== netif_pre_down ====
+
 
+
In <tt>netif_pre_down</tt>, you can define network configuration actions to perform prior to bringing the interface down.
+
 
+
==== netif_post_down ====
+
 
+
In <tt>netif_post_down</tt>, you can define network configuration actions to perform after bringing the interface down.
+
 
+
==== netif_destroy ====
+
 
+
In <tt>netif_destroy</tt>, you can call any commands necessary to destroy/delete the interface if it is dynamic in nature (tun/tap, etc.)
+
 
+
==== How It Works ====
+
 
+
You do not specify a function for actually bringing up the interface, because the template-based system does this for you. The template-based system also performs all normal actions required to bring an interface down, so you only need to specify atypical actions that must be performed - such as removing child interfaces or destroying a bridge using <tt>brctl</tt>.
+
 
+
When you create your own network configuration template, the following capabilities are available for use automatically, as long as the appropriate variables are set in the <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.&lt;ifname&gt;</tt> file, without requiring any explicit steps on your part:
+
 
+
* DNS configuration using <tt>domain</tt> and <tt>nameservers</tt> config settings. OpenResolv is used automatically.
+
* VLAN configuration using auto-naming (<tt>netif.ethX.Y</tt>) or via custom naming with <tt>trunk</tt> and <tt>vlan</tt> config settings.
+
* Default IPv4 gateway and route configuration using the <tt>gateway</tt> and <tt>route</tt> settings.
+
* Default IPv6 gateway and route configuration using the <tt>gateway6</tt> and <tt>route6</tt> settings.
+
* MTU configuration using the <tt>mtu</tt> setting.
+
* Auto-depend (and auto-MTU configuration) of slave interfaces specified using <tt>slaves</tt> setting.
+
* Renaming of existing network interface (specify MAC address using <tt>macaddr</tt> setting).
+
 
+
To take advantage of this functionality, simply enable the appropriate variables.
+
 
+
All other necessary network configuration and dependency behavior should be defined using the <tt>netif_</tt>-prefix functions described above.
+
 
+
== Wireless Configuration ==
+
 
+
The recommended approach for setting up Wi-Fi under Funtoo Linux is to use NetworkManager. Steps are provided in the [[Funtoo Linux Installation#Wi-Fi|Wi-Fi section of the Funtoo Linux Installation Guide]].
+
 
+
== Other Network Configurations ==
+
 
+
If you have a network configuration template that might be useful to others, please post it to the [http://groups.google.com/group/funtoo-dev funtoo-dev mailing list] so we can review it and possibly incorporate it into Funtoo.
+
 
+
== License ==
+
 
+
Funtoo Linux networking scripts are released under the following license:
+
  
{{BSD2 Funtoo|src=http://github.com/funtoo/corenetwork}}
+
== External links ==
  
[[Category:HOWTO]]
+
{{EbuildFooter}}
[[Category:Projects]]
+
[[Category:Networking]]
+
[[Category:Install]]
+
[[Category:Funtoo features]]
+

Revision as of 06:58, March 24, 2014

www-servers/nginx


Current Maintainer(s):Daniel Robbins
Martin Scholz
Source Repository:Funtoo Overlay

Summary: Robust, small and high performance HTTP and reverse proxy server

Use Flags

addition
Enables HTTP addition filter module
aio
Enables file AIO support
flv
Enables special processing module for flv files
http
Enable HTTP core support
http-cache
Enable HTTP cache support
libatomic
Use libatomic instead of builtin atomic operations
pop
Enables POP3 proxy support
random-index
Enables HTTP random index module
realip
Enables realip module
smtp
Enables SMTP proxy support
static-gzip
Enables support for gzipping static content
status
Enables stub_status module
sub
Enables sub_filter module
webdav
Enable webdav support

Nginx

Nginx.gif

What is nginx

nginx (pronounced "engin-x") is a Web and reverse proxy server for HTTP, SMTP, POP3 and IMAP protocols. It focuses on high concurrency, performance and low memory usage. Nginx quickly delivers static content with efficient use of system resources, also dynamic content is delivered on a network using FastCGI, SCGI handlers for scripts, uWSGI application servers or Phusion Passenger module (atm broken in funtoo), further more it can serve a very capable software load balancer. It uses an asynchronos event-driven approach to handle requests which provides more predictable performance under load, in contrast to the Apache HTTP server model, that uses a threaded or process-oriented approach to handling request. Nginx is licensed under a BSD-like license and it runs on Unix, Linux, BSD variants, Mac OS X, Solaris, AIX and Microsoft Windows.

Installation

USE flags

Before you can install nginx, there are the following USE-flags available, these can be set by /etc/portage/package.use or /etc/portage/package.use/nginx, depending on your setup of package.use.

  • aio - Enables file AIO support
  • debug - Enables extra debug codepaths, like asserts and extra output.
  • http - Enable http serving
  • http-cache - Enables caching for http files
  • ipv6 - Enables IPv6 support
  • libatomic - Use libatomic instead of buildtin atomic operations
  • pcre - Enables support for Perl Compatible Regular Expressions
  • ssl - Adds support for Secure Socket Layer connections
  • vim-syntax - Pulls in related vim syntax scripts

Further more you can set the nginx modules you like to use in /etc/make.conf in the NGINX_MODULES_HTTP variable as NGINX_MODULES_HTTP="variables".

  • access
  • addition
  • auth_basic
  • autoindex
  • browser
  • cache_purge
  • charset
  • dav
  • degradation
  • empty_gif
  • ey_balancer
  • fastcgi
  • flv
  • geo
  • geoip
  • gzip
  • gzip_static
  • headers_more
  • image_filter
  • limit_req
  • limit_zone
  • map
  • memcached
  • perl
  • proxy
  • push
  • random_index
  • realip
  • referer
  • rewrite
  • scgi
  • secure_link
  • slowfs_cache
  • split_clients
  • ssi
  • stub_status
  • sub
  • upload
  • upstream_ip_hash
  • userid
  • uwsgi
  • xslt

and the following mail modules as NGINX_MODULES_MAIL in '/etc/make.conf':

  • imap
  • pop3
  • smtp

USE Expanded flags

nginx USE-flags go into /etc/portage/package.use or /etc/portage/package.use/nginx, while the HTTP and MAIL modules go as NGINX_MODULES_HTTP or NGINX_MODULES_MAIL are stored in /etc/make.conf. And as you wouldn't server only static html files, but most commonly also php files/scripts you should also install php with fpm enabled and xcache for caching the content, what makes your nginx setup way faster. For xcache you need to set PHP_TARGETS="php5-3" in '/etc/make.conf'.

Example:

echo "www-servers/nginx USE-FLAG-List" >> /etc/portage/package.use/nginx

Emerging nginx

Now you are ready to install nginx with php and xcache support:

emerge -avt nginx php xcache

so now just check your useflags and press enter to start emerge.

Configuring

All configuration is done in /etc/nginx with nginx.conf as the main configuration file and all virtual hosts in /etc/nginx/sites/available while you have to symlink /etc/nginx/sites-available/{VHOST} to /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/{VHOST} to activate them. An example config for such a {VHOST} looks like that:

server {
    listen          80;
    server_name     www.example.com;

    access_log      /var/log/nginx/www.example.com.access_log main;
    error_log       /var/log/nginx/www.example.com.error_log info;

    root /var/www/www.example.com/htdocs;
}

The nginx.conf and sites-available/localhost file is well commented. Customize it to your needs. Make sure you set the listen option correctly. By default, the listen option is set to listen on the loopback interface. If you leave this unchanged other computers on the network will not be able to connect to the server.

Configuring PHP FPM

As we already installed php with fpm support above we just need to adjust the following settings in /etc/php/fpm-php5.3/php-fpm.conf. You should enable the following settings:

user = nginx
group = nginx
pm.start_servers = 20

The other options should all be very well documented, so make it fit your needs.

Configuring xcache

For setting xcache just edit /etc/php/fpm-php5.3/ext-active/xcache

zend_extension=/usr/lib64/php5.3/lib/extensions/no-debug-zts-20090626/          xcache.so                                                                   
  2 xcache.admin.enable_auth="On"
  3 xcache.admin.user="admin"
  4 xcache.admin.pass=""
  5 xcache.cacher="On"
  6 xcache.size="64M"
  7 xcache.count="9"
  8 xcache.slots="8k"
  9 xcache.ttl="0"
 10 xcache.gc_interval="0"
 11 xcache.var_size="8M"
 12 xcache.var_count="1"
 13 xcache.var_slots="8K"
 14 xcache.var_ttl="0"
 15 xcache.var_maxttl="0"
 16 xcache.var_gc_interval="600"
 17 xcache.readonly_protection="Off"
 18 xcache.mmap_path="/dev/zero"
 19 xcache.coverager="On"
 20 xcache.coveragedump_directory="/tmp/coverager"
 21 xcache.optimizer="On"

it might look like that for you, feel free to change the settings, and if you want to be able to log in into the admin interface set the xcache.admin.pass as a md5 encrypted password you can find it out with:

php -a
php> echo md5(PASSWORD);

and copy the admin interface to your vhost:

cp /usr/share/php/xcache/admin -a /var/www/{VHOST}/htdocs/xcache-admin

Starting the service

Now start the services:

/etc/init.d/php-fpm start
/etc/init.d/nginx start

and make them default:

rc-update add php-fpm default
rc-update add nginx default

See also

External links