Difference between pages "Funtoo Linux Installation" and "Funtoo:About/pt-br"

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(Prepare Hard Disk)
 
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= Visão do Projeto =
== Introduction ==  
+
  
This document was written to help you install Funtoo Linux as concisely as possible, with a minimum number of distracting options regarding system configuration.  
+
Daniel Robbins originalmente escreveu a [[ Gentoo Linux Philosophy|Filosofia Gentoo Linux]], e nisso definiu o conceito de uma ferramenta ideal assim sendo algo que "simplesmente funciona", não fica no caminho do usuário, e responde a vontade do usuário ao invés de forçar o usuário a trabalhar de um jeito particular.
  
These docs assume you have a "PC compatible" computer system with a standard PC BIOS. Many new computers support UEFI for booting, which is a new firmware interface that frequently replaces the older MBR-based BIOS. If you have a system with UEFI, you will want to use this documentation along with the [[UEFI Install Guide]], which will augment these instructions and explain how to get your system to boot. You may need to change your PC BIOS settings to enable or disable UEFI booting. The [[UEFI Install Guide]] has more information on this, and steps on how to determine if your system supports UEFI.
+
Funtoo Linux é um projeto de pessoas que concordam filosofia da ferramenta ideal, e que são ''apaixonados'' pelo nosso desejo de melhorar a tecnologia de ser tão próximo desse ideial quanto possível. O foco de nossos esforços é o melhoramento contínuo da distribuição Gentoo Linux distribution.  
  
We also offer a [[ZFS Install Guide]], which augment the instructions on this page for those who want to install Funtoo Linux on ZFS.  If you are installing Funtoo Linux on [[Funtoo Linux Installation on ARM|ARM]] architecture, please see [[Funtoo Linux Installation on ARM]] for notable differences regarding ARM support. An experimental Funtoo Linux build also exists for [[Funtoo Linux Installation on SPARC|SPARC]] platforms. See [[Funtoo Linux Installation on SPARC]].
+
The development focus of Funtoo Linux is currently directed at the core system, meaning anything on a stage3, portage, core languages, kernels, server applications, and up through X11 and simple window managers, and including desktop environments like GNOME and KDE.
  
New  [[F2FS Install Guide]] is in progress  which will augment the instructions on this page for those who want to install Funtoo Linux on F2FS.
+
== Focus, Focus, Focus ==
  
If you've had previous experience installing Gentoo Linux then a lot of steps will be familiar, but you should still read through as there are a few differences.
+
Developers should use these general principles to determine what priorities to focus on first. These areas below are listed in order of priority, so the next paragraph is the top priority, followed by next priority, etc. Just because something is lower priority doesn't mean it is "less important" - it just means to address the higher-priority things first.
  
== Installation Overview ==
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=== Does It Build? ===
  
This is a basic overview of the Funtoo installation process:
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* '''Does it Build Reliably?'''
  
# [[#Live CD|Download and boot the live CD of your choice]].
+
The first test - does the software build from source properly? This isn't just about emerging ebuilds on your system -- do stage builds work with no issues using Metro? If not, this needs to be fixed first. Funtoo Linux continually builds updated operating system releases, and these must build reliably at all times. The focus here is for 100% correct and efficient builds using Metro, and then emerging initial applications on a Funtoo Linux system.
# [[#Prepare Hard Disk|Prepare your disk]].
+
# [[#Creating filesystems|Create]] and [[#Mounting filesystems|mount]] filesystems.
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# [[#Installing the Stage 3 tarball|Install the Funtoo stage tarball]] of your choice.
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# [[#Chroot into Funtoo|Chroot into your new system]].
+
# [[#Downloading the Portage tree|Download the Portage tree]].
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# [[#Configuring your system|Configure your system]] and [[#Configuring your network|network]].
+
# [[#Configuring and installing the Linux kernel|Install a kernel]].
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# [[#Installing a Bootloader|Install a bootloader]].
+
# [[#Finishing Steps|Complete final steps]].
+
# [[#Restart your system|Reboot and enjoy]].
+
  
=== Live CD ===
+
=== Does It Run? ===
  
Funtoo doesn't provide an "official" Funtoo Live CD, but there are plenty of good ones out there to choose from. A great choice is the Gentoo-based [http://www.sysresccd.org/ System Rescue CD] as it contains lots of tools and utilities and supports both 32-bit and 64-bit systems. For a generation 2 Hyper-V system, the [http://www.ubuntu.com/ Ubuntu] desktop install DVD as of version 14.04.1 works well enough. Gentoo CDs don't support EFI boot, and the System Rescue CD lacks appropriate graphics support for Hyper-V as of version 4.4.0.
+
* '''Does it Run Well?'''
  
It is also possible to install Funtoo Linux using many other Linux-based live CDs. Generally, any modern bootable Linux live CD or live USB media will work. See [[Requirements|requirements]] for an overview of what the Live Media must provide to allow a problem-free install of Funtoo Linux.
+
OK, it builds. Does it run properly? Does it work? This is pretty vague, so let's put some specifics here. When installing Funtoo Linux from a stage3, does everything work? What complications or failures were encountered on initial install? These should be fixed, or work-arounds should be put in place, and long-term fixes should be worked on to improve the user experience. Remember that the focus of Funtoo Linux is on the core system - this is the stuff you touch when you first install Funtoo Linux. You should regularly re-install Funtoo Linux to check for any issues and prioritize user install issues and the initial user experience.
  
To begin a Funtoo Linux installation, download System Rescue CD from:
+
=== Can I Use It? ===
  
{{MirrorList}}
+
* '''Easily?'''
 +
* '''For Real Work?'''
  
Or, use your preferred live media. Insert it into your disc drive, and boot from it. If using an older version of System Rescue CD, '''be sure to select the <code>rescue64</code> kernel at the boot menu if you are installing a 64-bit system'''. By default, System Rescue CD used to boot in 32-bit mode though the latest version attempts to automatically detect 64-bit processors.
+
OK, it builds, and it runs. But can I actually perform tasks with the tool? How easy or hard is it to perform these tasks? The technology (and documentation) must be designed to support the user in performing these tasks, rather than forcing the user to jump through hoops to get something set up correctly. Things should be automated as much as possible without taking control away from the user. Reasonable, secure defaults that are suitable for production workloads must be used for all applications. Things should emerge without blockers or missing features that must be enabled manually by the user. And a pet peeve - if emerge stops to tell the user that they must define a USE variable to continue, this is something that should be fixed one way or another. Then, when everything is said and done, it should work.
  
{[:Install/Partitioning}}
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=== Is It Documented? ===
  
=== Downloading the Portage tree ===
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* '''For free software projects, documentation is key.'''
  
{{fancynote|For an alternative way to do this, see [[Installing Portage From Snapshot]].}}
+
If software builds, runs and works, others still may not be able to use it until proper documentation is available. Upstream documentation isn't always complete or easy to understand, so often additional user documentation is required. If manual steps are required, they should be documented clearly and correctly. The documentation option of choice is the Funtoo wiki as well as man pages.
Now it's time to install a copy of the Portage repository, which contains package scripts (ebuilds) that tell portage how to build and install thousands of different software packages. To create the Portage repository, simply run <code>emerge --sync</code> from within the chroot. This will automatically clone the portage tree from [https://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012 GitHub]:
+
  
<console>
+
For source code, verbose comments should be used. You may be working on the code now, but someone else might be working on it six months from now. Developers are expected to write clear comments that are sufficiently non-technical and provide the necessary context to allow less experienced developers to understand critical parts of code, and ideally '''all''' parts of the code. Please see [[Coding Standards]].
(chroot) # ##i##emerge --sync
+
</console>
+
  
{{fancyimportant|1=
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=== Is It Well-Designed? ===
If you receive the error with initial <code>emerge --sync</code> due to git protocol restrictions, change <code>SYNC</code> variable in <code>/etc/make.conf</code>:
+
<pre>
+
SYNC="https://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012.git"
+
</pre>
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}}
+
  
{{:Install/Configuring}}
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* '''Optimized?'''
 +
* '''Maintainable?'''
  
=== Introducing Portage ===
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It builds and runs, and I can use it to perform real work. But is the system well-designed? Does it work reliably? Are all available patches and fixes in place to ensure a reliable computing experience? Is Funtoo Linux providing the best technology possible to users? And is this technology easy to maintain? Remember, all things being equal, less code is better than more code because it is easier to maintain. Are there verbose comments in code where necessary?
  
Portage, the Funtoo Linux package manager has a command called <code>emerge</code> which is used to build and install packages from source. It also takes care of installing all of the package's dependencies. You call emerge like this:
+
=== Are We Getting Better? ===
  
<console>
+
OK, we're doing all of the above steps. Here is the next test - are we getting better? Is the quality, security, usability and maintainability of the distribution improving over time, or is it going up, and then going down, and we're not really making any forward progress? The ultimate goal at the end of the day is to make forward progress in the quality of the distribution. This requires better automation, better tools, better processes, and investment in research and development and new ways of doing things. It also requires the right attitude. If we are doing a lot of work and the overall quality of the distribution is not improving, then our efforts are not making a long-term difference, even though they may be addressing immediate bugs and issues. We must ensure that our efforts are worthwhile, and they are making a positive long-term difference in the quality of the distribution.
(chroot) # ##i##emerge packagename
+
</console>
+
  
When you install a package by specifying its name in the command-line, Portage records its name in the <code>/var/lib/portage/world</code> file. It does so because it assumes that, since you have installed it by name, you want to consider it part of your system and want to keep the package updated in the future. This is a handy feature, since when packages are being added to the <code>world</code> set, we can update our entire system by typing:
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=== What is The Real Problem? ===
  
<console>
+
Building on this theme - when a bug is encountered, what is the ''real'' problem, or ''root cause''? Strategic thinking as well as in-depth troubleshooting is required to identify the root cause of a problem. Should we just fix root causes? No, this is impractical, because doing this takes a lot of time. Instead, workarounds are often used to quickly restore quality to acceptable levels. However, just implementing workarounds is dangerous, because bugs tend to multiply while the underlying issue goes unresolved. The proper solution is to implement workarounds but to not lose focus on the need to address the underlying issues, or root causes, of the problem. In fact, much of the focus of Funtoo Linux is on this last step - aggressively fixing a bunch of immediate issues so we can start to address the deeper problems once and for all...
(chroot) # ##i##emerge --sync
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge -auDN @world
+
</console>
+
  
This is the "official" way to update your Funtoo Linux system. Above, we first update our Portage tree using git to grab the latest ebuilds (scripts), and then run an emerge command to update the <code>world</code> set of packages. The options specified tell <code>emerge</code> to:
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=== Architecture ===
  
* '''<code>a</code>''' - show us what will be emerged, and '''ask''' us if we want to proceed
+
...and addressing root causes of problems often requires a significant change in software architecture. Funtoo Linux is a project that is not afraid of making significant, even aggressive, architectural changes in order to fix problems. This is what our users expect us to do, and ''as long as these changes are properly tested, managed, planned, automated and communicated to users'', they will not get upset. As stated in the previous paragraph, the Funtoo Linux project is zealous about addressing these core architectural issues -- but we need to get a handle on the more fundamental challenges first. Once workarounds are in place, we'll take a stab at some core system change that will pay dividends well into the future.
* '''<code>u</code>''' - ''update'' the packages we specify -- don't emerge them again if they are already emerged.
+
* '''<code>D</code>''' - Consider the entire dependency tree of packages when looking for updates. In other words, do a '''deep''' update.
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* '''<code>N</code>''' - Update any packages that have changed ('''new''') USE settings.
+
  
You should also consider passing <code>--with-bdeps=y</code> when emerging @world, at least once in a while. This will update build dependencies as well.
+
== Examples ==
  
Of course, sometimes we want to install a package but not add it to the <code>world</code> file. This is often done because you only want the package installed temproarily or because you know the package in question is a dependnecy of another package. If this behavior is desired, you call emerge like this:
+
Below, you will find examples of existing efforts that have aligned with these goals. This section will give you a feel for how real projects can be started that align with the Funtoo Linux vision defined above.
  
<console>
+
=== Boot-Update ===
(chroot) # ##i##emerge -1 packagename
+
</console>
+
  
Advanced users may be interested in the [[Emerge]] wiki page.
+
[[Boot-Update]] was designed by Daniel Robbins to provide a more elegant way to configure boot loaders under Funtoo Linux. This project was prioritized for several reasons. For one, it had to do with the initial installation experience (see [[#Does it Run?]]) Also, lack of GRUB2 support, as well as GPT/GUID support, was identified as a critical weakness in current Gentoo Linux functionality (see [[#Is it Well-Designed?]]) Because of this, a new unified configurator was written which uses <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt> as the global boot loader configuration file. This represented a change in boot loader architecture (see [[#Architecture]]) under Funtoo Linux, in order to improve usability and flexibilty over existing solutions, and to attempt to reduce or eliminate a class of problems related to boot loader configuration, which is especially troublesome with GRUB2.
  
==== Updating World ====
+
=== Metro ===
  
Now is actually a very good time to update the entire system and it can be a good idea to do so prior to first boot.
+
[[Metro]] was designed by Daniel Robbins and is used to address the "[[#Does It Build?]]" question. The existing solution, catalyst, was difficult to maintain (see [[#Is It Well-Designed?]]), so Metro was developed to provide a new mechanism for building OS releases.
  
<console>
+
=== Forked Ebuilds ===
(chroot) # ##i##emerge --sync
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge -auDN @world
+
</console>
+
  
{{fancyimportant|1=
+
Not all improvements involve large software development efforts. In fact, the majority of fixes involve relatively small fixes to ebuilds. These fixes are often made to fix a Metro build failure (see [[#Does it Build?]]) or address some quality issue (see [[#Is It Well-Designed?]]). The <tt>www-servers/nginx</tt> ebuild was improved to provide better default settings for production systems, with corresponding changes made to <tt>sys-libs/pam</tt> to allow this to work. <tt>dev-lang/python</tt> contains fixes to ensure that Metro builds complete properly and a valid <tt>/usr/bin/python</tt> symlink always exists.
Make sure you read any post emerge messages and follow their instructions. This is especially true if you have upgraded perl or python.}}
+
  
=== Configuring and installing the Linux kernel ===
+
=== OpenVZ ===
  
Now it's time to build and install a Linux kernel, which is the heart of any Funtoo Linux system. The kernel is loaded by the boot loader, and interfaces directly with your system's hardware, and allows regular (userspace) programs to run.
+
OpenVZ support is a specific priority of Funtoo Linux. Funtoo Linux maintains a patched <tt>sys-cluster/vzctl</tt> with various patches to fix a variety of problems. In addition, <tt>openvz-rhel6-stable</tt> and <tt>openvz-rhel5-stable</tt> ebuilds have been created to ease installation of production-quality OpenVZ kernels (see [[#Can I Use It?]]) In addition, [[OpenVZ]] documentation exists on the wiki (see [[#Can I Use It?]])
  
A kernel must be configured properly for your system's hardware, so that it supports your hard drives, file systems, network cards, and so on. More experienced Linux users can choose to install kernel sources and configure and install their own kernel. If you don't know how to do this, we provide ebuilds that will automatically build a "univeral" kernel, modules and initramfs for booting your system that supports all hardware. This is an extremely simple way of building a kernel that will get your system booted.
+
[[Category:QA]]
 
+
What is our goal? To build a kernel that will recognize all the hardware in your system necessary for booting, so that you will be greeted by a friendly login prompt after installation is complete. These instructions will guide you through the process of installing a kernel the "easy" way -- without requiring user configuration, by using a "universal" kernel.
+
 
+
==== Package Sets ====
+
 
+
Before we install a kernel, we're going to cover a feature of Portage called package sets. Portage, the package manager/ports system for Funtoo Linux, will keep track of system packages as well as packages you have installed by calling <code>emerge</code> directly. These packages that are part of the base system are considered part of the "system" package set, while packages that you have installed by typing them on the command line (such as "gnome" in <code>emerge gnome</code>) will be added to the "world" package set. This provides an easy way to update your entire system.
+
 
+
However, sometimes it's nice to be able to update the kernel all by itself, or leave a kernel update out of your regular whole system update. To do this, we will create a new package set called "kernel".
+
 
+
==== Kernel Package Set ====
+
 
+
To create the kernel package set, perform the following steps:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##mkdir /etc/portage/sets
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(chroot) # ##i##echo sys-kernel/debian-sources > /etc/portage/sets/kernel
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now, we'll want to set a USE variable to tell <code>debian-sources</code> to build a "universal" kernel and initramfs for us, to take the guess-work out of getting Funtoo Linux booted. To do this, we're going to set the <code>binary</code> USE variable for <code>debian-sources</code>, as follows:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##echo "sys-kernel/debian-sources binary" >> /etc/portage/package.use
+
</console>
+
 
+
If USE variables are new to you, you'll be getting a lot more familiar with them as you use Funtoo Linux. At their essence, they are "switches" that you can set to configure options that can be built in to various packages. They're used to customize your Funtoo Linux system to meet your exact needs. We added support for a <code>binary</code> USE flag to the <code>debian-sources</code> ebuilds, as well as a few other of our kernel ebuilds, to make it easier for new users to get Funtoo Linux up and running.
+
 
+
Now, when we just want to update our system's packages, we'll type <code>emerge -auDN @world</code>, and it will update our world set, leaving out the kernel. Likewise, when we just want to update our kernel, we'll type <code>emerge -au @kernel</code>, and it will update our kernel, leaving out the world set.
+
 
+
==== Building the Kernel ====
+
 
+
{{Fancynote|1=
+
See [[Funtoo Linux Kernels]] for a full list of kernels supported in Funtoo Linux. We recommend <code>debian-sources</code> for new users.}}
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+
{{fancyimportant|1=
+
<code>debian-sources</code> with <code>binary</code> USE flag requires at least 14GB free in <code>/var/tmp</code> and takes around 1 hour to build on a Intel Core i7 Processor.}}
+
 
+
Let's emerge our kernel:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge @kernel
+
</console>
+
 
+
Note that while use of the <code>binary</code> USE flag makes installing a working kernel extremely simple, it is one part of Funtoo Linux that takes a ''very'' long time to build from source, because it is building a kernel that supports ''all'' hardware that Linux supports! So, get the build started, and then let your machine compile. Slower machines can take up to several hours to build the kernel, and you'll want to make sure that you've set <code>MAKEOPTS</code> in <code>/etc/make.conf</code> to the number of processing cores/threads (plus one) in your system before starting to build it as quickly as possible -- see the [[#/etc/make.conf|/etc/make.conf section]] if you forgot to do this.
+
 
+
{{fancynote|NVIDIA card users: the <code>binary</code> USE flag installs the Nouveau drivers which cannot be loaded at the same time as the proprietary drivers, and cannot be unloaded at runtime because of KMS. You need to blacklist it under <code>/etc/modprobe.d/</code>.}}
+
 
+
{{fancynote|For an overview of other kernel options for Funtoo Linux, see [[Funtoo Linux Kernels]]. There may be modules that the Debian kernel doesn't include, a situation where [http://www.funtoo.org/wiki/Funtoo_Linux_Kernels#Using_Debian-Sources_with_Genkernel genkernel] would be useful. Also be sure to see [[:Category:Hardware Compatibility|hardware compatibility]] information.}}
+
 
+
Once <code>emerge</code> completes, you'll have a brand new kernel and initramfs installed to <code>/boot</code>, plus kernel headers installed in <code>/usr/src/linux</code>, and you'll be ready to configure the boot loader to load these to boot your Funtoo Linux system.
+
 
+
=== Installing a Bootloader ===
+
 
+
{{fancynote|An alternate boot loader called extlinux can be used instead of GRUB if you desire. See the [[Extlinux|extlinux Guide]] for information on how to do this.}}
+
 
+
==== Installing Grub ====
+
 
+
The boot loader is responsible for loading the kernel from disk when your computer boots. For new installations, GRUB 2 and Funtoo's boot-update tool should be used as a boot loader. GRUB supports both GPT/GUID and legacy MBR partitioning schemes.
+
 
+
To use this recommended boot method, first emerge <code>boot-update</code>. This will also cause <code>grub-2</code> to be merged, since it is a dependency of <code>boot-update</code>. (You may need to adjust <code>GRUB_PLATFORMS</code> if you are on a UEFI system. See [[UEFI Install Guide]]).
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge boot-update
+
</console>
+
 
+
Then, edit <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> and specify "<code>Funtoo Linux genkernel</code>" as the <code>default</code> setting at the top of the file, replacing <code>"Funtoo Linux"</code>.
+
 
+
<code>/etc/boot.conf</code> should now look like this:
+
 
+
<pre>
+
boot {
+
        generate grub
+
        default "Funtoo Linux genkernel"
+
        timeout 3
+
}
+
 
+
"Funtoo Linux" {
+
        kernel bzImage[-v]
+
        # params += nomodeset
+
}
+
 
+
"Funtoo Linux genkernel" {
+
# if you use bliss-kernel package
+
# you should change string
+
# kernel kernel[-v]
+
# to
+
# kernel kernel/[-v]/kernel[-v]
+
        kernel kernel[-v]
+
        initrd initramfs[-v]
+
        params += real_root=auto
+
        # params += nomodeset
+
}
+
</pre>
+
 
+
If you use bliss-kernel, your <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> should look like:
+
 
+
<pre>
+
boot {
+
        generate grub
+
        default "Funtoo Linux genkernel"
+
        timeout 3
+
}
+
 
+
"Funtoo Linux" {
+
        kernel bzImage[-v]
+
        # params += nomodeset
+
}
+
 
+
"Funtoo Linux genkernel" {
+
        kernel kernels/[-v]/kernel[-v]
+
        initrd initramfs[-v]
+
        params += real_root=auto
+
        # params += nomodeset
+
}
+
</pre>
+
 
+
Please read <code>man boot.conf</code> for further details.
+
 
+
===== Running grub-install and boot-update =====
+
 
+
Finally, we will need to actually install the GRUB boot loader to your disk, and also run <code>boot-update</code> which will generate your boot loader configuration file:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --no-floppy /dev/sda
+
(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now you need to update your boot loader configuration file:
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
+
</console>
+
You only need to run <code>grub-install</code> when you first install Funtoo Linux, but you need to re-run <code>boot-update</code> every time you modify your <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> file, so your changes are applied on next boot.
+
 
+
{{:Install/Network}}
+
 
+
=== Finishing Steps ===
+
 
+
==== Set your root password ====
+
It's imperative that you set your root password before rebooting so that you can log in.
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##passwd
+
</console>
+
 
+
===Restart your system ===
+
 
+
Now is the time to leave chroot, to unmount Funtoo Linux partitions and files and to restart your computer. When you restart, the GRUB boot loader will start, load the Linux kernel and initramfs, and your system will begin booting.
+
 
+
Leave the chroot, change directory to /mnt, unmount your Funtoo partitions, and reboot.
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##exit
+
# ##i##cd /mnt
+
# ##i##umount -l funtoo
+
# ##i##reboot
+
</console>
+
 
+
{{fancynote|System Rescue CD will gracefully unmount your new Funtoo filesystems as part of its normal shutdown sequence.}}
+
 
+
You should now see your system reboot, the GRUB boot loader appear for a few seconds, and then see the Linux kernel and initramfs loading. After this, you should see Funtoo Linux itself start to boot, and you should be greeted with a <code>login:</code> prompt. Funtoo Linux has been successfully installed!
+
=== Profiles ===
+
 
+
Once you have rebooted into Funtoo Linux, you can further customize your system to your needs by using Funtoo Profiles.
+
 
+
[[Funtoo 1.0 Profile|Funtoo profiles]] are used to define defaults for Portage specific to your needs. There are 4 basic profile types: arch, build, [[Flavors and Mix-ins|flavor, and mix-ins]]:
+
 
+
;arch: typically <code>x86-32bit</code> or <code>x86-64bit</code>, this defines the processor type and support of your system. This is defined when your stage was built and should not be changed.
+
;build: defines whether your system is a <code>current</code>, <code>stable</code> or <code>experimental</code> build. <code>current</code> systems will have newer packages unmasked than <code>stable</code> systems.
+
;flavor: defines the general type of system, such as <code>server</code> or <code>desktop</code>, and will set default USE flags appropriate for your needs.
+
;mix-ins: define various optional settings that you may be interested in enabling.
+
 
+
One arch, build and flavor must be set for each Funtoo Linux system, while mix-ins are optional and you can enable more than one if desired.
+
 
+
Remember that profiles can often be inherited. For example, the <code>desktop</code> flavor inherits the <code>workstation</code> flavor settings, which in turn inherits the <code>X</code> and <code>audio</code> mix-ins. You can view this by using eselect:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile show
+
Currently set profiles:
+
    arch: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit
+
  build: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current
+
  flavor: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/desktop
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/kde
+
 
+
Automatically enabled profiles:
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/print
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/X
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/audio
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/console-extras
+
</console>
+
 
+
To view installed profiles:
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile list
+
</console>
+
 
+
To change the profile flavor:
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile set-flavor 7
+
</console>
+
 
+
To add a mix-in:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile add 10
+
</console>
+
 
+
===Next Steps===
+
 
+
If you are brand new to Funtoo Linux and Gentoo Linux, please check out [[Funtoo Linux First Steps]], which will help get you acquainted with your new system. We also have a category for our [[:Category:Official Documentation|official documentation]], which includes all docs that we officially maintain for installation and operation of Funtoo Linux.
+
 
+
We also have a number of pages dedicated to setting up your system, which you can find below. If you are interested in adding a page to this list, add it to the "First Steps" MediaWiki category.
+
 
+
{{#ask: [[Category:First Steps]] | format=ul }}
+
 
+
If your system did not boot correctly, see [[Installation Troubleshooting]] for steps you can take to resolve the problem.
+
 
+
[[Category:HOWTO]]
+
[[Category:Install]]
+
[[Category:Official Documentation]]
+
</div><div class="col-md-3 col-hidden-sm col-hidden-xs"><div id="tocwrap" >
+
__TOC__
+
</div></div></div>
+

Revision as of 00:51, December 16, 2014

Visão do Projeto

Daniel Robbins originalmente escreveu a Filosofia Gentoo Linux, e nisso definiu o conceito de uma ferramenta ideal assim sendo algo que "simplesmente funciona", não fica no caminho do usuário, e responde a vontade do usuário ao invés de forçar o usuário a trabalhar de um jeito particular.

Funtoo Linux é um projeto de pessoas que concordam filosofia da ferramenta ideal, e que são apaixonados pelo nosso desejo de melhorar a tecnologia de ser tão próximo desse ideial quanto possível. O foco de nossos esforços é o melhoramento contínuo da distribuição Gentoo Linux distribution.

The development focus of Funtoo Linux is currently directed at the core system, meaning anything on a stage3, portage, core languages, kernels, server applications, and up through X11 and simple window managers, and including desktop environments like GNOME and KDE.

Focus, Focus, Focus

Developers should use these general principles to determine what priorities to focus on first. These areas below are listed in order of priority, so the next paragraph is the top priority, followed by next priority, etc. Just because something is lower priority doesn't mean it is "less important" - it just means to address the higher-priority things first.

Does It Build?

  • Does it Build Reliably?

The first test - does the software build from source properly? This isn't just about emerging ebuilds on your system -- do stage builds work with no issues using Metro? If not, this needs to be fixed first. Funtoo Linux continually builds updated operating system releases, and these must build reliably at all times. The focus here is for 100% correct and efficient builds using Metro, and then emerging initial applications on a Funtoo Linux system.

Does It Run?

  • Does it Run Well?

OK, it builds. Does it run properly? Does it work? This is pretty vague, so let's put some specifics here. When installing Funtoo Linux from a stage3, does everything work? What complications or failures were encountered on initial install? These should be fixed, or work-arounds should be put in place, and long-term fixes should be worked on to improve the user experience. Remember that the focus of Funtoo Linux is on the core system - this is the stuff you touch when you first install Funtoo Linux. You should regularly re-install Funtoo Linux to check for any issues and prioritize user install issues and the initial user experience.

Can I Use It?

  • Easily?
  • For Real Work?

OK, it builds, and it runs. But can I actually perform tasks with the tool? How easy or hard is it to perform these tasks? The technology (and documentation) must be designed to support the user in performing these tasks, rather than forcing the user to jump through hoops to get something set up correctly. Things should be automated as much as possible without taking control away from the user. Reasonable, secure defaults that are suitable for production workloads must be used for all applications. Things should emerge without blockers or missing features that must be enabled manually by the user. And a pet peeve - if emerge stops to tell the user that they must define a USE variable to continue, this is something that should be fixed one way or another. Then, when everything is said and done, it should work.

Is It Documented?

  • For free software projects, documentation is key.

If software builds, runs and works, others still may not be able to use it until proper documentation is available. Upstream documentation isn't always complete or easy to understand, so often additional user documentation is required. If manual steps are required, they should be documented clearly and correctly. The documentation option of choice is the Funtoo wiki as well as man pages.

For source code, verbose comments should be used. You may be working on the code now, but someone else might be working on it six months from now. Developers are expected to write clear comments that are sufficiently non-technical and provide the necessary context to allow less experienced developers to understand critical parts of code, and ideally all parts of the code. Please see Coding Standards.

Is It Well-Designed?

  • Optimized?
  • Maintainable?

It builds and runs, and I can use it to perform real work. But is the system well-designed? Does it work reliably? Are all available patches and fixes in place to ensure a reliable computing experience? Is Funtoo Linux providing the best technology possible to users? And is this technology easy to maintain? Remember, all things being equal, less code is better than more code because it is easier to maintain. Are there verbose comments in code where necessary?

Are We Getting Better?

OK, we're doing all of the above steps. Here is the next test - are we getting better? Is the quality, security, usability and maintainability of the distribution improving over time, or is it going up, and then going down, and we're not really making any forward progress? The ultimate goal at the end of the day is to make forward progress in the quality of the distribution. This requires better automation, better tools, better processes, and investment in research and development and new ways of doing things. It also requires the right attitude. If we are doing a lot of work and the overall quality of the distribution is not improving, then our efforts are not making a long-term difference, even though they may be addressing immediate bugs and issues. We must ensure that our efforts are worthwhile, and they are making a positive long-term difference in the quality of the distribution.

What is The Real Problem?

Building on this theme - when a bug is encountered, what is the real problem, or root cause? Strategic thinking as well as in-depth troubleshooting is required to identify the root cause of a problem. Should we just fix root causes? No, this is impractical, because doing this takes a lot of time. Instead, workarounds are often used to quickly restore quality to acceptable levels. However, just implementing workarounds is dangerous, because bugs tend to multiply while the underlying issue goes unresolved. The proper solution is to implement workarounds but to not lose focus on the need to address the underlying issues, or root causes, of the problem. In fact, much of the focus of Funtoo Linux is on this last step - aggressively fixing a bunch of immediate issues so we can start to address the deeper problems once and for all...

Architecture

...and addressing root causes of problems often requires a significant change in software architecture. Funtoo Linux is a project that is not afraid of making significant, even aggressive, architectural changes in order to fix problems. This is what our users expect us to do, and as long as these changes are properly tested, managed, planned, automated and communicated to users, they will not get upset. As stated in the previous paragraph, the Funtoo Linux project is zealous about addressing these core architectural issues -- but we need to get a handle on the more fundamental challenges first. Once workarounds are in place, we'll take a stab at some core system change that will pay dividends well into the future.

Examples

Below, you will find examples of existing efforts that have aligned with these goals. This section will give you a feel for how real projects can be started that align with the Funtoo Linux vision defined above.

Boot-Update

Boot-Update was designed by Daniel Robbins to provide a more elegant way to configure boot loaders under Funtoo Linux. This project was prioritized for several reasons. For one, it had to do with the initial installation experience (see #Does it Run?) Also, lack of GRUB2 support, as well as GPT/GUID support, was identified as a critical weakness in current Gentoo Linux functionality (see #Is it Well-Designed?) Because of this, a new unified configurator was written which uses /etc/boot.conf as the global boot loader configuration file. This represented a change in boot loader architecture (see #Architecture) under Funtoo Linux, in order to improve usability and flexibilty over existing solutions, and to attempt to reduce or eliminate a class of problems related to boot loader configuration, which is especially troublesome with GRUB2.

Metro

Metro was designed by Daniel Robbins and is used to address the "#Does It Build?" question. The existing solution, catalyst, was difficult to maintain (see #Is It Well-Designed?), so Metro was developed to provide a new mechanism for building OS releases.

Forked Ebuilds

Not all improvements involve large software development efforts. In fact, the majority of fixes involve relatively small fixes to ebuilds. These fixes are often made to fix a Metro build failure (see #Does it Build?) or address some quality issue (see #Is It Well-Designed?). The www-servers/nginx ebuild was improved to provide better default settings for production systems, with corresponding changes made to sys-libs/pam to allow this to work. dev-lang/python contains fixes to ensure that Metro builds complete properly and a valid /usr/bin/python symlink always exists.

OpenVZ

OpenVZ support is a specific priority of Funtoo Linux. Funtoo Linux maintains a patched sys-cluster/vzctl with various patches to fix a variety of problems. In addition, openvz-rhel6-stable and openvz-rhel5-stable ebuilds have been created to ease installation of production-quality OpenVZ kernels (see #Can I Use It?) In addition, OpenVZ documentation exists on the wiki (see #Can I Use It?)