Difference between pages "Funtoo Linux Installation" and "Package:Layman"

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{{Ebuild
== Introduction ==
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|Summary=Tool to manage Gentoo overlays
 +
|CatPkg=app-portage/layman
 +
|Homepage=http://layman.sourceforge.net/
 +
}}
 +
Layman is an "overlay" external repository management tool.
  
This document was written to help you install Funtoo Linux as concisely as possible, with a minimum number of distracting options regarding system configuration.  
+
=== Installation ===
 +
<console>###i## emerge layman</console>
 +
[[make.conf]] must source laymans overlays for emerge to pull in packages from external sources.  This line needs to be below everything else in make.conf.
 +
<console>###i## echo "source /var/lib/layman/make.conf" >> /etc/portage/make.conf</console>
  
These docs assume you have a "PC compatible" computer system with a standard PC BIOS. Many new computers support UEFI for booting, which is a new firmware interface that frequently replaces the older MBR-based BIOS. If you have a system with UEFI, you will want to use this documentation along with the [[UEFI Install Guide]], which will augment these instructions and explain how to get your system to boot. You may need to change your PC BIOS settings to enable or disable UEFI booting. The [[UEFI Install Guide]] has more information on this, and steps on how to determine if your system supports UEFI.
+
=== Using Layman ===
 +
Fetch, and display a list of overlays:
 +
<console>###i## layman -L</console>
  
We also offer a [[ZFS Install Guide]], which augment the instructions on this page for those who want to install Funtoo Linux on ZFS.  If you are installing Funtoo Linux on [[Funtoo Linux Installation on ARM|ARM]] architecture, please see [[Funtoo Linux Installation on ARM]] for notable differences regarding ARM support. An experimental Funtoo Linux build also exists for [[Funtoo Linux Installation on SPARC|SPARC]] platforms. See [[Funtoo Linux Installation on SPARC]].
+
Add an overlay to your system:
 +
<console>###i## layman -a <overlay name></console>
  
New  [[F2FS Install Guide]] is in progress  which will augment the instructions on this page for those who want to install Funtoo Linux on F2FS.
+
Delete an overlay from your system:
 +
<console>###i## layman -d <overlay name></console>
  
If you've had previous experience installing Gentoo Linux then a lot of steps will be familiar, but you should still read through as there are a few differences.
+
==== Masking Overlay Packages ====
 +
Overlays have the power to override distro packages.  To avoid conflicts, mask everything in the overlay, and unmask the packages that are necessary to your system.
  
== Installation Overview ==
+
{{file|name=/etc/portage/package.mask|lang=|desc=mask all packages in an overlay|body=
 +
*/*::overlay-name
 +
}}
  
This is a basic overview of the Funtoo installation process:
+
{{file|name=/etc/portage/package.unmask|lang=|desc=unmask packages to be used|body=
 
+
cat-egory/pack-age1
# [[#Live CD|Download and boot the live CD of your choice]].
+
cat-egory/pack-age2
# [[#Prepare Hard Disk|Prepare your disk]].
+
# [[#Creating filesystems|Create]] and [[#Mounting filesystems|mount]] filesystems.
+
# [[#Installing the Stage 3 tarball|Install the Funtoo stage tarball]] of your choice.
+
# [[#Chroot into Funtoo|Chroot into your new system]].
+
# [[#Downloading the Portage tree|Download the Portage tree]].
+
# [[#Configuring your system|Configure your system]] and [[#Configuring your network|network]].
+
# [[#Configuring and installing the Linux kernel|Install a kernel]].
+
# [[#Installing a Bootloader|Install a bootloader]].
+
# [[#Finishing Steps|Complete final steps]].
+
# [[#Restart your system|Reboot and enjoy]].
+
 
+
=== Live CD ===
+
 
+
Funtoo doesn't provide an "official" Funtoo Live CD, but there are plenty of good ones out there to choose from. A great choice is the Gentoo-based [http://www.sysresccd.org/ System Rescue CD] as it contains lots of tools and utilities and supports both 32-bit and 64-bit systems. For a generation 2 Hyper-V system, the [http://www.ubuntu.com/ Ubuntu] desktop install DVD as of version 14.04.1 works well enough. Gentoo CDs don't support EFI boot, and the System Rescue CD lacks appropriate graphics support for Hyper-V as of version 4.4.0.
+
 
+
It is also possible to install Funtoo Linux using many other Linux-based live CDs. Generally, any modern bootable Linux live CD or live USB media will work. See [[Requirements|requirements]] for an overview of what the Live Media must provide to allow a problem-free install of Funtoo Linux.
+
 
+
To begin a Funtoo Linux installation, download System Rescue CD from:
+
 
+
{{MirrorList}}
+
 
+
Or, use your preferred live media. Insert it into your disc drive, and boot from it. If using an older version of System Rescue CD, '''be sure to select the <code>rescue64</code> kernel at the boot menu if you are installing a 64-bit system'''. By default, System Rescue CD used to boot in 32-bit mode though the latest version attempts to automatically detect 64-bit processors.
+
 
+
{[:Install/Partitioning}}
+
 
+
=== Downloading the Portage tree ===
+
 
+
{{fancynote|For an alternative way to do this, see [[Installing Portage From Snapshot]].}}
+
Now it's time to install a copy of the Portage repository, which contains package scripts (ebuilds) that tell portage how to build and install thousands of different software packages. To create the Portage repository, simply run <code>emerge --sync</code> from within the chroot. This will automatically clone the portage tree from [https://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012 GitHub]:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge --sync
+
</console>
+
 
+
{{fancyimportant|1=
+
If you receive the error with initial <code>emerge --sync</code> due to git protocol restrictions, change <code>SYNC</code> variable in <code>/etc/make.conf</code>:
+
<pre>
+
SYNC="https://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012.git"
+
</pre>
+
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{:Install/Configuring}}
+
==== Sync ====
 
+
=== Introducing Portage ===
+
 
+
Portage, the Funtoo Linux package manager has a command called <code>emerge</code> which is used to build and install packages from source. It also takes care of installing all of the package's dependencies. You call emerge like this:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge packagename
+
</console>
+
 
+
When you install a package by specifying its name in the command-line, Portage records its name in the <code>/var/lib/portage/world</code> file. It does so because it assumes that, since you have installed it by name, you want to consider it part of your system and want to keep the package updated in the future. This is a handy feature, since when packages are being added to the <code>world</code> set, we can update our entire system by typing:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge --sync
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge -auDN @world
+
</console>
+
 
+
This is the "official" way to update your Funtoo Linux system. Above, we first update our Portage tree using git to grab the latest ebuilds (scripts), and then run an emerge command to update the <code>world</code> set of packages. The options specified tell <code>emerge</code> to:
+
 
+
* '''<code>a</code>''' - show us what will be emerged, and '''ask''' us if we want to proceed
+
* '''<code>u</code>''' - ''update'' the packages we specify -- don't emerge them again if they are already emerged.
+
* '''<code>D</code>''' - Consider the entire dependency tree of packages when looking for updates. In other words, do a '''deep''' update.
+
* '''<code>N</code>''' - Update any packages that have changed ('''new''') USE settings.
+
 
+
You should also consider passing <code>--with-bdeps=y</code> when emerging @world, at least once in a while. This will update build dependencies as well.
+
 
+
Of course, sometimes we want to install a package but not add it to the <code>world</code> file. This is often done because you only want the package installed temproarily or because you know the package in question is a dependnecy of another package. If this behavior is desired, you call emerge like this:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge -1 packagename
+
</console>
+
 
+
Advanced users may be interested in the [[Emerge]] wiki page.
+
 
+
==== Updating World ====
+
 
+
Now is actually a very good time to update the entire system and it can be a good idea to do so prior to first boot.
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge --sync
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge -auDN @world
+
</console>
+
 
+
{{fancyimportant|1=
+
Make sure you read any post emerge messages and follow their instructions. This is especially true if you have upgraded perl or python.}}
+
 
+
=== Configuring and installing the Linux kernel ===
+
 
+
Now it's time to build and install a Linux kernel, which is the heart of any Funtoo Linux system. The kernel is loaded by the boot loader, and interfaces directly with your system's hardware, and allows regular (userspace) programs to run.
+
 
+
A kernel must be configured properly for your system's hardware, so that it supports your hard drives, file systems, network cards, and so on. More experienced Linux users can choose to install kernel sources and configure and install their own kernel. If you don't know how to do this, we provide ebuilds that will automatically build a "univeral" kernel, modules and initramfs for booting your system that supports all hardware. This is an extremely simple way of building a kernel that will get your system booted.
+
 
+
What is our goal? To build a kernel that will recognize all the hardware in your system necessary for booting, so that you will be greeted by a friendly login prompt after installation is complete. These instructions will guide you through the process of installing a kernel the "easy" way -- without requiring user configuration, by using a "universal" kernel.
+
 
+
==== Package Sets ====
+
 
+
Before we install a kernel, we're going to cover a feature of Portage called package sets. Portage, the package manager/ports system for Funtoo Linux, will keep track of system packages as well as packages you have installed by calling <code>emerge</code> directly. These packages that are part of the base system are considered part of the "system" package set, while packages that you have installed by typing them on the command line (such as "gnome" in <code>emerge gnome</code>) will be added to the "world" package set. This provides an easy way to update your entire system.
+
 
+
However, sometimes it's nice to be able to update the kernel all by itself, or leave a kernel update out of your regular whole system update. To do this, we will create a new package set called "kernel".
+
 
+
==== Kernel Package Set ====
+
 
+
To create the kernel package set, perform the following steps:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##mkdir /etc/portage/sets
+
(chroot) # ##i##echo sys-kernel/debian-sources > /etc/portage/sets/kernel
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now, we'll want to set a USE variable to tell <code>debian-sources</code> to build a "universal" kernel and initramfs for us, to take the guess-work out of getting Funtoo Linux booted. To do this, we're going to set the <code>binary</code> USE variable for <code>debian-sources</code>, as follows:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##echo "sys-kernel/debian-sources binary" >> /etc/portage/package.use
+
</console>
+
 
+
If USE variables are new to you, you'll be getting a lot more familiar with them as you use Funtoo Linux. At their essence, they are "switches" that you can set to configure options that can be built in to various packages. They're used to customize your Funtoo Linux system to meet your exact needs. We added support for a <code>binary</code> USE flag to the <code>debian-sources</code> ebuilds, as well as a few other of our kernel ebuilds, to make it easier for new users to get Funtoo Linux up and running.
+
 
+
Now, when we just want to update our system's packages, we'll type <code>emerge -auDN @world</code>, and it will update our world set, leaving out the kernel. Likewise, when we just want to update our kernel, we'll type <code>emerge -au @kernel</code>, and it will update our kernel, leaving out the world set.
+
 
+
==== Building the Kernel ====
+
 
+
{{Fancynote|1=
+
See [[Funtoo Linux Kernels]] for a full list of kernels supported in Funtoo Linux. We recommend <code>debian-sources</code> for new users.}}
+
 
+
{{fancyimportant|1=
+
<code>debian-sources</code> with <code>binary</code> USE flag requires at least 14GB free in <code>/var/tmp</code> and takes around 1 hour to build on a Intel Core i7 Processor.}}
+
 
+
Let's emerge our kernel:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge @kernel
+
</console>
+
 
+
Note that while use of the <code>binary</code> USE flag makes installing a working kernel extremely simple, it is one part of Funtoo Linux that takes a ''very'' long time to build from source, because it is building a kernel that supports ''all'' hardware that Linux supports! So, get the build started, and then let your machine compile. Slower machines can take up to several hours to build the kernel, and you'll want to make sure that you've set <code>MAKEOPTS</code> in <code>/etc/make.conf</code> to the number of processing cores/threads (plus one) in your system before starting to build it as quickly as possible -- see the [[#/etc/make.conf|/etc/make.conf section]] if you forgot to do this.
+
 
+
{{fancynote|NVIDIA card users: the <code>binary</code> USE flag installs the Nouveau drivers which cannot be loaded at the same time as the proprietary drivers, and cannot be unloaded at runtime because of KMS. You need to blacklist it under <code>/etc/modprobe.d/</code>.}}
+
 
+
{{fancynote|For an overview of other kernel options for Funtoo Linux, see [[Funtoo Linux Kernels]]. There may be modules that the Debian kernel doesn't include, a situation where [http://www.funtoo.org/wiki/Funtoo_Linux_Kernels#Using_Debian-Sources_with_Genkernel genkernel] would be useful. Also be sure to see [[:Category:Hardware Compatibility|hardware compatibility]] information.}}
+
 
+
Once <code>emerge</code> completes, you'll have a brand new kernel and initramfs installed to <code>/boot</code>, plus kernel headers installed in <code>/usr/src/linux</code>, and you'll be ready to configure the boot loader to load these to boot your Funtoo Linux system.
+
 
+
=== Installing a Bootloader ===
+
 
+
{{fancynote|An alternate boot loader called extlinux can be used instead of GRUB if you desire. See the [[Extlinux|extlinux Guide]] for information on how to do this.}}
+
 
+
==== Installing Grub ====
+
 
+
The boot loader is responsible for loading the kernel from disk when your computer boots. For new installations, GRUB 2 and Funtoo's boot-update tool should be used as a boot loader. GRUB supports both GPT/GUID and legacy MBR partitioning schemes.
+
 
+
To use this recommended boot method, first emerge <code>boot-update</code>. This will also cause <code>grub-2</code> to be merged, since it is a dependency of <code>boot-update</code>. (You may need to adjust <code>GRUB_PLATFORMS</code> if you are on a UEFI system. See [[UEFI Install Guide]]).
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge boot-update
+
</console>
+
 
+
Then, edit <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> and specify "<code>Funtoo Linux genkernel</code>" as the <code>default</code> setting at the top of the file, replacing <code>"Funtoo Linux"</code>.
+
 
+
<code>/etc/boot.conf</code> should now look like this:
+
 
+
<pre>
+
boot {
+
        generate grub
+
        default "Funtoo Linux genkernel"
+
        timeout 3
+
}
+
 
+
"Funtoo Linux" {
+
        kernel bzImage[-v]
+
        # params += nomodeset
+
}
+
 
+
"Funtoo Linux genkernel" {
+
# if you use bliss-kernel package
+
# you should change string
+
# kernel kernel[-v]
+
# to
+
# kernel kernel/[-v]/kernel[-v]
+
        kernel kernel[-v]
+
        initrd initramfs[-v]
+
        params += real_root=auto
+
        # params += nomodeset
+
}
+
</pre>
+
 
+
If you use bliss-kernel, your <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> should look like:
+
 
+
<pre>
+
boot {
+
        generate grub
+
        default "Funtoo Linux genkernel"
+
        timeout 3
+
}
+
 
+
"Funtoo Linux" {
+
        kernel bzImage[-v]
+
        # params += nomodeset
+
}
+
 
+
"Funtoo Linux genkernel" {
+
        kernel kernels/[-v]/kernel[-v]
+
        initrd initramfs[-v]
+
        params += real_root=auto
+
        # params += nomodeset
+
}
+
</pre>
+
 
+
Please read <code>man boot.conf</code> for further details.
+
 
+
===== Running grub-install and boot-update =====
+
 
+
Finally, we will need to actually install the GRUB boot loader to your disk, and also run <code>boot-update</code> which will generate your boot loader configuration file:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --no-floppy /dev/sda
+
(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now you need to update your boot loader configuration file:
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
+
</console>
+
You only need to run <code>grub-install</code> when you first install Funtoo Linux, but you need to re-run <code>boot-update</code> every time you modify your <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> file, so your changes are applied on next boot.
+
 
+
{{:Install/Network}}
+
 
+
=== Finishing Steps ===
+
 
+
==== Set your root password ====
+
It's imperative that you set your root password before rebooting so that you can log in.
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##passwd
+
</console>
+
 
+
===Restart your system ===
+
 
+
Now is the time to leave chroot, to unmount Funtoo Linux partitions and files and to restart your computer. When you restart, the GRUB boot loader will start, load the Linux kernel and initramfs, and your system will begin booting.
+
 
+
Leave the chroot, change directory to /mnt, unmount your Funtoo partitions, and reboot.
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##exit
+
# ##i##cd /mnt
+
# ##i##umount -l funtoo
+
# ##i##reboot
+
</console>
+
 
+
{{fancynote|System Rescue CD will gracefully unmount your new Funtoo filesystems as part of its normal shutdown sequence.}}
+
 
+
You should now see your system reboot, the GRUB boot loader appear for a few seconds, and then see the Linux kernel and initramfs loading. After this, you should see Funtoo Linux itself start to boot, and you should be greeted with a <code>login:</code> prompt. Funtoo Linux has been successfully installed!
+
=== Profiles ===
+
 
+
Once you have rebooted into Funtoo Linux, you can further customize your system to your needs by using Funtoo Profiles.
+
 
+
[[Funtoo 1.0 Profile|Funtoo profiles]] are used to define defaults for Portage specific to your needs. There are 4 basic profile types: arch, build, [[Flavors and Mix-ins|flavor, and mix-ins]]:
+
 
+
;arch: typically <code>x86-32bit</code> or <code>x86-64bit</code>, this defines the processor type and support of your system. This is defined when your stage was built and should not be changed.
+
;build: defines whether your system is a <code>current</code>, <code>stable</code> or <code>experimental</code> build. <code>current</code> systems will have newer packages unmasked than <code>stable</code> systems.
+
;flavor: defines the general type of system, such as <code>server</code> or <code>desktop</code>, and will set default USE flags appropriate for your needs.
+
;mix-ins: define various optional settings that you may be interested in enabling.
+
 
+
One arch, build and flavor must be set for each Funtoo Linux system, while mix-ins are optional and you can enable more than one if desired.
+
 
+
Remember that profiles can often be inherited. For example, the <code>desktop</code> flavor inherits the <code>workstation</code> flavor settings, which in turn inherits the <code>X</code> and <code>audio</code> mix-ins. You can view this by using eselect:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile show
+
Currently set profiles:
+
    arch: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit
+
  build: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current
+
  flavor: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/desktop
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/kde
+
 
+
Automatically enabled profiles:
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/print
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/X
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/audio
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/console-extras
+
</console>
+
 
+
To view installed profiles:
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile list
+
</console>
+
 
+
To change the profile flavor:
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile set-flavor 7
+
</console>
+
 
+
To add a mix-in:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile add 10
+
</console>
+
  
===Next Steps===
+
Sync a specific overlays ebuilds:
 +
<console>###i## layman -s <overlay name></console>
  
If you are brand new to Funtoo Linux and Gentoo Linux, please check out [[Funtoo Linux First Steps]], which will help get you acquainted with your new system. We also have a category for our [[:Category:Official Documentation|official documentation]], which includes all docs that we officially maintain for installation and operation of Funtoo Linux.
+
Sync all overlays:
 +
<console>###i## layman -S</console>
  
We also have a number of pages dedicated to setting up your system, which you can find below. If you are interested in adding a page to this list, add it to the "First Steps" MediaWiki category.
+
Sync all overlays via eix:
 +
<console>###i## eix-sync</console>
  
{{#ask: [[Category:First Steps]] | format=ul }}
+
=== Troubleshooting ===
 +
Problem:
 +
Warning: an installed db file was not found at: ['/var/lib/layman/cache***.xml']
  
If your system did not boot correctly, see [[Installation Troubleshooting]] for steps you can take to resolve the problem.
+
Solution:
 +
<console>###i## layman -L</console>
  
[[Category:HOWTO]]
+
{{EbuildFooter}}
[[Category:Install]]
+
[[Category:Official Documentation]]
+
</div><div class="col-md-3 col-hidden-sm col-hidden-xs"><div id="tocwrap" >
+
__TOC__
+
</div></div></div>
+

Revision as of 12:00, February 3, 2015

app-portage/layman


Source Repository:Gentoo Portage Tree
Homepage

Summary: Tool to manage Gentoo overlays

Use Flags

bazaar
Support dev-vcs/bzr based overlays
cvs
Support dev-vcs/cvs based overlays
darcs
Support dev-vcs/darcs based overlays
g-sorcery
Support app-portage/g-sorcery based overlays
git
Support dev-vcs/git based overlays
gpg
Support app-crypt/gnupg signed overlays lists and manifests
mercurial
Support dev-vcs/mercurial based overlays
squashfs
Support mounting squashfs image overlays locally read-only
subversion
Support dev-vcs/subversion based overlays
sync-plugin-portage
Install the sys-apps/portage sync module

News

Mgorny

New OpenGL management in Funtoo

Funtoo is switching to an improved system for managing multiple OpenGL providers (Mesa/Xorg, AMD and nVidia). The update may involve blockers and file collisions.
30 March 2015 by Mgorny
Drobbins

Subarch Profiles are coming...

Subarch profiles are on their way! Learn more here.
29 March 2015 by Drobbins
Drobbins

RSS/Atom Support

You can now follow this news feed at http://www.funtoo.org/news/atom.xml .
10 February 2015 by Drobbins
View More News...

Layman

Tip

This is a wiki page. To edit it, Create a Funtoo account. Then log in and then click here to edit this page. See our editing guidelines to becoming a wiki-editing pro.

Layman is an "overlay" external repository management tool.

Installation

# emerge layman

make.conf must source laymans overlays for emerge to pull in packages from external sources. This line needs to be below everything else in make.conf.

# echo "source /var/lib/layman/make.conf" >> /etc/portage/make.conf

Using Layman

Fetch, and display a list of overlays:

# layman -L

Add an overlay to your system:

# layman -a <overlay name>

Delete an overlay from your system:

# layman -d <overlay name>

Masking Overlay Packages

Overlays have the power to override distro packages. To avoid conflicts, mask everything in the overlay, and unmask the packages that are necessary to your system.

/etc/portage/package.mask - mask all packages in an overlay
*/*::overlay-name
/etc/portage/package.unmask - unmask packages to be used
cat-egory/pack-age1
cat-egory/pack-age2

Sync

Sync a specific overlays ebuilds:

# layman -s <overlay name>

Sync all overlays:

# layman -S

Sync all overlays via eix:

# eix-sync

Troubleshooting

Problem: Warning: an installed db file was not found at: ['/var/lib/layman/cache***.xml']

Solution:

# layman -L