Difference between pages "Install/de/Partitioning" and "Package:Debian-sources"

< Install‎ | de(Difference between pages)
(Vorbereiten der Festplatte)
 
m (Undo revision 9467 by Pytony (talk))
 
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<noinclude>
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{{Ebuild
{{InstallPart|the process of partitioning and filesystem creation}}
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|Summary=This is the Debian kernel. This is default recommended kernel to use in http://www.funtoo.org/Funtoo_Linux_Installation
</noinclude>
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|CatPkg=sys-kernel/debian-sources
===Vorbereiten der Festplatte ===
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|Maintainer=Oleg,
 
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|Homepage=http://www.funtoo.org/Funtoo_Linux_Kernels
Diese Sektion handelt über die verschiedenen Möglichkeiten Funtoo Linux auf einer Festplatte zu installieren und zu booten.
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==== Einleitung ====
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Früher gab es nur eine Variante einen PC zu booten, alle Desktop- und Servercomputer hatten einen voreingestellten PC  BIOS, alle Festplatten nutzten den Master Boot Record (MBR) um das System zu booten und unsere Festplatten waren  mit dem MBR Partitionsschema in verschiedene Regionen partitioniert. Das war einfach wie's gemacht wurde. Und uns gefiel es!
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Dann kamen EFI und UEFI, neue firmware designt das System zu booten, gemeinsam mit GTP Partitionstabellen um Partitionen auf Festplatten größer als 2.2TB zu definieren.
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Plötzlich haben wir eine breite Wahl von Optionen, Linux Systeme zu installieren und zu booten. Damit haben wir nun eine komplexere Situation als damals.
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Nehmen wir einen Moment um die verfügbaren Optionen, zur Konfiguration der Festplatte um Linux zu booten, zu besprechen.
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Diese Installationsanleitung nutzt und empfiehlt die old-school Methode des BIOS bootens mit hilfe des MBR. Es funktioniert und (außer in seltenen Fällen) ist universal unterstützt.
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Mit dieser Methode ist nichts falsch, solange deine Systemfestplatte nur bis zu 2TB groß ist. Solange wird diese Methode die volle Kapazität deiner Festplatte nutzen.
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Es gibt aber einige Situationen, in denen diese old-school Methode nicht optimal ist. Falls du eine Systemfestplatte >2TB hast, dann erlauben dir MBR Partitionen keinen Zugang zum gesamten Speicher.
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Das ist also ein Grund gegen diese Methode. Ein Weiterer ist, dass es "PC" Systeme gibt, welche das booten via BIOS nicht mehr unterstützen und dich zwingen via UEFI zu booten.
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Aus Mitleid für die PC-Nutzer, die in diese Zwickmühle geraten, decken wir das Booten via UEFI zusätzlich in dieser Installationsanleitung ab .
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Unsere empfehlung ist immer noch die old-school Methode, es seiden du hast Gründe dagegen.
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Der Bootloader, den wir nutzen um den Linux Kernel zu laden, heißt GRUB. Also nennen wir die Methode  '''BIOS + GRUB(MBR) ''' Methode.
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Es ist die traditionelle Methode um ein Linux System bootbar zu machen.
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Falls du via UEFI booten willst, empfehlen wir dir nicht den MBR zum booten zu nutzen, was nur manche Systeme unterstützen, sondern wir empfehlen UEFI zu nutzen um GRUB zu laden.
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GRUB wird dann das Linux System booten. Wir referenzieren zu dieser Methode mit ''UEFI + GRUB (GPT)'''.
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Und ja, es gibt noch weitere Methoden, von denen einige auf der [[Boot Methods]] Seite dokumentiert sind.
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Unsere Empfehlung war immer die  '''BIOS + GRUB (GPT)'' Methode, welche allerdings nun nicht mehr konsistent und hardwareübergreifend unterstützt wird.
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'''Die größte Frage ist immer -- Welche Bootmethode sollst du nutzen?''' Hier ist mein Gedankengang.
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;Grundsatz 1 - Old School: If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial light blue menu, you are booting the CD using the BIOS, and it's likely that you can thus boot Funtoo Linux using the BIOS. So, go old-school and use BIOS booting, ''unless'' you have some reason to use UEFI, such as having a >2.2TB system disk. In that case, see Principle 2, as your system may also support UEFI booting.
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;Principle 2 - New School: If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial black and white menu -- congratulations, your system is configured to support UEFI booting. This means that you are ready to install Funtoo Linux to boot via UEFI. Your system may still support BIOS booting, but just be trying UEFI first. You can poke around in your BIOS boot configuration and play with this.
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;What's the Big Difference between Old School and New School?: Here's the deal. If you go with old-school MBR partitions, your <code>/boot</code> partition will be an ext2 filesystem, and you'll use <code>fdisk</code> to create your MBR partitions. If you go with new-school GPT partitions and UEFI booting, your <code>/boot</code> partition will be a vfat filesystem, because this is what UEFI is able to read, and you will use <code>gdisk</code> to create your GPT partitions. And you'll install GRUB a bit differently. That's about all it comes down to, in case you were curious.
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;Also Note: To install Funtoo Linux to boot via the New School UEFI method, you must boot System Rescue CD using UEFI -- and see an initial black and white screen. Otherwise, UEFI will not be active and you will not be able to set it up!
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{{Note|'''Some motherboards may appear to support UEFI, but don't.''' Do your research. For example, the Award BIOS in my Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD7 rev 1.1 has an option to enable UEFI boot for CD/DVD. '''This is not sufficient for enabling UEFI boot for hard drives and installing Funtoo Linux.''' UEFI must be supported for both removable media (so you can boot System Rescue CD using UEFI) as well as fixed media (so you can boot your new Funtoo Linux installation.) It turns out that later revisions of this board (rev 3.0) have a new BIOS that fully supports UEFI boot.  This may point to a third principle -- know thy hardware.}}
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==== Old-School (BIOS/MBR) Method ====
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{{Note|Use this method if you are booting using your BIOS, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was light blue. If you're going to use the new-school method, [[#New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method|click here to jump down to UEFI/GPT.]]}}
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===== Preparation =====
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First, it's a good idea to make sure that you've found the correct hard disk to partition. Try this command and verify that <code>/dev/sda</code> is the disk that you want to partition:
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<console>
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# ##i##fdisk -l /dev/sda
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Disk /dev/sda: 640.1 GB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
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Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
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Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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Disk label type: gpt
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#        Start          End    Size  Type            Name
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1        2048  1250263694  596.2G  Linux filesyste Linux filesystem
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</console>
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Now, it's recommended that you erase any existing MBR or GPT partition tables on the disk, which could confuse the system's BIOS at boot time. We do this using <code>sgdisk</code>:
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{{fancywarning|This will make any existing partitions inaccessible! You are '''strongly''' cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.}}
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<console>
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# ##i##sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda
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Creating new GPT entries.
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GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or
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other utilities.
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</console>
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This output is also nothing to worry about, as the command still succeded:
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<console>
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***************************************************************
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Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format
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in memory.
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***************************************************************
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</console>
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===== Partitioning =====
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Now we will use <code>fdisk</code> to create the MBR partition table and partitions:
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<console>
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# ##i##fdisk /dev/sda
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</console>
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Within <code>fdisk</code>, follow these steps:
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'''Empty the partition table''':
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##o ↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
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Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
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Partition number (1-4, default 1): ##i##↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##+128M ↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
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Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
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Partition number (2-4, default 2): ##i##↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##+2G ↵
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Command (m for help): ##i##t ↵
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Partition number (1,2, default 2): ##i## ↵
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Hex code (type L to list all codes): ##i##82 ↵
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</console>
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'''Create the root partition:'''
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
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Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
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Partition number (3,4, default 3): ##i##↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##↵
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</console>
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'''Verify the partition table:'''
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##p
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Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
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Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
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Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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Disklabel type: dos
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Disk identifier: 0x82abc9a6
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Device    Boot    Start      End    Blocks  Id System
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/dev/sda1          2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
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/dev/sda2        264192  4458495  2097152  82 Linux swap / Solaris
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/dev/sda3        4458496 625142447 310341976  83 Linux
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</console>
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'''Write the parition table to disk:'''
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##w
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</console>
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Your new MBR partition table will now be written to your system disk.
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{{Note|You're done with partitioning! Now, jump over to [[#Creating filesystems|Creating filesystems]].}}
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==== New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method ====
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{{Note|Use this method if you are booting using UEFI, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was black and white. If it was light blue, this method will not work.}}
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The <tt>gdisk</tt> commands to create a GPT partition table are as follows. Adapt sizes as necessary, although these defaults will work for most users. Start <code>gdisk</code>:
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<console>
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# ##i##gdisk /dev/sda
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</console>
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Within <tt>gdisk</tt>, follow these steps:
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'''Create a new empty partition table''' (This ''will'' erase all data on the disk when saved):
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<console>
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Command: ##i##o ↵
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This option deletes all partitions and creates a new protective MBR.
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Proceed? (Y/N): ##i##y ↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
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<console>
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Command: ##i##n ↵
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Partition Number: ##i##1 ↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##+500M ↵
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Hex Code: ##i##↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
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<console>
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Command: ##i##n ↵
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Partition Number: ##i##2 ↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##+4G ↵
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Hex Code: ##i##8200 ↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 3''' (root):
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<console>
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Command: ##i##n ↵
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Partition Number: ##i##3 ↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##↵##!i## (for rest of disk)
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Hex Code: ##i##↵
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</console>
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Along the way, you can type "<tt>p</tt>" and hit Enter to view your current partition table. If you make a mistake, you can type "<tt>d</tt>" to delete an existing partition that you created. When you are satisfied with your partition setup, type "<tt>w</tt>" to write your configuration to disk:
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'''Write Partition Table To Disk''':
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<console>
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Command: ##i##w ↵
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Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): ##i##Y ↵
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</console>
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The partition table will now be written to disk and <tt>gdisk</tt> will close.
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Now, your GPT/GUID partitions have been created, and will show up as the following ''block devices'' under Linux:
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* <tt>/dev/sda1</tt>, which will be used to hold the <tt>/boot</tt> filesystem,
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* <tt>/dev/sda2</tt>, which will be used for swap space, and
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* <tt>/dev/sda3</tt>, which will hold your root filesystem.
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==== Creating filesystems ====
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{{Note|This section covers both BIOS ''and'' UEFI installs. Don't skip it!}}
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Before your newly-created partitions can be used, the block devices need to be initialized with filesystem ''metadata''. This process is known as ''creating a filesystem'' on the block devices. After filesystems are created on the block devices, they can be mounted and used to store files.
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Let's keep this simple. Are you using old-school MBR partitions? If so, let's create an ext2 filesystem on /dev/sda1:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
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</console>
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If you're using new-school GPT partitions for UEFI, you'll want to create a vfat filesystem on /dev/sda1, because this is what UEFI is able to read:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1
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</console>
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Now, let's create a swap partition. This partition will be used as disk-based virtual memory for your Funtoo Linux system.
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You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, since it is not used to store files. But it is necessary to initialize it using the <code>mkswap</code> command. Then we'll run the <code>swapon</code> command to make your newly-initialized swap space immediately active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkswap /dev/sda2
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# ##i##swapon /dev/sda2
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</console>
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Now, we need to create a root filesystem. This is where Funtoo Linux will live. We generally recommend ext4 or XFS root filesystems. If you're not sure, choose ext4. Here's how to create a root ext4 filesystem:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3
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</console>
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...and here's how to create an XFS root filesystem, if you choose to use XFS:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkfs.xfs /dev/sda3
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</console>
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Your filesystems (and swap) have all now been initialized, so that that can be mounted (attached to your existing directory heirarchy) and used to store files. We are ready to begin installing Funtoo Linux on these brand-new filesystems.
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{{fancywarning|1=
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When deploying an OpenVZ host, please use ext4 exclusively. The Parallels development team tests extensively with ext4, and modern versions of <code>openvz-rhel6-stable</code> are '''not''' compatible with XFS, and you may experience kernel bugs.
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}}
 
}}
 
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== Introduction ==
==== Mounting filesystems ====
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This is the Debian kernel. It is roughly equal to a kernel shipped by Debian Linux in their releases. Ebuild now support the <code>binary</code> USE flag. The aim of this ebuild is to have support for near all possible hardware and users shouldn't really dig into configs, aka "install and forget".  Daniel has added a special config-extract command which can be used to list all available official Debian kernel configurations, and generate them from the Debian files included with the kernel.
 
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== Usage ==
Mount the newly-created filesystems as follows, creating <code>/mnt/funtoo</code> as the installation mount point:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo
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# ##i##mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/funtoo
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# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
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# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot
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</console>
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Optionally, if you have a separate filesystem for <code>/home</code> or anything else:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/home
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# ##i##mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/funtoo/home
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</console>
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If you have <code>/tmp</code> or <code>/var/tmp</code> on a separate filesystem, be sure to change the permissions of the mount point to be globally-writeable after mounting, as follows:
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<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##chmod 1777 /mnt/funtoo/tmp
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###i## echo "sys-kernel/debian-sources binary" >> /etc/portage/package.use
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###i## emerge debian-sources
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###i## nano -w /etc/boot.conf
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###i## boot-update
 
</console>
 
</console>
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{{fancyimportant|1=
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<code>debian-sources</code> with <code>binary</code> USE flag also automatically installing a /usr/src/linux symlink pointing to debian kernel.}}
 +
== Advanced use ==
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Additional information about using <code>config-extract</code> tool and genkernel tips can be found here:
 +
http://www.funtoo.org/Funtoo_Linux_Kernels#Using_Debian-Sources_with_Genkernel
 +
{{EbuildFooter}}

Revision as of 19:44, April 1, 2015

sys-kernel/debian-sources


Current Maintainer(s):Oleg Vinichenko
Source Repository:Funtoo Overlay
Homepage

Summary: This is the Debian kernel. This is default recommended kernel to use in http://www.funtoo.org/Funtoo_Linux_Installation

Use Flags

binary
Builds and installs kernel automatically
rt
Applies the CONFIG_PREEMPT_RT patch series

News

Drobbins

Pre-built kernels!

Funtoo stage3's are now starting to offer pre-built kernels for ease of install. read more....
12 May 2015 by Drobbins
Drobbins

Better Experiences: Ego and Vim

Info on Funtoo's new personality tool called 'ego', and user-focused updates to vim's defaults.
27 April 2015 by Drobbins
Drobbins

How We're Keeping You At the Center of the Funtoo Universe

Read about recent developments that keep you, our users, at the forefront of our focus as Funtoo moves forward.
10 April 2015 by Drobbins
View More News...

Debian-sources

Tip

This is a wiki page. To edit it, Create a Funtoo account. Then log in and then click here to edit this page. See our editing guidelines to becoming a wiki-editing pro.

Introduction

This is the Debian kernel. It is roughly equal to a kernel shipped by Debian Linux in their releases. Ebuild now support the binary USE flag. The aim of this ebuild is to have support for near all possible hardware and users shouldn't really dig into configs, aka "install and forget". Daniel has added a special config-extract command which can be used to list all available official Debian kernel configurations, and generate them from the Debian files included with the kernel.

Usage

# echo "sys-kernel/debian-sources binary" >> /etc/portage/package.use
# emerge debian-sources
# nano -w /etc/boot.conf
# boot-update
Important

debian-sources with binary USE flag also automatically installing a /usr/src/linux symlink pointing to debian kernel.

Advanced use

Additional information about using config-extract tool and genkernel tips can be found here: http://www.funtoo.org/Funtoo_Linux_Kernels#Using_Debian-Sources_with_Genkernel