Difference between pages "Help:Namespaces" and "Help:Navigation"

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{{PD Help Page}}
 
{{PD Help Page}}
Pages on a MediaWiki wiki are grouped into collections called "'''namespaces'''", which differentiate between the purpose of the pages at a high level. Pages in certain namespaces can also have special properties or behave differently when they interact with other pages.
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When viewing any page on a MediaWiki wiki, you'll find three main navigation elements:
 +
# The [[#Sidebar|sidebar]] on the left gives you access to important pages in the wiki such as Recent changes or Upload file.
 +
# At the top of the page are links (often called [[#Page Tabs|tabs]]) which relate to the page currently displayed: its associated discussion page, the version history, and—most notably—the edit link.
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# In the top right corner you'll find [[#User Links|user links]]; as an anonymous user, you'll see a link to create an account or log in (they are the same page). As a logged-in user you have a collection of personal links, including ones to your user page and [[Help:Preferences|preferences]].
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 +
== Sidebar ==
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[[Image:M-en-sidebar.png|framed|right|Example sidebar, shown on the left of the page]]
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The sidebar is displayed on the left edge of the page below the site logo (if using the default MonoBook skin). This sidebar gives you access to important pages in the wiki such as Recent changes or Upload file.  
  
Namespaces are indicated in page titles by prefixing the page name with "<tt>namespace:</tt>", so the prefix "<tt>{{NAMESPACE}}:</tt>" in this page's title ("{{FULLPAGENAME}}") indicates that this page is in the {{NAMESPACE}} namespace. Note, however, that colons and prefixes can also appear in page titles ''without'' indicating a namespace: The page [[Foo:{{PAGENAME}}]] is a page located in the [[#0: (Main)|mainspace]] because the namespace "Foo" does not exist. Similarly the page [[{{NAMESPACE}}:Foo:{{PAGENAME}}]] is in the "{{NAMESPACE}}" namespace.
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=== Navigation ===
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Clicking on the logo brings you back to the main page of the wiki. The links in the navigation section just below will take you to important pages of the wiki. These links can be configured by site administrators.
  
==Standard namespaces==
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=== Toolbox ===
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The {{lcfirst:{{int:toolbox}}}} contains a selection of links which change depending on what type of page you are viewing.
  
The standard MediaWiki installation has sixteen namespaces which can contain user-generated content; there are also two special namespaces which contain pages created 'on the fly' by the MediaWiki software. The standard namespaces are organised in pairs, with each pair containing a 'subject namespace' and a 'discussion namespace'. The namespaces are numbered from zero such that all subject namespaces have even indices, and all talk namespaces have odd indices.
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;On all pages (except special pages):
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:* “{{int:whatlinkshere}}” takes you to a special page that lists the pages on this wiki which contain a link to the current page. This is helpful when you are looking for pages of related information. The “{{lcfirst:{{int:whatlinkshere}}}}” information can also be useful when you are refactoring wiki pages and need to check whether links to this page are still relevant after changes in the current page.
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:* The “{{lcfirst:{{int:recentchangeslinked}}}}” tool lists all recent changes in the pages linked to from the current page. Recent changes to all relevant template pages are included in the resulting page list. The "Hide minor edits" option that can be set in the user [[Help:Preferences|preferences]] applies, among other things, to “{{lcfirst:{{int:recentchangeslinked}}}}”.
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:
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;On all pages (including special pages):
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:* “{{int:upload}}” displays a special page that allows logged-in users to upload images and other files to the wiki. Uploaded files can be linked from or embedded in wiki pages. ''Uploading files, viewing files on the server, including them in wiki pages and managing the uploaded files is discussed in the [[Help:Managing files|managing files]] section of this manual.'' This is not displayed if file uploading has been disabled or not enabled in the first place.
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:* The “{{lcfirst:{{int:specialpages}}}}” tool lists the MediaWiki special pages. In MediaWiki terminology, a special page is one that presents information about the Wiki and/or allows access to administration activities for the wiki. For example, a list of users registered with the wiki, statistics about the wiki such as the number of pages and number of page edits, system logs, a list of orphaned pages, and so on. These special pages are commonly generated when the special page is loaded rather than being stored in the wiki database.<br/>''The function and use of the default special pages can be found in the [[Help:Special pages|special pages]] section of this manual.''
  
====-2: {{ns:-2}}====
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== Page Tabs ==
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[[Image:M-en-pagetabs.png|framed|right|Default page tabs at the top of the page]]
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The page tabs are displayed at the top of the page to the right of the site logo (if using the default MonoBook skin). These tabs allow you to perform actions or view pages that are related to the current page. The available default actions include: viewing, editing, and discussing the current page. The specific tabs displayed on your pages depend on whether or not you are logged into the wiki and whether you have sysop (administrator) privileges on the wiki. On special pages only the namespace tab is displayed.
  
This namespace is an alias used for direct linking to media files: the link [[{{ns:-2}}:Wiki.png]] links to just the image rather than the image description page, which would be [[:{{ns:6}}:Wiki.png]].
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;Default for all users
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:* “[[Help:Namespaces|namespace]]” (page, help, special page, template, user page etc.)
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:* “{{lcfirst:{{int:talk}}}}”
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:* “{{lcfirst:{{int:edit}}}}” (may read “{{lcfirst:{{int:viewsource}}}}” if anonymous editing is disabled, the page is in the MediaWiki: namespace, or the page is protected)
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:* “{{lcfirst:{{int:history_short}}}}
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:
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;Extra tabs for logged-in users:
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:* “{{lcfirst:{{int:move}}}}”
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:* “{{lcfirst:{{int:watch}}}}”
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:
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;Extra tabs for sysops:
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:* “{{lcfirst:{{int:protect}}}}”
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:* “{{lcfirst:{{int:delete}}}}”
  
====-1: {{ns:-1}}====
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Administrators can {{Mediawiki|FAQ#How_do_I_add.2Fremove_tabs_throughout_my_wiki.3F|add or remove tabs}} by using JavaScript or installing extensions, so the tabs you see may be different depending on which wiki you are using.
  
This namespace is used to group [[Help:Special pages|special pages]], reports and interfaces that are generated 'on demand' by MediaWiki and which are not directly editable. It is not possible to create pages in this namespace except by modifying or extending the MediaWiki software.
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== User Links ==
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[[Image:M-en-userlinks.png|framed|right|Default user links at the top right of the page]]
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The user links are displayed at the top far right of the page (if using the default MonoBook skin). These tabs allow the logged-in user to view and edit their user page and wiki preferences. Additionally, the user links allow the user to quickly access their contributions to the wiki and logout.
  
====0: (Main)====
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For anonymous users the user links is replaced by a link to the wiki login page or, if enabled, a link to your IP address and your IP address's talk page.
  
Namespace zero is the 'null' namespace, commonly called the "main namespace" or "mainspace". This namespace typically contains the bulk of the content pages in a wiki. This namespace generally has no special properties.
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; “<username>”
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: This links to your user page which is where you can put information about yourself, store bits of information you want to remember or whatever else you fancy.
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; “{{lcfirst:{{int:mytalk}}}}”
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: This links to your discussion page, where people can leave messages for you.
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; “{{lcfirst:{{int:mypreferences}}}}”
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: Allows you to change your personal site preferences.
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; “{{lcfirst:{{int:mywatchlist}}}}”
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: A list of all pages that you are watching.  Pages can be added to this list by clicking “{{lcfirst:{{int:watch}}}}” at the top of the page.
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; “{{lcfirst:{{int:mycontris}}}}”
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: A list of all contributions you have made to the wiki.
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; “{{lcfirst:{{int:logout}}}}”
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: Click this link to log out of the wiki.
  
====1: {{ns:1}}====
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{{Languages|Help:Navigation}}
 
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[[Category:Help|Navigation]]
The "Talk" namespace is the discussion namespace attached to the mainspace.  It has no special properties.
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====2: {{ns:2}}====
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Each user has a corresponding page in the {{ns:2}} namespace, which is linked to from edit histories, watchlists, recent changes, etc; wherever an individual user is uniquely identified. This page, and subpages of it, can be used by users to record information about themselves or to test and draft new content.  Pages of the form "<tt style="whitespace:nowrap">{{ns:2}}:''UserName''/Foo'''.js'''</tt>" or "<tt style="whitespace:nowrap">{{ns:2}}:''UserName''/Foo'''.css'''</tt>" can only be edited by the user themselves or by [[Help:Sysops and permissions|administrators]].
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====3: {{ns:3}}====
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This namespace is the talkspace associated with the {{ns:2}} namespace. Pages in this namespace are mainly used to leave messages for particular users or inform them of discussions that may be of interest to them. To facilitate this, when a page  [[{{ns:3}}:UserName]] is edited, whenever the user 'UserName' loads a page, a notice is displayed at the top of the page informing them of the edit:
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<div class="usermessage plainlinks">You have [[{{ns:3}}:UserName|<span style="color:#002bb8">{{MediaWiki:newmessageslink}}</span>]] ([{{fullurl:{{ns:3}}:UserName&diff=cur}} <span style="color:#002bb8">{{MediaWiki:newmessagesdifflink}}</span>]).</div>
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This notice continues to appear until the user loads their user talk page to read the message.
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====4: {{ns:4}}====
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This is a content namespace that is normally used for meta-discussions related to the operation and development of the wiki. It has no special properties.
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====5: {{ns:5}}====
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This is a talk namespace that is normally used for discussions related to the associated content pages.  It has no special properties.
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====6: {{ns:6}}====
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[[Image:Wiki.png|right]]
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The {{ns:6}} namespace is used to store metadata for images, videos, sound files and other media accessed via the {{ns:-2}} namespace.  Each file has a corresponding page in the {{ns:6}} namespace which is often used to hold licensing data.  Linking ''directly'' to a page in this namespace instead includes the media file inline in the page: <tt style="white-space:nowrap"><nowiki>[[</nowiki>{{ns:6}}<nowiki>:Wiki.png|right]]</nowiki></tt> produces the image to the right.  See [[Help:Images]] for more details of this link syntax.  To create an [[Help:Links|internal link]] to the file page, you need to add a colon to the front of the namespace: <tt style="white-space:nowrap"><nowiki>[[:</nowiki>{{ns:6}}<nowiki>:Wiki.png|right]]</nowiki></tt> produces [[:{{ns:6}}:Wiki.png]].
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The standard MediaWiki installation has alias "Image" for {{ns:6}} namespace - See [[Help:Namespaces#Namespace aliases|Namespace aliases]].
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====7: {{ns:7}}====
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This is a talk namespace that is normally used for discussions related to the associated media files.  It has no special properties.
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====8: {{ns:8}}====
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The MediaWiki namespace is used to hold system messages and other important content. For instance, the page [[{{ns:8}}:Edit]] (or [[{{ns:8}}:Vector-view-edit]] in the default "Vector" skin) contains the text that fills the "{{MediaWiki:Edit}}" tab at the top of every page.  If that page exists, it overrides the default content, which is "edit this page". Similarly, [[{{ns:8}}:Common.css]] is the system message which holds the [[wikipedia:Cascading Style Sheets|CSS]] code that is loaded for all users for each page. It has the special property that the entire namespace is fully protected and can only be edited by administrators.
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====9: {{ns:9}}====
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This is a talk namespace that is normally used for discussions related to the associated system messages.  It has no special properties.
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====10: {{ns:10}}====
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The {{ns:10}} namespace is used to hold [[Help:Templates|templates]], blocks of text or wikicode that are intended to be transcluded in several other pages.  To facilitate this it has the special property that it is the ''default'' namespace for transclusions: the wikicode <tt style="white-space:nowrap"><nowiki>{{Foo}}</nowiki></tt> is equivalent to <tt style="white-space:nowrap"><nowiki>{{</nowiki>'''{{ns:10}}:'''<nowiki>Foo}}</nowiki></tt>.
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====11: {{ns:11}}====
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This is a talk namespace that is normally used for discussions related to the associated template pages.  It has no special properties.
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====12: {{ns:12}}====
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The {{ns:12}} namespace is usually used to hold help files, instructions and 'how-to' guides.  It has no special properties.
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====13: {{ns:13}}====
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This is a talk namespace that is normally used for discussions related to the associated help pages.  It has no special properties.
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====14: {{ns:14}}====
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The {{ns:14}} namespace contains [[Help:Categories|categories]], dynamic lists of other pages.  To facilitate this, linking ''directly'' to a category page does not output an inline link, but instead includes the page into the associated category page.  So the code <tt style="white-space:nowrap"><nowiki>[[</nowiki>{{ns:14}}<nowiki>:Help]]</nowiki></tt> causes a category link to appear at the bottom of the page (at the bottom in the box marked "{{MediaWiki:Pagecategories}}"). Clicking on that link takes you to the category page, where this page is visible in the category list.  To create an inline link to a category page, you need to add a colon to the front of the namespace: <tt style="white-space:nowrap"><nowiki>[[:</nowiki>{{ns:14}}<nowiki>:Help]]</nowiki></tt> produces [[:{{ns:14}}:Help]].  See [[Help:Categories]] for more details on category link syntax.
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====15: {{ns:15}}====
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This is a talk namespace that is normally used for discussions related to the associated category pages.  It has no special properties.
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==Localisation==
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Namespace names and aliases can be localized in TranslateWiki.net, using the special page [[translatewiki:Special:AdvancedTranslate|AdvancedTranslate]]. To get started, visit [[translatewiki:Special:FirstSteps]].
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===Renaming namespaces===
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{| {{prettytable|width=0|style=float:right}}
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|-
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!{{hl2}}|Canonical name
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!{{hl2}}|Localized name
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|-
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| Media          || {{ns:-2}}
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|-
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| Special        || {{ns:-1}}
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|-
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|(Main)          || {{ns:0}}
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|-
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| Talk          || {{ns:1}}
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|-
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| User          || {{ns:2}}
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|-
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| User talk      || {{ns:3}}
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|-
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| Project        || {{ns:4}}
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|-
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| Project talk  || {{ns:5}}
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|-
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| File          || {{ns:6}}
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|-
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| File talk      || {{ns:7}}
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|-
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| MediaWiki      || {{ns:8}}
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|-
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| MediaWiki talk || {{ns:9}}
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|-
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| Template      || {{ns:10}}
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|-
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| Template talk  || {{ns:11}}
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|-
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| Help          || {{ns:12}}
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|-
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| Help talk      || {{ns:13}}
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|-
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| Category       || {{ns:14}}
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|-
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| Category talk  || {{ns:15}}
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|}
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Namespace names can be translated into languages other than English and individual namespaces can be renamed, as set by a wiki's system admins.  These names are known as the 'localized' namespace names. However, all namespaces have a 'canonical name', the original English name which will work on any installation of MediaWiki. So linking to [[User:Foo]] will always locate the user page for the user foo, whether the wiki is in French (where the localized name would be [[:Utilisateur:Foo]]), Russian ([[:Участник:Foo]]), or Hindi ([[:सदस्य:Foo]]). The canonical namespace names are given in the table to the right along with their localized names on this wiki.
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===Namespace aliases===
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On some wikis there are also namespace ''aliases'': alternative names that will also be resolved to the localised names.  For instance, a wiki might define "T" as an alias for {{ns:10}}, such that typing [[T:Foo]] is equivalent to [[{{ns:10}}:Foo]], saving a few characters and seconds. An actual example would be on the [[wikipedia:|English Wikipedia]], where "WP" is an alias for {{ns:4}}, which is the namespace "Wikipedia". By default, "Image" is an alias for {{ns:6}}, so <tt style="white-space:nowrap;"><nowiki>[[Image:Wiki.png]]</nowiki></tt> is equivalent to <tt style="white-space:nowrap;"><nowiki>[[</nowiki>{{ns:6}}<nowiki>:Wiki.png]]</nowiki></tt>.
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===Custom namespaces===
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:''See {{mediawiki|Manual:Using custom namespaces}} for more information''.
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Some wikis may wish to organise their content in ways that do not fit into this standard set of namespaces.  A wiki may define additional namespaces to facilitate this; these namespaces behave exactly like normal namespaces, and generally have indices greater than or equal to 100.  These custom namespaces generally have no special properties.
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==Identifying namespaces==
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There are a number of ways by which the namespace of a particular page can be identified:
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;Magic words
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The [[Help:Magic word|magic word]] <tt><nowiki>{{NAMESPACE}}</nowiki></tt> returns the value of the namespace the page is in.
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;JavaScript
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The JavaScript variable <tt>wgCanonicalNamespace</tt> contains the full namespace name.  The variable <tt>wgNamespaceNumber</tt> contains the numerical index of the namespace.
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;CSS
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The <tt><nowiki><body></nowiki></tt> tag of the HTML page output is given two CSS classes that vary by namespace: A class <tt>ns-#</tt>, where # is the index of the namespace, and <tt>ns-XXX</tt>, where XXX is "<tt>subject</tt>" for all content namespaces, "<tt>special</tt>" for pages in the {{ns:-1}} namespace, and "<tt>talk</tt>" for talk namespaces. So CSS code such as the following can be used to change the appearance of an object based on its namespace:
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<source lang=css>
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.ns-subject a
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{  /* All links on content pages to be green. */
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    color: #00FF00;
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}
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.ns-talk a
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{      /* Links on talk pages to be blue. */
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    color: #0000FF;
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}
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.ns-3 a
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{        /* and links on user talk pages to be red */
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    color: #FF0000;
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}
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</source>
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;API
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You can get a complete list of all the namespaces used on this wiki from the API:
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:{{SERVER}}/w/api.php?action=query&meta=siteinfo&siprop=namespaces
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== See also ==
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* {{mediawiki|Manual:Namespace}}
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* {{mediawiki|Manual:Using custom namespaces}}
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{{Languages}}
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[[Category:Help|Namespaces]]
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[[Category:Namespace|Namespaces]]
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Latest revision as of 16:54, 29 October 2010

PD Important note: When you edit this page, you agree to release your contribution into the public domain. If you don't want this or can't do this because of license restrictions, please don't edit. This page is one of the Public Domain Help Pages, which can be freely copied into fresh wiki installations and/or distributed with MediaWiki software; see Help:Contents for an overview of all pages. See Project:PD help/Copying for instructions. PD

When viewing any page on a MediaWiki wiki, you'll find three main navigation elements:

  1. The sidebar on the left gives you access to important pages in the wiki such as Recent changes or Upload file.
  2. At the top of the page are links (often called tabs) which relate to the page currently displayed: its associated discussion page, the version history, and—most notably—the edit link.
  3. In the top right corner you'll find user links; as an anonymous user, you'll see a link to create an account or log in (they are the same page). As a logged-in user you have a collection of personal links, including ones to your user page and preferences.

Sidebar

Example sidebar, shown on the left of the page

The sidebar is displayed on the left edge of the page below the site logo (if using the default MonoBook skin). This sidebar gives you access to important pages in the wiki such as Recent changes or Upload file.

Navigation

Clicking on the logo brings you back to the main page of the wiki. The links in the navigation section just below will take you to important pages of the wiki. These links can be configured by site administrators.

Toolbox

The tools contains a selection of links which change depending on what type of page you are viewing.

On all pages (except special pages)
  • “What links here” takes you to a special page that lists the pages on this wiki which contain a link to the current page. This is helpful when you are looking for pages of related information. The “what links here” information can also be useful when you are refactoring wiki pages and need to check whether links to this page are still relevant after changes in the current page.
  • The “related changes” tool lists all recent changes in the pages linked to from the current page. Recent changes to all relevant template pages are included in the resulting page list. The "Hide minor edits" option that can be set in the user preferences applies, among other things, to “related changes”.
On all pages (including special pages)
  • “Upload file” displays a special page that allows logged-in users to upload images and other files to the wiki. Uploaded files can be linked from or embedded in wiki pages. Uploading files, viewing files on the server, including them in wiki pages and managing the uploaded files is discussed in the managing files section of this manual. This is not displayed if file uploading has been disabled or not enabled in the first place.
  • The “special pages” tool lists the MediaWiki special pages. In MediaWiki terminology, a special page is one that presents information about the Wiki and/or allows access to administration activities for the wiki. For example, a list of users registered with the wiki, statistics about the wiki such as the number of pages and number of page edits, system logs, a list of orphaned pages, and so on. These special pages are commonly generated when the special page is loaded rather than being stored in the wiki database.
    The function and use of the default special pages can be found in the special pages section of this manual.

Page Tabs

Default page tabs at the top of the page

The page tabs are displayed at the top of the page to the right of the site logo (if using the default MonoBook skin). These tabs allow you to perform actions or view pages that are related to the current page. The available default actions include: viewing, editing, and discussing the current page. The specific tabs displayed on your pages depend on whether or not you are logged into the wiki and whether you have sysop (administrator) privileges on the wiki. On special pages only the namespace tab is displayed.

Default for all users
  • namespace” (page, help, special page, template, user page etc.)
  • “discussion”
  • “edit” (may read “view source” if anonymous editing is disabled, the page is in the MediaWiki: namespace, or the page is protected)
  • “history”
Extra tabs for logged-in users
  • “move”
  • “watch”
Extra tabs for sysops
  • “protect”
  • “delete”

Administrators can add or remove tabs by using JavaScript or installing extensions, so the tabs you see may be different depending on which wiki you are using.

User Links

Default user links at the top right of the page

The user links are displayed at the top far right of the page (if using the default MonoBook skin). These tabs allow the logged-in user to view and edit their user page and wiki preferences. Additionally, the user links allow the user to quickly access their contributions to the wiki and logout.

For anonymous users the user links is replaced by a link to the wiki login page or, if enabled, a link to your IP address and your IP address's talk page.

“<username>”
This links to your user page which is where you can put information about yourself, store bits of information you want to remember or whatever else you fancy.
“talk”
This links to your discussion page, where people can leave messages for you.
“preferences”
Allows you to change your personal site preferences.
“watchlist”
A list of all pages that you are watching. Pages can be added to this list by clicking “watch” at the top of the page.
“contributions”
A list of all contributions you have made to the wiki.
“log out”
Click this link to log out of the wiki.
Language: English