Difference between pages "Install/pt-br/Partitioning" and "Install/fr/Configuring"

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<noinclude>
 +
{{InstallPart|configuration du système Funtoo Linux}}
 +
</noinclude>
 +
=== Configuration du système ===
  
===Particionamento===
+
Comme toutes les distributions Linux, Funtoo Linux possède son lot de fichiers de configuration. Un fichier qui ne doit en aucun cas échapper à votre attention est <code>/etc/fstab</code>. À défaut de le configurer correctement, Funtoo Linux refusera de démarrer.
  
=== Prepare o Disco Rígido ===
+
==== L'éditeur nano ====
  
==== Introdução ====
+
L'éditeur de texte disponible dans l'environnement «chroot» se nomme <code>nano</code>. Pour éditer l'un des fichiers ci-dessous, vous le lancez ainsi:
 
+
Em tempos remotos, só havia um jeito de inicializar (boot)o computador compatível com a arquitetura PC. Todos os nossos desktops e servidores tinham uma BIOS padrão, todos os nossos hard drives utilizavam Master Boot Records, e eram particionados utilizando esquema de partição MBR. E nós gostávamos disso daquele jeito mesmo!
+
 
+
Então, depois veio os EFI e UEFI, que são firmware em novo-estilo projetados para inicializar sistemas, junto as tabelas de partição GPT para suportar discos superiores à 2.2TB. Tudo repentino, nós tínhamos uma variedade de opções para inicializar os sistemas Linux, tornando o que uma vez era um método único de encaixe de tudo  (one-method-fits-all) aproximar-se á algo muito mais complexo.
+
 
+
Vamos parar por um momento para rever as opções de boot disponíveis para você. Esse pequeno Guia utiliza, e recomenda, o método da BIOS à moda antiga inicializando e usando um MBR. Funciona. Não há nada de errado com ele. Se seu disco é do tamanho de  2TB ou menor, ele não vai impedir que você use toda a capacidade do seu disco, também.
+
 
+
Mas, há alguns situações onde  o método da não é satisfatório. Se você obtiver um disco de tamando superior à 2TB, então partições MBR não o permitirão acessar todo o seu  armazenamento (storage). Então essa é uma rasão. Outra rasão é que há alguns então assim chamados  "PC" por aí afora que não suportam maias BIOS, e lhe força a utilizar o UEFI para inicializar. Então, sem compaixão pelas pessoas que se enquadram nessa situação, esse Guia de Instalação documenta boot pelo UEFI também.
+
 
+
Nossa recomandação ainda é ir pela moda antiga a não ser  que tenha resão para não. Chamamos esse método  de método '''BIOS + GRUB (MBR)'''. Esse é o método tradicional de configurar um PC para inicilizar o Linux.
+
 
+
Se você precisa usar UEFI para inicilizar, recomendamos não utillizar de maneira alguma o MBR para boot, já que alguns sistemas suportam as some UEFI, mas outros não. Ao inves disso, recomendamos utilizar o UEFI para inicializar o GRUB, que carregará o Linux. Referimos a esse método como o método '''UEFI + GRUB (GPT)'''.
+
 
+
E sim, há ainda mais, alguns aos quais estão documentados na página [[Boot Methods]]. Nós costumavamos recomendar um étodo '''BIOS + GRUB (GPT)''', mas esse não tem consistentemente suporte em uma variedade de hardware.
+
 
+
'''A grande pergunta é -- que método de boot eu devo usar?''' Aqui está como responder.
+
 
+
;Princípio nº 1 - Moda antiga (Old School): Se você pode inicializar com confiavelmente o System Rescue CD e ele exibe um menu inicial azul claro, você está inializando o CD usando a BIOS, e provavelmente você pode assim inicilizar o Funtoo Linux ussando a BIOS. Então, vá pela moda antiga e use a boot da BIO, ''a não ser que'' você tenha alguma resão para usar UEFI, tal qual ter um disco do tamando superior a 2.2TB. Nesse caso, veja o segundo Princípio nº 2, já que seu sistema pode ter suporte também à  boot UEFI.
+
 
+
;Princípio nº 2 - Moderno (New School): Se você pode confiavelmente inicilizar o System Rescue CD e ele te exibe um menu inicial preto e branco -- parabens, seu sistema é configurado para suportar o boot via UEFI. Isso significa que você está pronto para instalar o install Funtoo Linux para inicializá-lo via UEFI. Seu sistema pode ainda ter suporte para inicilizar com a BIOS, mas  somente se for testado pela UEFI primeiro. Você pode dar uma bisbilhotada na sua configuração de boot pelo BIOS e brincar com isso.
+
 
+
;Qual pe a Grande Diferença entra a Moda Antiga e a Moderna?: Aqui está a coisa. Se você for com as as partições MBR a moda antiga, sua partição <code>/boot</code> será um sistema de arquivos ext2, e você utilizará <code>fdisk</code> para criar suas partições MBR. Se você com as partições GPT e boot via UEFI, sua partição <code>/boot</code> será um sistema de arquivos vfat, por que isso é o que o UEFI é capaz de ler, e você utilizará <code>gdisk</code> para criar suas partiçẽos GP. E você instalará o GRUB um pouco diferente. É a respeito disso que tudo vem abaixo, em caso você estivesse curioso/a.
+
 
+
{{Note|'''Algumas placas mãe pode aparentar suporte a UEFI, mas não suportam.''' Faça sua pesquisa. Por exemplo, O BIOS atribuído na minha Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD7 rev 1.1 tem uma opção de abilitar o boot UEFI por CD/DVD. '''Isso não é o sufuciente para abilitar boot via UEFI pelo hard drives e instalar o Funtoo Linux.''' UEFI deve ter tanto para mídia removível (assim você pode inicializar o System Rescue CD utilizando o UEFI) quanto mídias fixas (assim você pode inicializar sua nova instalação do Funtoo Linux.) Revelá-se que revisões posteriores dessa placa (rev 3.0) tem um novo BIOS que suporta completamente o boot do UEFI.  Isso pode apontar para o terceiro princípio -- conheça teu hardware.}}
+
 
+
==== Old-School (BIOS/MBR) Method ====
+
 
+
{{Note|Use this method if you are booting using your BIOS, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was light blue. If you're going to use the new-school method, [[#New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method|click here to jump down to UEFI/GPT.]]}}
+
 
+
===== Preparaçaõ =====
+
 
+
Primeito, é uma boa idea certificar-se de que encontrou o hard disk correto para particioná-lo. Try this command and verify that <code>/dev/sda</code> is the disk that you want to partition:
+
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##fdisk -l /dev/sda
+
(chroot) # ##i##nano -w /etc/fstab
 
+
Disk /dev/sda: 640.1 GB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
+
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
+
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
+
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
+
Disk label type: gpt
+
 
+
 
+
#        Start          End    Size  Type            Name
+
1        2048  1250263694  596.2G  Linux filesyste Linux filesystem
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Agora, é recomendado que você apague quaisquer tabelas de partição MBR ou GPT existente no disco, which could confuse the system's BIOS at boot time. We do this using <code>sgdisk</code>:
+
{{Note|L'argument '''w''' prévient le retour à la ligne automatique. On le recommande lors de l'édition de fichiers de configuration. Cela évite la possible insertion de caractères étrangers générant une erreur à l'exécution du contenu.}}
{{fancywarning|This will make any existing partitions inaccessible! You are '''strongly''' cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.}}
+
 +
Utilisez les touches fléchées pour vous déplacez dans l'éditeur. Les touches telles «backspace» et «delete» réagissent tel que prévu. Appuyez sur Ctrl+X pour sauvegarder le fichier en quittant l'éditeur.
  
<console>
+
==== Fichiers de configuration ====
# ##i##sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda
+
  
Creating new GPT entries.
+
Voici une liste de fichiers de configuration à éditer pour modification selon vos besoins:
GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or
+
other utilities.
+
</console>
+
  
This output is also nothing to worry about, as the command still succeded:
+
{{TableStart}}
 +
<tr class="active"><th>Fichier</th>
 +
<th>Dois-je le modifier?</th>
 +
<th>Description</th>
 +
</tr><tr  class="danger">
 +
<td><code>/etc/fstab</code></td>
 +
<td>'''Oui - requis'''</td>
 +
<td>Instructions de montage de vos partitions lors du démarrage.</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><code>/etc/localtime</code></td>
 +
<td>''Recommandé''</td>
 +
<td>Votre fuseau horraire. Lien symbolique vers /usr/share/zoneinfo (i.e. /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/Toronto) </td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><code>/etc/portage/make.conf</code></td>
 +
<td>''Recommandé''</td>
 +
<td>Paramètres utilisés par gcc (compilateur), portage, et make.</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code></td>
 +
<td>''Recommandé''</td>
 +
<td>Sert à affecter un nom à la machine.</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><code>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</code></td>
 +
<td>Optionnel</td>
 +
<td>Fichier de configuration pour le mappage du clavier. À modifier si votre clavier n'est pas US.</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><code>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</code></td>
 +
<td>Optionnel</td>
 +
<td>Fichier de configuration de l'horloge du système.</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><code>/etc/conf.d/modules</code></td>
 +
<td>Optionnel</td>
 +
<td>Modules du noyau à charger automatiquement au démarrage. Voir [[Additional Kernel Resources]] pour plus de détails.</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><code>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</code></td>
 +
<td>Optionnel</td>
 +
<td>Définition de la police d'affichage en console. Le service consolefont doit être actif. Démarrez-le ainsi: rc-update add consolefont.</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><code>profiles</code></td>
 +
<td>Optionnel</td>
 +
<td>Réglages pour Portage.</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
{{TableEnd}}
  
<console>
+
{{Warning|Éditez le fichier <code>etc/fstab</code> avant de redémarrer. Vous devez modifier le contenu des colonnes «fs» et «type» afin qu'il soit conforme aux partitions et aux systèmes de fichiers que vous avez créés avec <code>gdisk</code> ou <code>fdisk</code>. Vous pourriez être incapale de lancer Funtoo Linux en passant outre à cette étape.}}
***************************************************************
+
Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format
+
in memory.  
+
***************************************************************
+
</console>
+
  
===== Partitioning =====
+
==== /etc/fstab ====
  
Now we will use <code>fdisk</code> to create the MBR partition table and partitions:
+
La commande <code>mount</code> lit le fichier <code>/etc/fstab</code> lors du démarrage du système. Les énoncés de ce fichier fournissent à cette commande des informations à propos des partitions et lui indiquent comment les monter. Éditez le fichier afin que son contenu reflète exactement le partitionnement que vous avez créé plus tôt.
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##fdisk /dev/sda
+
(chroot) # ##i##nano -w /etc/fstab
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Within <code>fdisk</code>, follow these steps:
+
<pre>
 +
# The root filesystem should have a pass number of either 0 or 1.
 +
# All other filesystems should have a pass number of 0 or greater than 1.
 +
#
 +
# NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
 +
#
 +
# See the manpage fstab(5) for more information.
 +
#
 +
# <fs>     <mountpoint>  <type>  <opts>        <dump/pass>
  
'''Empty the partition table''':
+
/dev/sda1    /boot        ext2    noauto,noatime 1 2
 +
/dev/sda2    none          swap    sw            0 0
 +
/dev/sda3    /            ext4    noatime        0 1
 +
#/dev/cdrom  /mnt/cdrom    auto    noauto,ro      0 0
 +
</pre>
  
<console>
+
{{Note|Currently, our default <code>/etc/fstab</code> has the root filesystem as <code>/dev/sda4</code> and the swap partition as <code>/dev/sda3</code>. These will need to be changed to <code>/dev/sda3</code> and <code>/dev/sda2</code>, respectively.}}
Command (m for help): ##i##o ↵
+
</console>
+
  
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
+
{{Note|If you're using UEFI to boot, change the <code>/dev/sda1</code> line so it says <code>vfat</code> instead of <code>ext2</code>. Similarly, make sure that the <code>/dev/sda3</code> line specifies either <code>xfs</code> or <code>ext4</code>, depending on which filesystem you chose at filesystem-creation time.}}
  
<console>
+
==== /etc/localtime ====
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
+
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
+
Partition number (1-4, default 1): ##i##↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+128M ↵
+
</console>
+
  
'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
+
<code>/etc/localtime</code> is used to specify the timezone that your machine is in, and defaults to UTC. If you would like your Funtoo Linux system to use local time, you should replace <code>/etc/localtime</code> with a symbolic link to the timezone that you wish to use.
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
+
(chroot) # ##i##ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/MST7MDT /etc/localtime
Partition type (default p): ##i##
+
Partition number (2-4, default 2): ##i##↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+2G ↵
+
Command (m for help): ##i##t ↵
+
Partition number (1,2, default 2): ##i## ↵
+
Hex code (type L to list all codes): ##i##82 ↵
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
'''Create the root partition:'''
+
The above sets the timezone to Mountain Standard Time (with daylight savings). Type <code>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</code> to see what timezones are available. There are also sub-directories containing timezones described by location.
  
<console>
+
==== /etc/make.conf ====
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
+
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
+
Partition number (3,4, default 3): ##i##↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##↵
+
</console>
+
  
'''Verify the partition table:'''
+
MAKEOPTS can be used to define how many parallel compilations should occur when you compile a package, which can speed up compilation significantly. A rule of thumb is the number of CPUs (or CPU threads) in your system plus one. If for example you have a dual core processor without [[wikipedia:Hyper-threading|hyper-threading]], then you would set MAKEOPTS to 3:
  
<console>
+
<pre>
Command (m for help): ##i##p
+
MAKEOPTS="-j3"
 
+
</pre>
Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
+
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
+
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
+
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
+
Disklabel type: dos
+
Disk identifier: 0x82abc9a6
+
 
+
Device    Boot    Start      End    Blocks  Id System
+
/dev/sda1          2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
+
/dev/sda2        264192  4458495  2097152  82 Linux swap / Solaris
+
/dev/sda3        4458496 625142447 310341976  83 Linux
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Write the parition table to disk:'''
+
  
 +
If you are unsure about how many processors/threads you have then use nproc to help you.
 
<console>
 
<console>
Command (m for help): ##i##w
+
(chroot) # ##i##nproc
 +
16
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Your new MBR partition table will now be written to your system disk.
+
Set MAKEOPTS to this number plus one:
  
{{Note|You're done with partitioning! Now, jump over to [[#Creating filesystems|Creating filesystems]].}}
+
<pre>
 +
MAKEOPTS="-j17"
 +
</pre>
  
==== New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method ====
+
USE flags define what functionality is enabled when packages are built. It is not recommended to add a lot of them during installation; you should wait until you have a working, bootable system before changing your USE flags. A USE flag prefixed with a minus ("<code>-</code>") sign tells Portage not to use the flag when compiling.  A Funtoo guide to USE flags will be available in the future. For now, you can find out more information about USE flags in the [http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-amd64.xml?part=2&chap=2 Gentoo Handbook].
  
{{Note|Use this method if you are booting using UEFI, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was black and white. If it was light blue, this method will not work.}}
+
LINGUAS tells Portage which local language to compile the system and applications in (those who use LINGUAS variable like OpenOffice). It is not usually necessary to set this if you use English. If you want another language such as French (fr) or German (de), set LINGUAS appropriately:
  
The <tt>gdisk</tt> commands to create a GPT partition table are as follows. Adapt sizes as necessary, although these defaults will work for most users. Start <code>gdisk</code>:
+
<pre>
 +
LINGUAS="fr"
 +
</pre>
  
 +
==== /etc/conf.d/hwclock ====
 +
If you dual-boot with Windows, you'll need to edit this file and change the value of '''clock''' from '''UTC''' to '''local''', because Windows will set your hardware clock to local time every time you boot Windows. Otherwise you normally wouldn't need to edit this file.
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##gdisk
+
(chroot) # ##i##nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Within <tt>gdisk</tt>, follow these steps:
+
==== Autres francisations ====
  
'''Create a new empty partition table''' (This ''will'' erase all data on the disk when saved):
+
Le système Funtoo Linux est livré en Anglais américain. Il supporte la norme de codage [[http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/UTF-8|UTF-8]]. Nous devons modifier quelques fichiers afin d'avoir un système qui soit entièrement en Français. Nous avons déjà modifié le fichier <code>/etc/portage/make.conf</code> afin que le système soit compilé en Français. Nous avons toutefois d'autres fichiers à modifier, par exemple un clavier français ou canadien-français.
 
+
<console>
+
Command: ##i##o ↵
+
This option deletes all partitions and creates a new protective MBR.
+
Proceed? (Y/N): ##i##y ↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
+
 
+
<console>
+
Command: ##i##n ↵
+
Partition Number: ##i##1 ↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+500M ↵
+
Hex Code: ##i##↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
+
 
+
<console>
+
Command: ##i##n ↵
+
Partition Number: ##i##2 ↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+4G ↵
+
Hex Code: ##i##8200 ↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Create Partition 3''' (root):
+
 
+
<console>
+
Command: ##i##n ↵
+
Partition Number: ##i##3 ↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##↵##!i## (for rest of disk)
+
Hex Code: ##i##↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
Along the way, you can type "<tt>p</tt>" and hit Enter to view your current partition table. If you make a mistake, you can type "<tt>d</tt>" to delete an existing partition that you created. When you are satisfied with your partition setup, type "<tt>w</tt>" to write your configuration to disk:
+
 
+
'''Write Partition Table To Disk''':
+
 
+
<console>
+
Command: ##i##w ↵
+
Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): ##i##Y ↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
The partition table will now be written to disk and <tt>gdisk</tt> will close.
+
 
+
Now, your GPT/GUID partitions have been created, and will show up as the following ''block devices'' under Linux:
+
 
+
* <tt>/dev/sda1</tt>, which will be used to hold the <tt>/boot</tt> filesystem,
+
* <tt>/dev/sda2</tt>, which will be used for swap space, and
+
* <tt>/dev/sda3</tt>, which will hold your root filesystem.
+
 
+
==== Creating filesystems ====
+
 
+
{{Note|This section covers both BIOS ''and'' UEFI installs. Don't skip it!}}
+
 
+
Before your newly-created partitions can be used, the block devices need to be initialized with filesystem ''metadata''. This process is known as ''creating a filesystem'' on the block devices. After filesystems are created on the block devices, they can be mounted and used to store files.
+
 
+
Let's keep this simple. Are you using old-school MBR partitions? If so, let's create an ext2 filesystem on /dev/sda1:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
+
</console>
+
 
+
If you're using new-school GPT partitions for UEFI, you'll want to create a vfat filesystem on /dev/sda1, because this is what UEFI is able to read:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now, let's create a swap partition. This partition will be used as disk-based virtual memory for your Funtoo Linux system.
+
 
+
You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, since it is not used to store files. But it is necessary to initialize it using the <code>mkswap</code> command. Then we'll run the <code>swapon</code> command to make your newly-initialized swap space immediately active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkswap /dev/sda2
+
# ##i##swapon /dev/sda2
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now, we need to create a root filesystem. This is where Funtoo Linux will live. We generally recommend ext4 or XFS root filesystems. If you're not sure, choose ext4. Here's how to create a root ext4 filesystem:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3
+
</console>
+
 
+
...and here's how to create an XFS root filesystem, if you choose to use XFS:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkfs.xfs /dev/sda3
+
</console>
+
 
+
Your filesystems (and swap) have all now been initialized, so that that can be mounted (attached to your existing directory heirarchy) and used to store files. We are ready to begin installing Funtoo Linux on these brand-new filesystems.
+
 
+
{{fancywarning|1=
+
When deploying an OpenVZ host, please use ext4 exclusively. The Parallels development team tests extensively with ext4, and modern versions of <code>openvz-rhel6-stable</code> are '''not''' compatible with XFS, and you may experience kernel bugs.
+
}}
+
 
+
==== Montando os filesystems ====
+
 
+
Monte os recem-criados filesystems como a seguir, criando <code>/mnt/funtoo</code> como ponto de montagem da instalação:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/funtoo
+
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot
+
</console>
+
 
+
Optionally, if you have a separate filesystem for <code>/home</code> or anything else:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/home
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/funtoo/home
+
</console>
+
 
+
If you have <code>/tmp</code> or <code>/var/tmp</code> on a separate filesystem, be sure to change the permissions of the mount point to be globally-writeable after mounting, as follows:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##chmod 1777 /mnt/funtoo/tmp
+
</console>
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Revision as of 23:48, December 30, 2014


Note

This is a template that is used as part of the Installation instructions which covers: configuration du système Funtoo Linux. Templates are being used to allow multiple variant install guides that use most of the same re-usable parts.


Configuration du système

Comme toutes les distributions Linux, Funtoo Linux possède son lot de fichiers de configuration. Un fichier qui ne doit en aucun cas échapper à votre attention est /etc/fstab. À défaut de le configurer correctement, Funtoo Linux refusera de démarrer.

L'éditeur nano

L'éditeur de texte disponible dans l'environnement «chroot» se nomme nano. Pour éditer l'un des fichiers ci-dessous, vous le lancez ainsi:

(chroot) # nano -w /etc/fstab
Note

L'argument w prévient le retour à la ligne automatique. On le recommande lors de l'édition de fichiers de configuration. Cela évite la possible insertion de caractères étrangers générant une erreur à l'exécution du contenu.

Utilisez les touches fléchées pour vous déplacez dans l'éditeur. Les touches telles «backspace» et «delete» réagissent tel que prévu. Appuyez sur Ctrl+X pour sauvegarder le fichier en quittant l'éditeur.

Fichiers de configuration

Voici une liste de fichiers de configuration à éditer pour modification selon vos besoins:

Fichier Dois-je le modifier? Description
/etc/fstab Oui - requis Instructions de montage de vos partitions lors du démarrage.
/etc/localtime Recommandé Votre fuseau horraire. Lien symbolique vers /usr/share/zoneinfo (i.e. /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/Toronto)
/etc/portage/make.conf Recommandé Paramètres utilisés par gcc (compilateur), portage, et make.
/etc/conf.d/hostname Recommandé Sert à affecter un nom à la machine.
/etc/conf.d/keymaps Optionnel Fichier de configuration pour le mappage du clavier. À modifier si votre clavier n'est pas US.
/etc/conf.d/hwclock Optionnel Fichier de configuration de l'horloge du système.
/etc/conf.d/modules Optionnel Modules du noyau à charger automatiquement au démarrage. Voir Additional Kernel Resources pour plus de détails.
/etc/conf.d/consolefont Optionnel Définition de la police d'affichage en console. Le service consolefont doit être actif. Démarrez-le ainsi: rc-update add consolefont.
profiles Optionnel Réglages pour Portage.
Warning

Éditez le fichier etc/fstab avant de redémarrer. Vous devez modifier le contenu des colonnes «fs» et «type» afin qu'il soit conforme aux partitions et aux systèmes de fichiers que vous avez créés avec gdisk ou fdisk. Vous pourriez être incapale de lancer Funtoo Linux en passant outre à cette étape.

/etc/fstab

La commande mount lit le fichier /etc/fstab lors du démarrage du système. Les énoncés de ce fichier fournissent à cette commande des informations à propos des partitions et lui indiquent comment les monter. Éditez le fichier afin que son contenu reflète exactement le partitionnement que vous avez créé plus tôt.

(chroot) # nano -w /etc/fstab
# The root filesystem should have a pass number of either 0 or 1.
# All other filesystems should have a pass number of 0 or greater than 1.
#
# NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
#
# See the manpage fstab(5) for more information.
#
# <fs>	     <mountpoint>  <type>  <opts>         <dump/pass>

/dev/sda1    /boot         ext2    noauto,noatime 1 2
/dev/sda2    none          swap    sw             0 0
/dev/sda3    /             ext4    noatime        0 1
#/dev/cdrom  /mnt/cdrom    auto    noauto,ro      0 0
Note

Currently, our default /etc/fstab has the root filesystem as /dev/sda4 and the swap partition as /dev/sda3. These will need to be changed to /dev/sda3 and /dev/sda2, respectively.

Note

If you're using UEFI to boot, change the /dev/sda1 line so it says vfat instead of ext2. Similarly, make sure that the /dev/sda3 line specifies either xfs or ext4, depending on which filesystem you chose at filesystem-creation time.

/etc/localtime

/etc/localtime is used to specify the timezone that your machine is in, and defaults to UTC. If you would like your Funtoo Linux system to use local time, you should replace /etc/localtime with a symbolic link to the timezone that you wish to use.

(chroot) # ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/MST7MDT /etc/localtime

The above sets the timezone to Mountain Standard Time (with daylight savings). Type ls /usr/share/zoneinfo to see what timezones are available. There are also sub-directories containing timezones described by location.

/etc/make.conf

MAKEOPTS can be used to define how many parallel compilations should occur when you compile a package, which can speed up compilation significantly. A rule of thumb is the number of CPUs (or CPU threads) in your system plus one. If for example you have a dual core processor without hyper-threading, then you would set MAKEOPTS to 3:

MAKEOPTS="-j3" 

If you are unsure about how many processors/threads you have then use nproc to help you.

(chroot) # nproc
16

Set MAKEOPTS to this number plus one:

MAKEOPTS="-j17"

USE flags define what functionality is enabled when packages are built. It is not recommended to add a lot of them during installation; you should wait until you have a working, bootable system before changing your USE flags. A USE flag prefixed with a minus ("-") sign tells Portage not to use the flag when compiling. A Funtoo guide to USE flags will be available in the future. For now, you can find out more information about USE flags in the Gentoo Handbook.

LINGUAS tells Portage which local language to compile the system and applications in (those who use LINGUAS variable like OpenOffice). It is not usually necessary to set this if you use English. If you want another language such as French (fr) or German (de), set LINGUAS appropriately:

LINGUAS="fr"

/etc/conf.d/hwclock

If you dual-boot with Windows, you'll need to edit this file and change the value of clock from UTC to local, because Windows will set your hardware clock to local time every time you boot Windows. Otherwise you normally wouldn't need to edit this file.

(chroot) # nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock

Autres francisations

Le système Funtoo Linux est livré en Anglais américain. Il supporte la norme de codage [[1]]. Nous devons modifier quelques fichiers afin d'avoir un système qui soit entièrement en Français. Nous avons déjà modifié le fichier /etc/portage/make.conf afin que le système soit compilé en Français. Nous avons toutefois d'autres fichiers à modifier, par exemple un clavier français ou canadien-français.