Difference between pages "Help:Range blocks" and "ZFS Install Guide"

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{{PD Help Page}}
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== Introduction ==
'''Range blocks''' are technical restrictions applied through [[Special:Block]] to a group of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IP_addresses IP addresses] that prevent them from editing, creating new accounts, sending email through the wiki interface, et cetera. Registered accounts editing from these IP addresses will also be blocked, unless you check the box to only block anonymous editors.
+
  
Range blocking is enabled on all [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikimedia_Foundation Wikimedia] wikis; to enable it on other wikis, add "<code>{{mediawiki|Manual:$wgSysopRangeBans|$wgSysopRangeBans}} = true;</code>" in <tt>{{mediawiki|Manual:LocalSettings.php|LocalSettings.php}}</tt>.
+
This tutorial will show you how to install Funtoo on ZFS (rootfs). This tutorial is meant to be an "overlay" over the [[Funtoo_Linux_Installation|Regular Funtoo Installation]]. Follow the normal installation and only use this guide for steps 2, 3, and 8.
  
To block an IP range from [[Special:Block]], enter the first IP address in the range followed by a forward slash and a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classless_inter-domain_routing Classless inter-domain routing] (CIDR) suffix. '''You should avoid performing range blocks unless you understand what you are doing, or you may end up blocking tens of thousands of people who are not the problem!'''
+
=== Introduction to ZFS ===
  
==Non-technical explanation==
+
Since ZFS is a new technology for Linux, it can be helpful to understand some of its benefits, particularly in comparison to BTRFS, another popular next-generation Linux filesystem:
IP address are broken up into blocks of numbers. The most common block is 256 numbers. An example of this would be <tt>148.20.57.0</tt> thru <tt>148.20.57.255</tt>. Once it reaches <tt>255</tt> the next number is <tt>148.20.58.0</tt>.
+
  
IP addresses can be broken up in to smaller or larger blocks. The smallest practical block is a block of 4. This could be one of the following:
+
* On Linux, the ZFS code can be updated independently of the kernel to obtain the latest fixes. btrfs is exclusive to Linux and you need to build the latest kernel sources to get the latest fixes.
  
:<tt>148.20.57.0 - 148.20.57.3</tt>, or
+
* ZFS is supported on multiple platforms. The platforms with the best support are Solaris, FreeBSD and Linux. Other platforms with varying degrees of support are NetBSD, Mac OS X and Windows. btrfs is exclusive to Linux.
:<tt>148.20.57.4 - 148.20.57.7</tt>, or
+
:<tt>148.20.57.8 - 148.20.57.11</tt>, etc.
+
  
Of each block of 4 numbers, only two can be assigned to a computer. The first and last numbers of any block are reserved for network communication. These are level 30 blocks and can be expressed like this:
+
* ZFS has the Adaptive Replacement Cache replacement algorithm while btrfs uses the Linux kernel's Last Recently Used replacement algorithm. The former often has an overwhelmingly superior hit rate, which means fewer disk accesses.
  
:<tt>148.20.57.0/30</tt>, or
+
* ZFS has the ZFS Intent Log and SLOG devices, which accelerates small synchronous write performance.
:<tt>148.20.57.4/30</tt>, or
+
:<tt>148.20.57.8/30</tt>, etc.
+
  
The next largest block is 8. They can be as follows:
+
* ZFS handles internal fragmentation gracefully, such that you can fill it until 100%. Internal fragmentation in btrfs can make btrfs think it is full at 10%. Btrfs has no automatic rebalancing code, so it requires a manual rebalance to correct it.
  
:<tt>148.20.57.0 - 148.20.57.7</tt>, or
+
* ZFS has raidz, which is like RAID 5/6 (or a hypothetical RAID 7 that supports 3 parity disks), except it does not suffer from the RAID write hole issue thanks to its use of CoW and a variable stripe size. btrfs gained integrated RAID 5/6 functionality in Linux 3.9. However, its implementation uses a stripe cache that can only partially mitigate the effect of the RAID write hole.
:<tt>148.20.57.8 - 148.20.57.15</tt>, or
+
:<tt>148.20.57.16 - 148.20.57.23</tt>, etc.
+
  
In this block of 8 numbers only 6 can be assigned to a computer as, once again, the first and last numbers in a block are reserved for network communication. These can also be expressed as follows:
+
* ZFS send/receive implementation supports incremental update when doing backups. btrfs' send/receive implementation requires sending the entire snapshot.
  
:<tt>148.20.57.0/29</tt>, or
+
* ZFS supports data deduplication, which is a memory hog and only works well for specialized workloads. btrfs has no equivalent.
:<tt>148.20.57.8/29</tt>, or
+
:<tt>148.20.57.16/29</tt>, etc.
+
  
From this point on, the number of IP addresses in a block continue to double: 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, etc.
+
* ZFS datasets have a hierarchical namespace while btrfs subvolumes have a flat namespace.
  
:A block of 16 would start <tt>148.20.57.0/28</tt>.
+
* ZFS has the ability to create virtual block devices called zvols in its namespace. btrfs has no equivalent and must rely on the loop device for this functionality, which is cumbersome.
:A block of 32 would start <tt>148.20.57.0/27</tt>.
+
:A block of 64 would start <tt>148.20.57.0/26</tt>.
+
:A block of 128 would start <tt>148.20.57.0/25</tt>.
+
:A block of 256 would start <tt>148.20.57.0/24</tt>.
+
  
So if you have an IP address and you want to block the range assigned how do you know which one to use?
+
The only area where btrfs is ahead of ZFS is in the area of small file
Let's say you have a problem with <tt>148.20.57.34</tt>. You can lookup who has this IP address at http://ws.arin.net/whois/?queryinput=148.20.57.34.
+
efficiency. btrfs supports a feature called block suballocation, which
Say this tells us that this IP address is assigned, along with a LOT of others in a <tt>/17</tt> range, to the Department of Defense. We certainly don't want to block a large block of the DoD! The rule of thumb is block as little as possible. Only block a range if there is a cluster of IP addresses giving a problem.
+
enables it to store small files far more efficiently than ZFS. It is
 +
possible to use another filesystem (e.g. reiserfs) on top of a ZFS zvol
 +
to obtain similar benefits (with arguably better data integrity) when
 +
dealing with many small files (e.g. the portage tree).
  
There's a calculator that is very useful for this:
+
For a quick tour of ZFS and have a big picture of its common operations you can consult the page [[ZFS Fun]].
http://www.csgnetwork.com/ipinfocalc.html.
+
Go to this site and enter <code>148.20.57.34</code> into the first set of blanks. Now select Network Prefix Length and enter <code>27</code> (this will give a block of 32 addresses) and click Calculate Network Information. This will show us a block of 32 IP addresses that include <tt>148.20.57.34</tt>. (The first - network - and the last - broadcast - addresses will be displayed along with the usable addresses in the range.) You can use this tool to test ranges to be sure they are what you want before entering the information to initiate the block.
+
  
==Technical explanation==
+
=== Disclaimers ===
CIDR notation is written as the IP address, a slash, and the CIDR suffix (for example, the IPv4 "<tt>10.2.3.41/24</tt>" or IPv6 "<tt>a3:b:c1:d:e:f:1:21/24</tt>"). The CIDR suffix is the number of starting digits every IP address in the range have in common when written in binary.
+
  
For example: "<tt>10.10.1.32</tt>" is binary "<tt>00001010.00001010.00000001.00100000</tt>", so <tt>10.10.1.32/27</tt> will match the first 27 digits ("<tt><u>00001010</u>.<u>00001010</u>.<u>00000001</u>.<u>001</u>00000</tt>"). The IP addresses <tt>10.10.1.32</tt>–<tt>10.10.1.63</tt>, when converted to binary, all have the same 27 first digits and will be blocked if <tt>10.10.1.32/27</tt> is blocked.
+
{{fancywarning|This guide is a work in progress. Expect some quirks.}}
 +
{{fancyimportant|'''Since ZFS was really designed for 64 bit systems, we are only recommending and supporting 64 bit platforms and installations. We will not be supporting 32 bit platforms'''!}}
  
As the CIDR suffix increases, the block affects fewer IP addresses (see [[#Table|table of sample ranges]]). CIDR suffixes are not the same for IPv4 addresses as they are for IPv6 addresses.
+
== Video Tutorial ==
  
==Calculating the CIDR suffix==
+
As a companion to the installation instructions below, a YouTube video tutorial is now available:
You can use the [[#Table|table of sample ranges]] below to guess the range, use a computer script, or manually calculate the range.
+
  
===Conversion to binary===
+
{{#widget:YouTube|id=SWyThdxNoP8|width=640|height=360}}
The first step in manually calculating a range is to convert the first and last IP address to binary representation. (This assumes you're not using a computer script, which can probably calculate the range for you anyway.) An IP address is composed of four groups of eight ones and zeros. Each group represents a number from 0 to 255. To convert a number to binary, you can use a [http://www.ccci.com/tools/subcalc/binary.html reference table] or know the value of each binary digit:
+
  
:<tt>Binary digit: &nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1</tt>
+
== Downloading the ISO (With ZFS) ==
:<tt>Value:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;128&nbsp;&nbsp;64&nbsp;&nbsp;32&nbsp;&nbsp;16&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1</tt>
+
In order for us to install Funtoo on ZFS, you will need an environment that already provides the ZFS tools. Therefore we will download a customized version of System Rescue CD with ZFS included.
  
Proceeding from left to right, fill in <tt>1</tt> if the number is at least that value, and subtract that value (if it's not, fill in <tt>0</tt> and don't subtract). For example, to calculate 240:
+
<pre>
# 240 is at least 128, so place <tt>1</tt> and subtract 128.
+
Name: sysresccd-4.0.1_zfs_0.6.2.iso  (545 MB)
# 112 (240-128) is at least 64, so place <tt>1</tt> and subtract 64.
+
Release Date: 2014-02-25
# 48 (112-64) is at least 32, so place <tt>1</tt> and subtract 32.
+
md5sum 01f4e6929247d54db77ab7be4d156d85
# 16 (48-32) is at least 16, so place <tt>1</tt> and subtract 16.
+
</pre>
# Since the remaining value is zero, all the remaining places are <tt>0</tt>.
+
Thus, 240 is <tt>1111 0000</tt> because it can be represented as 128+64+32+16+0+0+0+0.
+
  
===Calculate range===
 
# Place both IP addresses one atop the other, and count how many starting digits are exactly alike. This is the CIDR suffix.
 
# Double-check! Being off by one digit could extend your block by thousands of addresses.
 
  
The example below calculates the CIDR range between <tt>69.208.0.0</tt> and <tt>69.208.0.255</tt>. Note that this is a simple example; some groups of IP addresses do not so neatly fit CIDR suffixes, and need multiple different-sized blocks to block the exact range.
+
'''[http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/funtoo/distfiles/sysresccd/ Download System Rescue CD with ZFS]'''<br />
  
:IP addresses:
+
== Creating a bootable USB from ISO (From a Linux Environment) ==
:<tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;69.208.0.0</tt>
+
After you download the iso, you can do the following steps to create a bootable USB:
:<tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;69.208.0.255</tt>
+
  
:Convert to binary:
+
<console>
:<tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;0100 0101.1101 0000.0000 0000.0000 0000</tt>
+
Make a temporary directory
:<tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;0100 0101.1101 0000.0000 0000.1111 1111</tt>
+
# ##i##mkdir /tmp/loop
  
:Count identical first numbers:
+
Mount the iso
:<tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;'''0100 0101.1101 0000.0000 0000'''.0000 0000</tt>
+
# ##i##mount -o ro,loop /root/sysresccd-4.0.1_zfs_0.6.2.iso /tmp/loop
:<tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;'''0100 0101.1101 0000.0000 0000'''.1111 1111</tt>
+
:<tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;|____________________________|</tt>
+
:<tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;24 digits</tt>
+
  
:CIDR range:
+
Run the usb installer
:<tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;69.208.0.0/24</tt>
+
# ##i##/tmp/loop/usb_inst.sh
 +
</console>
  
===<span id="Table">Table of sample ranges</span>===
+
That should be all you need to do to get your flash drive working.
The table below shows the IP blocks each CIDR suffix affects. Note that MediaWiki only supports blocking CIDR suffixes 16&ndash;32.
+
  
{| class="wikitable" align=center
+
== Booting the ISO ==
! CIDR
+
! Start Range
+
! End Range
+
! Total addresses
+
! Bits selected in IP address
+
|- style="color:gray;"
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/0'''</tt>
+
| <tt>0.0.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>255.255.255.255</tt>
+
| align=right | 4,294,967,296
+
| <tt>********.********.********.********</tt>
+
|- style="color:gray;"
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/1'''</tt>
+
| <tt>0.0.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>127.255.255.255</tt>
+
| align=right | 2,147,483,648
+
| <tt>0*******.********.********.********</tt>
+
|- style="color:gray;"
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/4'''</tt>
+
| <tt>64.0.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>79.255.255.255</tt>
+
| align=right | 268,435,456
+
| <tt>0100****.********.********.********</tt>
+
|- style="color:gray;"
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/8'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.0.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.255.255.255</tt>
+
| align=right | 67,108,864
+
| <tt>01000101.********.********.********</tt>
+
|- style="color:gray;"
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/11'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.238.255.255</tt>
+
| align=right | 2,197,152
+
| <tt>01000101.110*****.********.********</tt>
+
|- style="color:gray;"
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/12'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.223.255.255</tt>
+
| align=right | 1,048,576
+
| <tt>01000101.1101****.********.********</tt>
+
|- style="color:gray;"
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/13'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.215.255.255</tt>
+
| align=right | 524,288
+
| <tt>01000101.11010***.********.********</tt>
+
|- style="color:gray;"
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/14'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.211.255.255</tt>
+
| align=right | 262,144
+
| <tt>01000101.110100**.********.********</tt>
+
|- style="color:gray;"
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/15'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.209.255.255</tt>
+
| align=right | 131,072
+
| <tt>01000101.1101000*.********.********</tt>
+
|-
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/16'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.255.255</tt>
+
| align=right | 65,536
+
| <tt>01000101.11010000.********.********</tt>
+
|-
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/17'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.127.255</tt>
+
| align=right | 32,768
+
| <tt>01000101.11010000.0*******.********</tt>
+
|-
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/18'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.63.255</tt>
+
| align=right | 16,384
+
| <tt>01000101.11010000.00******.********</tt>
+
|-
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/19'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.31.255</tt>
+
| align=right | 8,192
+
| <tt>01000101.11010000.000*****.********</tt>
+
|-
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/20'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.15.255</tt>
+
| align=right | 4,096
+
| <tt>01000101.11010000.0000****.********</tt>
+
|-
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/21'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.7.255</tt>
+
| align=right | 2,048
+
| <tt>01000101.11010000.00000***.********</tt>
+
|-
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/22'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.3.255</tt>
+
| align=right | 1,024
+
| <tt>01000101.11010000.000000**.********</tt>
+
|-
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/23'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.1.255</tt>
+
| align=right | 512
+
| <tt>01000101.11010000.0000000*.********</tt>
+
|-
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/24'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.255</tt>
+
| align=right | 256
+
| <tt>01000101.11010000.00000000.********</tt>
+
|-
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/25'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.127</tt>
+
| align=right | 128
+
| <tt>01000101.11010000.00000000.0*******</tt>
+
|-
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/26'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.63</tt>
+
| align=right | 64
+
| <tt>01000101.11010000.00000000.00******</tt>
+
|-
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/27'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.31</tt>
+
| align=right | 32
+
| <tt>01000101.11010000.00000000.000*****</tt>
+
|-
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/28'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.15</tt>
+
| align=right | 16
+
| <tt>01000101.11010000.00000000.0000****</tt>
+
|-
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/29'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.7</tt>
+
| align=right | 8
+
| <tt>01000101.11010000.00000000.00000***</tt>
+
|-
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/30'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.3</tt>
+
| align=right | 4
+
| <tt>01000101.11010000.00000000.000000**</tt>
+
|-
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/31'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.1</tt>
+
| align=right | 2
+
| <tt>01000101.11010000.00000000.0000000*</tt>
+
|-
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0'''/32'''</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| <tt>69.208.0.0</tt>
+
| align=right | 1
+
| <tt>01000101.11010000.00000000.00000000</tt>
+
|}
+
  
==References==
+
{{fancywarning|'''When booting into the ISO, Make sure that you select the "Alternate 64 bit kernel (altker64)". The ZFS modules have been built specifically for this kernel rather than the standard kernel. If you select a different kernel, you will get a fail to load module stack error message.'''}}
* [[wikipedia:Classless Inter-Domain Routing|Classless Inter-Domain Routing]]
+
  
==External links==
+
== Creating partitions ==
* [http://www.find-ip-address.org/ip-country/ IP Address Ranges Block] gives you complete IP ranges for certain countries.
+
There are two ways to partition your disk: You can use your entire drive and let ZFS automatically partition it for you, or you can do it manually.
* [http://apps.csc.fi/laskin2.html Netmask calculator] which helps in making the correct decision for range blocks.
+
* [http://tools.wikimedia.de/~chm/blockcalc.php Rangeblock-Calculator] gives you the range you should use when blocking.
+
  
{{Languages|Help:Range blocks}}
+
We will be showing you how to partition it '''manually''' because if you partition it manually you get to create your own layout, you get to have your own separate /boot partition (Which is nice since not every bootloader supports booting from ZFS pools), and you get to boot into RAID10, RAID5 (RAIDZ) pools and any other layouts due to you having a separate /boot partition.
  
[[Category:Help|Range blocks]]
+
==== gdisk (GPT Style) ====
[[Category:Block|Range blocks]]
+
 
 +
'''A Fresh Start''':
 +
 
 +
First lets make sure that the disk is completely wiped from any previous disk labels and partitions.
 +
We will also assume that <tt>/dev/sda</tt> is the target drive.<br />
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##sgdisk -Z /dev/sda
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
{{fancywarning|This is a destructive operation and the program will not ask you for confirmation! Make sure you really don't want anything on this disk.}}
 +
 
 +
Now that we have a clean drive, we will create the new layout.
 +
 
 +
First open up the application:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##gdisk /dev/sda
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
 +
<console>
 +
Command: ##i##n ↵
 +
Partition Number: ##i##↵
 +
First sector: ##i##↵
 +
Last sector: ##i##+250M ↵
 +
Hex Code: ##i##↵
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
'''Create Partition 2''' (BIOS Boot Partition):
 +
<console>Command: ##i##n ↵
 +
Partition Number: ##i##↵
 +
First sector: ##i##↵
 +
Last sector: ##i##+32M ↵
 +
Hex Code: ##i##EF02 ↵
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
'''Create Partition 3''' (swap):
 +
<console>Command: ##i##n ↵
 +
Partition Number: ##i##↵
 +
First sector: ##i##↵
 +
Last sector: ##i##+4G ↵
 +
Hex Code: ##i##8200 ↵
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
{{fancynote|'''A rule of thumb for swap size is either 2 x RAM or RAM + 1.'''}}
 +
 
 +
'''Create Partition 4''' (ZFS):
 +
<console>Command: ##i##n ↵
 +
Partition Number: ##i##↵
 +
First sector: ##i##↵
 +
Last sector: ##i##↵
 +
Hex Code: ##i##bf00 ↵
 +
 
 +
Command: ##i##p ↵
 +
 
 +
Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size      Code  Name 
 +
1            2048          514047  250.0 MiB  8300  Linux filesystem 
 +
2          514048          579583  32.0 MiB    EF02  BIOS boot partition 
 +
3          579584        8968191  4.0 GiB    8200  Linux swap 
 +
4        8968192      1048575966  495.7 GiB  BF00  Solaris root
 +
 
 +
Command: ##i##w ↵
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
=== Format your /boot partition ===
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 -m 1 /dev/sda1
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
=== Encryption (Optional) ===
 +
If you want encryption, then create your encrypted vault(s) now by doing the following:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/sda4
 +
# ##i##cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda4 vault_1
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
{{fancywarning|On some machines, a combination of ZFS and LUKS has caused instability and system crashes.}}
 +
 
 +
=== Create the zpool ===
 +
We will first create the pool. The pool will be named `tank` and the disk will be aligned to 4096 (using ashift=12)
 +
<console># ##i##zpool create -f -o ashift=12 -o cachefile= -O compression=on -m none -R /mnt/funtoo tank /dev/sda4</console>
 +
 
 +
{{fancyimportant|If you are using encrypted root, change '''/dev/sda4 to /dev/mapper/vault_1'''.}}
 +
 
 +
{{fancynote| If you have a previous pool that you would like to import, you can do a: '''zpool import -f -R /mnt/funtoo <pool_name>'''.}}
 +
 
 +
=== Create the zfs datasets ===
 +
We will now create some datasets. For this installation, we will create a small but future proof amount of datasets. We will have a dataset for the OS (/). We will also show you how to create some optional datasets: <tt>/home</tt>, <tt>/var</tt>, <tt>/usr/src</tt>, and <tt>/usr/portage</tt>.
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
Create some empty containers for organization purposes, and make the dataset that will hold /
 +
# ##i##zfs create -p tank/funtoo
 +
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/ tank/funtoo/root
 +
 
 +
Optional, but recommended datasets: /home
 +
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/home tank/funtoo/home
 +
 
 +
Optional datasets: /usr/src, /usr/portage/
 +
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/src tank/funtoo/src
 +
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage -o compression=off tank/funtoo/portage
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
=== Format your swap ===
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##mkswap -f /dev/sda3
 +
# ##i##swapon /dev/sda3
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Now we will continue to install funtoo.
 +
 
 +
== Installing Funtoo ==
 +
 
 +
=== Pre-Chroot ===
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
Go into the directory that you will chroot into
 +
# ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
 +
 
 +
Make a boot folder and mount your boot drive
 +
# ##i##mkdir boot
 +
# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 boot
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
[[Funtoo_Linux_Installation|Now download and extract the Funtoo stage3 ...]]
 +
 
 +
Once you've extracted the stage3, do a few more preparations and chroot into your new funtoo environment:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
Bind the kernel related directories
 +
# ##i##mount -t proc none proc
 +
# ##i##mount --rbind /dev dev
 +
# ##i##mount --rbind /sys sys
 +
 
 +
Copy network settings
 +
# ##i##cp -f /etc/resolv.conf etc
 +
 
 +
Make the zfs folder in 'etc' and copy your zpool.cache
 +
# ##i##mkdir etc/zfs
 +
# ##i##cp /etc/zfs/zpool.cache etc/zfs
 +
 
 +
Chroot into Funtoo
 +
# ##i##env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
=== In Chroot ===
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
Create a symbolic link to your mountpoints
 +
# ##i##ln -sf /proc/mounts /etc/mtab
 +
 
 +
Sync your tree
 +
# ##i##emerge --sync
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
=== Add filesystems to /etc/fstab ===
 +
 
 +
Before we continue to compile and or install our kernel in the next step, we will edit the <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> file because if we decide to install our kernel through portage, portage will need to know where our <tt>/boot</tt> is, so that it can place the files in there.
 +
 
 +
Edit <tt>/etc/fstab</tt>:
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
# <fs>                  <mountpoint>    <type>          <opts>          <dump/pass>
 +
 
 +
/dev/sda1              /boot          ext2            defaults        0 2
 +
/dev/sda3              none            swap            sw              0 0
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== Kernel Configuration ==
 +
You can follow the kernel instructions in the [[Funtoo_Linux_Installation#Configuring_and_installing_the_Linux_kernel|normal guide]], or you can install a pre-configured/compiled kernel called '''bliss-kernel'''. This kernel already has the correct configurations for ZFS and a variety of other scenarios. It's a vanilla kernel from kernel.org without any external patches.
 +
 
 +
To install {{Package|sys-kernel/bliss-kernel}} type the following:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##emerge bliss-kernel
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Now make sure that your <tt>/usr/src/linux symlink</tt> is pointing to this kernel by typing the following:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##eselect kernel list
 +
Available kernel symlink targets:
 +
[1]  linux-3.12.13-KS.02 *
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
You should see a star next to the version you installed. In this case it was 3.12.13-KS.02. If it's not set, you can type '''eselect kernel set #'''.
 +
 
 +
== Installing the ZFS userspace tools and kernel modules ==
 +
Emerge {{Package|sys-fs/zfs}}. This package will bring in {{Package|sys-kernel/spl}}, and {{Package|sys-fs/zfs-kmod}} as its dependencies:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##emerge zfs
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Check to make sure that the zfs tools are working. The <code>zpool.cache</code> file that you copied before should be displayed.
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##zpool status
 +
# ##i##zfs list
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
If everything worked, continue.
 +
 
 +
== Installing & Configuring the Bootloader ==
 +
 
 +
=== GRUB 2 (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##emerge grub
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
You can check that grub is version 2.00 by typing the following command:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##grub-install --version
 +
grub-install (GRUB) 2.00
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Now install grub to the drive itself (not a partition):
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##grub-install /dev/sda
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
You should receive the following message:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
Installation finished. No error reported.
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
You should now see some a grub directory with some files inside your /boot folder:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##ls -l /boot/grub
 +
total 2520
 +
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    1024 Jan  4 16:09 grubenv
 +
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    8192 Jan 12 14:29 i386-pc
 +
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    4096 Jan 12 14:28 locale
 +
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2555597 Feb  4 11:50 unifont.pf2
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
=== Extlinux (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
 +
To install extlinux, you can follow the guide here: [[Extlinux|Link to Extlinux Guide]].
 +
 
 +
=== LILO (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
 +
To install lilo you can type the following:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##emerge lilo
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
=== boot-update ===
 +
boot-update comes as a dependency of grub2, so if you already installed grub, it's already on your system!
 +
 
 +
==== Genkernel ====
 +
If your using genkernel you must add 'real_root=ZFS=<root>' and 'dozfs' to your params.
 +
Example entry for <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt>:
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
"Funtoo ZFS" {
 +
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
 +
        initrd initramfs-genkernel-x86_64[-v]
 +
        params real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root
 +
        params += dozfs=force
 +
        # Also add 'params += crypt_root=/dev/sda4' if you used encryption
 +
        # Adjust the above setting to your system if needed
 +
}
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
==== Bliss Initramfs Creator ====
 +
If you used Bliss Initramfs Creator then all you need to do is add 'root=<root>' to your params.
 +
Example entry for <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt>:
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
"Funtoo ZFS" {
 +
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
 +
        initrd initrd[-v]
 +
        params root=tank/funtoo/root quiet
 +
        # If you have an encrypted device with a regular passphrase,
 +
        # you can add the following line
 +
        params += enc_root=/dev/sda4 enc_type=pass
 +
}
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
After editing /etc/boot.conf, you just need to run boot-update to update grub.cfg
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
###i## boot-update
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
=== bliss-boot ===
 +
This is a new program that is designed to generate a simple, human-readable/editable, configuration file for a variety of bootloaders. It currently supports grub2, extlinux, and lilo.
 +
 
 +
You can install it via the following command:
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##emerge bliss-boot
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
{{fancyimportant|bliss-boot uses a new /boot kernel directory layout. Make sure you put your desired kernels in their own folders at /boot/kernels/<version of kernel>.}}
 +
 
 +
==== Bootloader Configuration ====
 +
In order to generate our bootloader configuration file, we will first configure bliss-boot so that it knows what we want. The 'bliss-boot' configuration file is located in '''/etc/bliss-boot/conf.py'''. Open that file and make sure that the following variables are set appropriately:
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
# This should be set to the bootloader you installed earlier: (grub2, extlinux, and lilo are the available options)
 +
bootloader = "grub2"
 +
 
 +
# This should be set to the kernel you installed earlier
 +
default = "3.12.13-KS.02"
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Scroll all the way down until you find 'kernels'. You will need to add the kernels and the options
 +
you want for these kernels here. Below are a few configuration options depending if you are using
 +
'''bliss-initramfs''' or '''genkernel'''.
 +
 
 +
===== Genkernel =====
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
kernel = {
 +
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root dozfs=force quiet',
 +
}
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
'''If you are using encryption you can add the crypt_root option:'''
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
kernel = {
 +
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root dozfs=force crypt_root=/dev/sda4 quiet',
 +
}
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
===== Bliss Initramfs Creator =====
 +
<pre>
 +
kernel = {
 +
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'root=tank/funtoo/root quiet',
 +
}
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
'''If you are using encryption then you would let the initramfs know:'''
 +
 
 +
#"What type of encryption authentication you want to use? ('''enc_type=''')
 +
::* pass = will ask for passphrase directly
 +
::* key = a plain unencrypted key file
 +
::* key_gpg = an encrypted key file
 +
#"Where is the encrypted drive?" ('''enc_root=''')
 +
#"Where is the root pool after it has been decrypted?" ('''root=''')
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
kernel = {
 +
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'root=tank/funtoo/root enc_root=/dev/sda4 enc_type=pass quiet',
 +
}
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
==== Generate the configuration ====
 +
Now that we have configure our '''/etc/bliss-boot/conf.py''' file, we can generate our config. Simply run the following command:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##bliss-boot
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
This will generate a configuration file for the bootloader you specified previously in your current directory. You can check your config file before hand to make sure it doesn't have any errors. Simply open either: grub.cfg, extlinux.conf, or lilo.conf.
 +
 
 +
Once you have checked it for errors, place this file in the correct directory:
 +
 
 +
* grub2 = /boot/grub/
 +
* extlinux = /boot/extlinux/
 +
* lilo = /etc/lilo.conf
 +
 
 +
=== LILO (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
 +
Now that bliss-boot generated the lilo.conf file, move that config file to its appropriate location
 +
and install lilo to the MBR:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##mv lilo.conf /etc
 +
# ##i##lilo
 +
 
 +
You should see the following:
 +
 
 +
Warning: LBA32 addressing assumed
 +
Added Funtoo + *
 +
One warning was issued
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
== Create the initramfs ==
 +
There are two ways to do this, you can use "genkernel" or "bliss-initramfs". Both will be shown.
 +
 
 +
=== genkernel ===
 +
Install genkernel and run it:
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##emerge genkernel
 +
 
 +
You only need to add --luks if you used encryption
 +
# ##i##genkernel --zfs --luks initramfs
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
=== Bliss Initramfs Creator ===
 +
If you are encrypting your drives, then add the "luks" use flag to your package.use before emerging:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##echo "sys-kernel/bliss-initramfs luks" >> /etc/portage/package.use
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Now install the program and run it:
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##emerge bliss-initramfs
 +
 
 +
You can either run it without any parameters to get an interactive menu
 +
or you can pass the parameters directly. 1 = zfs, 6 = encrypted zfs, and the kernel name.
 +
# ##i##bliss-initramfs 1 3.12.13-KS.02
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
=== Moving into the correct location ===
 +
Place the file that was generated by the above applications into either your /boot folder (If you are using boot-update) or into your /boot/kernels/3.12.13-KS.02 folder (If you are using bliss-boot). For bliss-boot, the file needs to be called 'initrd' rather than 'initrd-3.12.13-KS.02'.
 +
 
 +
==== boot-update ====
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##mv initrd-3.12.13-KS.02 /boot
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
==== bliss-boot ====
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##mv initrd-3.12.13-KS.02 /boot/kernels/3.12.13-KS.02/initrd
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
== Final configuration ==
 +
=== Add the zfs tools to openrc ===
 +
<console># ##i##rc-update add zfs boot</console>
 +
 
 +
=== Clean up and reboot ===
 +
We are almost done, we are just going to clean up, '''set our root password''', and unmount whatever we mounted and get out.
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
Delete the stage3 tarball that you downloaded earlier so it doesn't take up space.
 +
# ##i##cd /
 +
# ##i##rm stage3-latest.tar.xz
 +
 
 +
Set your root password
 +
# ##i##passwd
 +
>> Enter your password, you won't see what you are writing (for security reasons), but it is there!
 +
 
 +
Get out of the chroot environment
 +
# ##i##exit
 +
 
 +
Unmount all the kernel filesystem stuff and boot (if you have a separate /boot)
 +
# ##i##umount -l proc dev sys boot
 +
 
 +
Turn off the swap
 +
# ##i##swapoff /dev/sda3
 +
 
 +
Export the zpool
 +
# ##i##cd /
 +
# ##i##zpool export tank
 +
 
 +
Reboot
 +
# ##i##reboot
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
{{fancyimportant|'''Don't forget to set your root password as stated above before exiting chroot and rebooting. If you don't set the root password, you won't be able to log into your new system.'''}}
 +
 
 +
and that should be enough to get your system to boot on ZFS.
 +
 
 +
== After reboot ==
 +
 
 +
=== Forgot to reset password? ===
 +
==== System Rescue CD ====
 +
If you aren't using bliss-initramfs, then you can reboot back into your sysresccd and reset through there by mounting your drive, chrooting, and then typing passwd.
 +
 
 +
Example:
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##zpool import -f -R /mnt/funtoo tank
 +
# ##i##chroot /mnt/funtoo bash -l
 +
# ##i##passwd
 +
# ##i##exit
 +
# ##i##zpool export -f tank
 +
# ##i##reboot
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
==== Using bliss-initramfs ====
 +
If you forgot to reset your password and are using '''bliss-initramfs''', you can add the '''su''' option to your bootloader parameters and the initramfs will throw you into the rootfs of your drive. In there you can run 'passwd' and then type 'exit'. Once you type 'exit', the initramfs will continue to boot your system as normal.
 +
 
 +
=== Create initial ZFS Snapshot ===
 +
Continue to set up anything you need in terms of /etc configurations. Once you have everything the way you like it, take a snapshot of your system. You will be using this snapshot to revert back to this state if anything ever happens to your system down the road. The snapshots are cheap, and almost instant.
 +
 
 +
To take the snapshot of your system, type the following:
 +
<console># ##i##zfs snapshot -r tank@install</console>
 +
 
 +
To see if your snapshot was taken, type:
 +
<console># ##i##zfs list -t snapshot</console>
 +
 
 +
If your machine ever fails and you need to get back to this state, just type (This will only revert your / dataset while keeping the rest of your data intact):
 +
<console># ##i##zfs rollback tank/funtoo/root@install</console>
 +
 
 +
{{fancyimportant|'''For a detailed overview, presentation of ZFS' capabilities, as well as usage examples, please refer to the [[ZFS_Fun|ZFS Fun]] page.'''}}
 +
 
 +
== Troubleshooting ==
 +
 
 +
=== Starting from scratch ===
 +
If your installation has gotten screwed up for whatever reason and you need a fresh restart, you can do the following from sysresccd to start fresh:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
Destroy the pool and any snapshots and datasets it has
 +
# ##i##zpool destroy -R -f tank
 +
 
 +
This deletes the files from /dev/sda1 so that even after we zap, recreating the drive in the exact sector
 +
position and size will not give us access to the old files in this partition.
 +
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
 +
# ##i##sgdisk -Z /dev/sda
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Now start the guide again :).
 +
 
 +
[[Category:HOWTO]]
 +
[[Category:Filesystems]]
 +
[[Category:Featured]]
 +
 
 +
__NOTITLE__

Revision as of 04:23, 16 March 2014

Introduction

This tutorial will show you how to install Funtoo on ZFS (rootfs). This tutorial is meant to be an "overlay" over the Regular Funtoo Installation. Follow the normal installation and only use this guide for steps 2, 3, and 8.

Introduction to ZFS

Since ZFS is a new technology for Linux, it can be helpful to understand some of its benefits, particularly in comparison to BTRFS, another popular next-generation Linux filesystem:

  • On Linux, the ZFS code can be updated independently of the kernel to obtain the latest fixes. btrfs is exclusive to Linux and you need to build the latest kernel sources to get the latest fixes.
  • ZFS is supported on multiple platforms. The platforms with the best support are Solaris, FreeBSD and Linux. Other platforms with varying degrees of support are NetBSD, Mac OS X and Windows. btrfs is exclusive to Linux.
  • ZFS has the Adaptive Replacement Cache replacement algorithm while btrfs uses the Linux kernel's Last Recently Used replacement algorithm. The former often has an overwhelmingly superior hit rate, which means fewer disk accesses.
  • ZFS has the ZFS Intent Log and SLOG devices, which accelerates small synchronous write performance.
  • ZFS handles internal fragmentation gracefully, such that you can fill it until 100%. Internal fragmentation in btrfs can make btrfs think it is full at 10%. Btrfs has no automatic rebalancing code, so it requires a manual rebalance to correct it.
  • ZFS has raidz, which is like RAID 5/6 (or a hypothetical RAID 7 that supports 3 parity disks), except it does not suffer from the RAID write hole issue thanks to its use of CoW and a variable stripe size. btrfs gained integrated RAID 5/6 functionality in Linux 3.9. However, its implementation uses a stripe cache that can only partially mitigate the effect of the RAID write hole.
  • ZFS send/receive implementation supports incremental update when doing backups. btrfs' send/receive implementation requires sending the entire snapshot.
  • ZFS supports data deduplication, which is a memory hog and only works well for specialized workloads. btrfs has no equivalent.
  • ZFS datasets have a hierarchical namespace while btrfs subvolumes have a flat namespace.
  • ZFS has the ability to create virtual block devices called zvols in its namespace. btrfs has no equivalent and must rely on the loop device for this functionality, which is cumbersome.

The only area where btrfs is ahead of ZFS is in the area of small file efficiency. btrfs supports a feature called block suballocation, which enables it to store small files far more efficiently than ZFS. It is possible to use another filesystem (e.g. reiserfs) on top of a ZFS zvol to obtain similar benefits (with arguably better data integrity) when dealing with many small files (e.g. the portage tree).

For a quick tour of ZFS and have a big picture of its common operations you can consult the page ZFS Fun.

Disclaimers

Warning: This guide is a work in progress. Expect some quirks.
Important: Since ZFS was really designed for 64 bit systems, we are only recommending and supporting 64 bit platforms and installations. We will not be supporting 32 bit platforms!

Video Tutorial

As a companion to the installation instructions below, a YouTube video tutorial is now available:

Downloading the ISO (With ZFS)

In order for us to install Funtoo on ZFS, you will need an environment that already provides the ZFS tools. Therefore we will download a customized version of System Rescue CD with ZFS included.

Name: sysresccd-4.0.1_zfs_0.6.2.iso  (545 MB)
Release Date: 2014-02-25
md5sum 01f4e6929247d54db77ab7be4d156d85


Download System Rescue CD with ZFS

Creating a bootable USB from ISO (From a Linux Environment)

After you download the iso, you can do the following steps to create a bootable USB:

Make a temporary directory
# mkdir /tmp/loop

Mount the iso
# mount -o ro,loop /root/sysresccd-4.0.1_zfs_0.6.2.iso /tmp/loop

Run the usb installer
# /tmp/loop/usb_inst.sh

That should be all you need to do to get your flash drive working.

Booting the ISO

Warning: When booting into the ISO, Make sure that you select the "Alternate 64 bit kernel (altker64)". The ZFS modules have been built specifically for this kernel rather than the standard kernel. If you select a different kernel, you will get a fail to load module stack error message.

Creating partitions

There are two ways to partition your disk: You can use your entire drive and let ZFS automatically partition it for you, or you can do it manually.

We will be showing you how to partition it manually because if you partition it manually you get to create your own layout, you get to have your own separate /boot partition (Which is nice since not every bootloader supports booting from ZFS pools), and you get to boot into RAID10, RAID5 (RAIDZ) pools and any other layouts due to you having a separate /boot partition.

gdisk (GPT Style)

A Fresh Start:

First lets make sure that the disk is completely wiped from any previous disk labels and partitions. We will also assume that /dev/sda is the target drive.

# sgdisk -Z /dev/sda
Warning: This is a destructive operation and the program will not ask you for confirmation! Make sure you really don't want anything on this disk.

Now that we have a clean drive, we will create the new layout.

First open up the application:

# gdisk /dev/sda

Create Partition 1 (boot):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 
First sector: 
Last sector: +250M ↵
Hex Code: 

Create Partition 2 (BIOS Boot Partition):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 
First sector: 
Last sector: +32M ↵
Hex Code: EF02 ↵

Create Partition 3 (swap):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 
First sector: 
Last sector: +4G ↵
Hex Code: 8200 ↵
Note: A rule of thumb for swap size is either 2 x RAM or RAM + 1.

Create Partition 4 (ZFS):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 
First sector: 
Last sector: 
Hex Code: bf00 ↵

Command: p ↵

Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size       Code  Name   
1            2048          514047   250.0 MiB   8300  Linux filesystem   
2          514048          579583   32.0 MiB    EF02  BIOS boot partition   
3          579584         8968191   4.0 GiB     8200  Linux swap   
4         8968192      1048575966   495.7 GiB   BF00  Solaris root

Command: w ↵

Format your /boot partition

# mkfs.ext2 -m 1 /dev/sda1

Encryption (Optional)

If you want encryption, then create your encrypted vault(s) now by doing the following:

# cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/sda4
# cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda4 vault_1
Warning: On some machines, a combination of ZFS and LUKS has caused instability and system crashes.

Create the zpool

We will first create the pool. The pool will be named `tank` and the disk will be aligned to 4096 (using ashift=12)

# zpool create -f -o ashift=12 -o cachefile= -O compression=on -m none -R /mnt/funtoo tank /dev/sda4
Important: If you are using encrypted root, change /dev/sda4 to /dev/mapper/vault_1.
Note: If you have a previous pool that you would like to import, you can do a: zpool import -f -R /mnt/funtoo <pool_name>.

Create the zfs datasets

We will now create some datasets. For this installation, we will create a small but future proof amount of datasets. We will have a dataset for the OS (/). We will also show you how to create some optional datasets: /home, /var, /usr/src, and /usr/portage.

Create some empty containers for organization purposes, and make the dataset that will hold /
# zfs create -p tank/funtoo
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/ tank/funtoo/root

Optional, but recommended datasets: /home
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/home tank/funtoo/home

Optional datasets: /usr/src, /usr/portage/
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/src tank/funtoo/src
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage -o compression=off tank/funtoo/portage

Format your swap

# mkswap -f /dev/sda3
# swapon /dev/sda3

Now we will continue to install funtoo.

Installing Funtoo

Pre-Chroot

Go into the directory that you will chroot into
# cd /mnt/funtoo

Make a boot folder and mount your boot drive
# mkdir boot
# mount /dev/sda1 boot

Now download and extract the Funtoo stage3 ...

Once you've extracted the stage3, do a few more preparations and chroot into your new funtoo environment:

Bind the kernel related directories
# mount -t proc none proc
# mount --rbind /dev dev
# mount --rbind /sys sys

Copy network settings
# cp -f /etc/resolv.conf etc

Make the zfs folder in 'etc' and copy your zpool.cache
# mkdir etc/zfs
# cp /etc/zfs/zpool.cache etc/zfs

Chroot into Funtoo
# env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l

In Chroot

Create a symbolic link to your mountpoints
# ln -sf /proc/mounts /etc/mtab

Sync your tree
# emerge --sync

Add filesystems to /etc/fstab

Before we continue to compile and or install our kernel in the next step, we will edit the /etc/fstab file because if we decide to install our kernel through portage, portage will need to know where our /boot is, so that it can place the files in there.

Edit /etc/fstab:

# <fs>                  <mountpoint>    <type>          <opts>          <dump/pass>

/dev/sda1               /boot           ext2            defaults        0 2
/dev/sda3               none            swap            sw              0 0

Kernel Configuration

You can follow the kernel instructions in the normal guide, or you can install a pre-configured/compiled kernel called bliss-kernel. This kernel already has the correct configurations for ZFS and a variety of other scenarios. It's a vanilla kernel from kernel.org without any external patches.

To install sys-kernel/bliss-kernel type the following:

# emerge bliss-kernel

Now make sure that your /usr/src/linux symlink is pointing to this kernel by typing the following:

# eselect kernel list
Available kernel symlink targets:
[1]   linux-3.12.13-KS.02 *

You should see a star next to the version you installed. In this case it was 3.12.13-KS.02. If it's not set, you can type eselect kernel set #.

Installing the ZFS userspace tools and kernel modules

Emerge sys-fs/zfs. This package will bring in sys-kernel/spl, and sys-fs/zfs-kmod as its dependencies:

# emerge zfs

Check to make sure that the zfs tools are working. The zpool.cache file that you copied before should be displayed.

# zpool status
# zfs list

If everything worked, continue.

Installing & Configuring the Bootloader

GRUB 2 (Optional if you are using another bootloader)

# emerge grub

You can check that grub is version 2.00 by typing the following command:

# grub-install --version
grub-install (GRUB) 2.00

Now install grub to the drive itself (not a partition):

# grub-install /dev/sda

You should receive the following message:

Installation finished. No error reported.

You should now see some a grub directory with some files inside your /boot folder:

# ls -l /boot/grub
total 2520
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    1024 Jan  4 16:09 grubenv
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    8192 Jan 12 14:29 i386-pc
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    4096 Jan 12 14:28 locale
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2555597 Feb  4 11:50 unifont.pf2

Extlinux (Optional if you are using another bootloader)

To install extlinux, you can follow the guide here: Link to Extlinux Guide.

LILO (Optional if you are using another bootloader)

To install lilo you can type the following:

# emerge lilo

boot-update

boot-update comes as a dependency of grub2, so if you already installed grub, it's already on your system!

Genkernel

If your using genkernel you must add 'real_root=ZFS=<root>' and 'dozfs' to your params. Example entry for /etc/boot.conf:

"Funtoo ZFS" {
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
        initrd initramfs-genkernel-x86_64[-v]
        params real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root
        params += dozfs=force
        # Also add 'params += crypt_root=/dev/sda4' if you used encryption
        # Adjust the above setting to your system if needed
}

Bliss Initramfs Creator

If you used Bliss Initramfs Creator then all you need to do is add 'root=<root>' to your params. Example entry for /etc/boot.conf:

"Funtoo ZFS" {
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
        initrd initrd[-v]
        params root=tank/funtoo/root quiet
        # If you have an encrypted device with a regular passphrase,
        # you can add the following line
        params += enc_root=/dev/sda4 enc_type=pass
}

After editing /etc/boot.conf, you just need to run boot-update to update grub.cfg

# boot-update

bliss-boot

This is a new program that is designed to generate a simple, human-readable/editable, configuration file for a variety of bootloaders. It currently supports grub2, extlinux, and lilo.

You can install it via the following command:

# emerge bliss-boot
Important: bliss-boot uses a new /boot kernel directory layout. Make sure you put your desired kernels in their own folders at /boot/kernels/<version of kernel>.

Bootloader Configuration

In order to generate our bootloader configuration file, we will first configure bliss-boot so that it knows what we want. The 'bliss-boot' configuration file is located in /etc/bliss-boot/conf.py. Open that file and make sure that the following variables are set appropriately:

# This should be set to the bootloader you installed earlier: (grub2, extlinux, and lilo are the available options)
bootloader = "grub2"

# This should be set to the kernel you installed earlier
default = "3.12.13-KS.02" 

Scroll all the way down until you find 'kernels'. You will need to add the kernels and the options you want for these kernels here. Below are a few configuration options depending if you are using bliss-initramfs or genkernel.

Genkernel
kernel = {
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root dozfs=force quiet',
}

If you are using encryption you can add the crypt_root option:

kernel = {
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root dozfs=force crypt_root=/dev/sda4 quiet',
}
Bliss Initramfs Creator
kernel = {
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'root=tank/funtoo/root quiet',
}

If you are using encryption then you would let the initramfs know:

  1. "What type of encryption authentication you want to use? (enc_type=)
  • pass = will ask for passphrase directly
  • key = a plain unencrypted key file
  • key_gpg = an encrypted key file
  1. "Where is the encrypted drive?" (enc_root=)
  2. "Where is the root pool after it has been decrypted?" (root=)
kernel = {
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'root=tank/funtoo/root enc_root=/dev/sda4 enc_type=pass quiet',
}

Generate the configuration

Now that we have configure our /etc/bliss-boot/conf.py file, we can generate our config. Simply run the following command:

# bliss-boot

This will generate a configuration file for the bootloader you specified previously in your current directory. You can check your config file before hand to make sure it doesn't have any errors. Simply open either: grub.cfg, extlinux.conf, or lilo.conf.

Once you have checked it for errors, place this file in the correct directory:

  • grub2 = /boot/grub/
  • extlinux = /boot/extlinux/
  • lilo = /etc/lilo.conf

LILO (Optional if you are using another bootloader)

Now that bliss-boot generated the lilo.conf file, move that config file to its appropriate location and install lilo to the MBR:

# mv lilo.conf /etc
# lilo

You should see the following:

Warning: LBA32 addressing assumed
Added Funtoo + *
One warning was issued

Create the initramfs

There are two ways to do this, you can use "genkernel" or "bliss-initramfs". Both will be shown.

genkernel

Install genkernel and run it:

# emerge genkernel

You only need to add --luks if you used encryption
# genkernel --zfs --luks initramfs

Bliss Initramfs Creator

If you are encrypting your drives, then add the "luks" use flag to your package.use before emerging:

# echo "sys-kernel/bliss-initramfs luks" >> /etc/portage/package.use

Now install the program and run it:

# emerge bliss-initramfs

You can either run it without any parameters to get an interactive menu
or you can pass the parameters directly. 1 = zfs, 6 = encrypted zfs, and the kernel name.
# bliss-initramfs 1 3.12.13-KS.02

Moving into the correct location

Place the file that was generated by the above applications into either your /boot folder (If you are using boot-update) or into your /boot/kernels/3.12.13-KS.02 folder (If you are using bliss-boot). For bliss-boot, the file needs to be called 'initrd' rather than 'initrd-3.12.13-KS.02'.

boot-update

# mv initrd-3.12.13-KS.02 /boot

bliss-boot

# mv initrd-3.12.13-KS.02 /boot/kernels/3.12.13-KS.02/initrd

Final configuration

Add the zfs tools to openrc

# rc-update add zfs boot

Clean up and reboot

We are almost done, we are just going to clean up, set our root password, and unmount whatever we mounted and get out.

Delete the stage3 tarball that you downloaded earlier so it doesn't take up space.
# cd /
# rm stage3-latest.tar.xz

Set your root password
# passwd
>> Enter your password, you won't see what you are writing (for security reasons), but it is there!

Get out of the chroot environment
# exit

Unmount all the kernel filesystem stuff and boot (if you have a separate /boot)
# umount -l proc dev sys boot

Turn off the swap
# swapoff /dev/sda3

Export the zpool
# cd /
# zpool export tank

Reboot
# reboot
Important: Don't forget to set your root password as stated above before exiting chroot and rebooting. If you don't set the root password, you won't be able to log into your new system.

and that should be enough to get your system to boot on ZFS.

After reboot

Forgot to reset password?

System Rescue CD

If you aren't using bliss-initramfs, then you can reboot back into your sysresccd and reset through there by mounting your drive, chrooting, and then typing passwd.

Example:

# zpool import -f -R /mnt/funtoo tank
# chroot /mnt/funtoo bash -l
# passwd
# exit
# zpool export -f tank
# reboot

Using bliss-initramfs

If you forgot to reset your password and are using bliss-initramfs, you can add the su option to your bootloader parameters and the initramfs will throw you into the rootfs of your drive. In there you can run 'passwd' and then type 'exit'. Once you type 'exit', the initramfs will continue to boot your system as normal.

Create initial ZFS Snapshot

Continue to set up anything you need in terms of /etc configurations. Once you have everything the way you like it, take a snapshot of your system. You will be using this snapshot to revert back to this state if anything ever happens to your system down the road. The snapshots are cheap, and almost instant.

To take the snapshot of your system, type the following:

# zfs snapshot -r tank@install

To see if your snapshot was taken, type:

# zfs list -t snapshot

If your machine ever fails and you need to get back to this state, just type (This will only revert your / dataset while keeping the rest of your data intact):

# zfs rollback tank/funtoo/root@install
Important: For a detailed overview, presentation of ZFS' capabilities, as well as usage examples, please refer to the ZFS Fun page.

Troubleshooting

Starting from scratch

If your installation has gotten screwed up for whatever reason and you need a fresh restart, you can do the following from sysresccd to start fresh:

Destroy the pool and any snapshots and datasets it has
# zpool destroy -R -f tank

This deletes the files from /dev/sda1 so that even after we zap, recreating the drive in the exact sector
position and size will not give us access to the old files in this partition.
# mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
# sgdisk -Z /dev/sda

Now start the guide again :).