Difference between pages "Funtoo Hosting" and "Hostname"

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== Funtoo Linux Hosting ==
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==Introduction==
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A hostname is a unique name created to identify a machine on a network. In computer networking, a hostname  is a label that is assigned to a device connected to a computer network and that is used to identify the device in various forms of electronic communication such as the World Wide Web, e-mail or Usenet. Hostnames may be simple names consisting of a single word or phrase, or they may be structured.
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==Configuration==
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In Funtoo Linux <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> is the only configuration file for setting a hostname. In OpenRC framework <code>/etc/conf.d/foo</code> is the configuration file for a corresponding Init script <code>/etc/init.d/foo</code>.  With the case of hostname, default value in <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> is set to ''localhost'', means when system boots and OpenRC's <code>/etc/init.d/hostname</code> script started a hostname getting only ''localhost'' name.  How it looks?  In your shell promt this will look in following way, an example for root:
 +
<console>
 +
localhost ~ # ##i## Hello :)
 +
</console>
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Let's play a bit with a configuration. Open <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> with your favorite editor and set a hostname of your choice.  Below, I will use a real examples  from one of my working test boxes.
 +
<console>
 +
localhost ~ # ##i## nano /etc/conf.d/hostname
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</console>
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Let's set it to hostname="oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org". Save the file and restart  a hostname service:
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<console>
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localhost ~ # ##i## service hostname restart
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</console>
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Now, let's examine our changes, after a restarting a hostname
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<console>
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oleg-stable ~ # ##i## Hello :)
 +
</console>
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== Diving deeper==
 +
Notice, that in above output we seeing a shortened hostname and not a FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name). Don't be frustrated. This is  how  default bash promt <code>PS1</code> set. To get nice promts, please, follow http://www.funtoo.org/Prompt_Magic
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Another way to test our settings is using a '''hostname''' command. Here we will show only  some of it's features. Let's try to execute '''hostname''' command:
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<console>
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oleg-stable ~ # ##i## hostname
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oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org
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</console>
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Now we see our fully qualified domain name hostname just how we configured it in <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> in above paragraph. To get a short hostname we need to set '''-s ''' (short) argument to hostname command.
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<console>
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oleg-stable ~ # ##i## hostname -s
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oleg-stable
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</console>
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Good! Hostname offers more then just displaying a system host name but can also set one. Let's try:
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<console>
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oleg-stable ~ # ##i## hostname foo.bar.baz
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oleg-stable ~ # ##i## hostname
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foo.bar.baz
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</console>
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As you can see, we changed a hostname on-the-fly. This is not recommended way.
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{{fancywarning|Please, notice that using '''hostname''' command to configure will work temporary for a current session and will be reverted back to a value set in <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> file with next system restart.}}
  
If you support Funtoo Linux, we also want to support ''you'' in your Funtoo Linux adventure. Supporters of Funtoo Linux of at least $15/mo can request a Funtoo Linux virtual container. Here are the configurations currently being offered:
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Now that we got a brief description of a hostname and basic configuration steps, its time to reflect another important case which is directly related to a Funtoo Linux hostname generation, a hosts.
  
* $15/mo : '''4GB''' RAM, '''6''' CPU threads, 50GB disk
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==Hosts case==
* $30/mo : '''12GB''' RAM, '''12''' CPU threads, 100GB disk
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As per man page <code>hosts</code> stands for static table lookup for hostnames and it's configuration file is <code>/etc/hosts</code>. Here is how it looks
* $45/mo : '''48GB''' RAM, '''24''' CPU threads, 200GB disk
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{{file|name=/etc/hosts|body=
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# Auto-generated hostname. Please do not remove this comment.
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127.0.0.1      oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain
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::1            oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain
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}}
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As you can see it has entries from our <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code>. As you may have guessed, in Funtoo Linux <code>/etc/hosts</code> file entries are auto-generated, when OpenRC hostname service starts. Previously, it is used to edit <code>/etc/hosts</code> manually. In Funtoo Linux there is no such need.
  
As you can see, this pricing is well below market rates, and includes fast SSD (solid state disk) storage, one IPv4 address, and lots of bandwidth. We believe that by enabling you to do with great things with Funtoo Linux, our community and technology will benefit. So we see this as a win for everyone.
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What about custom hosts entries? This can be easily configured with 'aliases'. For example you want to have a hosts for your remote router or a computer in home LAN. Let's try to modify <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> with adding following - my remote computer oleg.distant.home has an IP 10.1.1.2:
 
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<console>
== Container FAQ ==
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oleg-stable ~ # ##i## echo 'aliases="10.1.12 oleg.distant.home"' >> /etc/conf.d/hostname
 
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oleg-stable ~ # ##i## service hostname restart
;How do I sign up?: Set up a monthly support subscription via PayPal or credit card on our [[Support Funtoo]] page. Then see the [[#Getting Started|Getting Started]] section below.
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</console>
 
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Examine our changes:
;Do I get root access?: Yes, you get full root access to your container.
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<console>
 
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oleg-stable ~ # ##i## cat /etc/hosts
;Can I reboot my container?: Yes, reboot normally and it will come back up.
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</console>
 
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{{file|name=/etc/hosts|body=
;How much bandwidth is ''really'' included?: Practically unlimited. Please let me know if you plan to go over several hundred gigabytes of traffic per month.
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# Auto-generated hostname. Please do not remove this comment.
 
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10.1.1.2        oleg.distant.home
;How do I upgrade the kernel in my VPS?: A virtual container shares a kernel with the host, so you do not have the ability to change the kernel from "inside" the container.
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127.0.0.1      oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain
 
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::1             oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain
;Can I run Docker inside my container?: The OpenVZ development team is the largest code contributor to the Linux Containers kernel code (which is part of Docker,) and we use OpenVZ, but right now it is not possible to run LXC inside an OpenVZ container. This may change with the release of newer OpenVZ kernels based on 3.x.
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}}
 
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{{fancyimportant|This next bit of information is important. A number of people have temporarily locked themselves out of their containers by setting up a firewall incorrectly. I plan to develop a firewall management UI that configures a firewall for you to make this step easier. For the time being, please avoid setting up a firewall unless you ''really'' need one.}}
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;Can I set up my own firewall?: Before you do, please contact me (Daniel) and let me know. I need to flip a few switches in your container to make iptables work properly. Otherwise it will silently fail on stateful firewalls and you may end up locking yourself out of your container.
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== Getting Started ==
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Once you have [[Support Funtoo|signed up for Funtoo Monthly support]], contact me (drobbins@funtoo.org) and request a virtual container. You'll need to send me two things:
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# The hostname you'd like for your container. It will be ''something''.host.funtoo.org.
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# Attach your SSH public key. I will use this to grant you root access to your container.
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== Generating SSH Keys ==
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To generate an SSH key pair, do this as the user that you'll be using to log in to your container:  
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$ ssh-keygen -t rsa
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If you specify a passphrase when prompted, your local private key (~/.ssh/id_rsa) will be encrypted, and ssh will prompt you for this passphrase prior to connecting. If you don't specify a passphrase, then you won't need to enter anything to connect but it you need to be extra careful that you don't allow others to access your private key.
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The file you will need to send me is ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub or ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub. This is the public key... it's safe to send over email since all I or anyone else can use it for is to grant you access to a system using your private key. Just don't send your private key to me.
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== Policies ==
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{{Policies}}
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=== VPS Usage Rules ===
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{{fancyimportant|Please read these policies and make sure you understand them. This is not an exhaustive list.}}
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The VPS is for '''your personal use'''. No reselling.  
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There is currently no Web panel - these servers will be set up using my own automated tool and you will be provided with ssh access. I can periodically reload VPS images as needed.  
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This service is offered as a thank-you gift to Funtoo Linux supporters as long as sufficient capacity is available, with no warranty for uptime or anything else.
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There are no refunds.  
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While I host several production sites on this infrastructure, you assume all risk for hosting your production services on your VPS.  
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I will make a best-effort-only attempt to provide support via IRC and email, and do not offer 24/7 support for your VPS.  
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'''US-Legal activities only. No spam will be tolerated.'''
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These VPS systems are intended for funtoo enthusiasts only. I am providing (particularly in the higher-level plans) generous default resource limits with the understanding that the VPS will be used for general Funtoo use and server stuff.  
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Compiling with -j(NUM-CPUS+1) is encouraged (this is Funtoo, after all -- I want you to enjoy fast compiles :), but it's not okay to continually max CPU, IO, or network utilization. '''So, no folding@home, massive file sharing, etc. '''
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I am currently not supporting IPv6 but will look into adding such support if there is enough interest.  
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'''You are responsible for backups. '''
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I reserve the right to change plans and pricing in the future.
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Revision as of 16:06, February 24, 2015

Introduction

A hostname is a unique name created to identify a machine on a network. In computer networking, a hostname is a label that is assigned to a device connected to a computer network and that is used to identify the device in various forms of electronic communication such as the World Wide Web, e-mail or Usenet. Hostnames may be simple names consisting of a single word or phrase, or they may be structured.

Configuration

In Funtoo Linux /etc/conf.d/hostname is the only configuration file for setting a hostname. In OpenRC framework /etc/conf.d/foo is the configuration file for a corresponding Init script /etc/init.d/foo. With the case of hostname, default value in /etc/conf.d/hostname is set to localhost, means when system boots and OpenRC's /etc/init.d/hostname script started a hostname getting only localhost name. How it looks? In your shell promt this will look in following way, an example for root:

localhost ~ #  Hello :)

Let's play a bit with a configuration. Open /etc/conf.d/hostname with your favorite editor and set a hostname of your choice. Below, I will use a real examples from one of my working test boxes.

localhost ~ #  nano /etc/conf.d/hostname

Let's set it to hostname="oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org". Save the file and restart a hostname service:

localhost ~ #  service hostname restart

Now, let's examine our changes, after a restarting a hostname

oleg-stable ~ #  Hello :)

Diving deeper

Notice, that in above output we seeing a shortened hostname and not a FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name). Don't be frustrated. This is how default bash promt PS1 set. To get nice promts, please, follow http://www.funtoo.org/Prompt_Magic Another way to test our settings is using a hostname command. Here we will show only some of it's features. Let's try to execute hostname command:

oleg-stable ~ #  hostname
oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org

Now we see our fully qualified domain name hostname just how we configured it in /etc/conf.d/hostname in above paragraph. To get a short hostname we need to set -s (short) argument to hostname command.

oleg-stable ~ #  hostname -s
oleg-stable

Good! Hostname offers more then just displaying a system host name but can also set one. Let's try:

oleg-stable ~ #  hostname foo.bar.baz
oleg-stable ~ #  hostname 
foo.bar.baz

As you can see, we changed a hostname on-the-fly. This is not recommended way.

Warning

Please, notice that using hostname command to configure will work temporary for a current session and will be reverted back to a value set in /etc/conf.d/hostname file with next system restart.

Now that we got a brief description of a hostname and basic configuration steps, its time to reflect another important case which is directly related to a Funtoo Linux hostname generation, a hosts.

Hosts case

As per man page hosts stands for static table lookup for hostnames and it's configuration file is /etc/hosts. Here is how it looks

/etc/hosts
# Auto-generated hostname. Please do not remove this comment.
127.0.0.1       oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain
::1             oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain

As you can see it has entries from our /etc/conf.d/hostname. As you may have guessed, in Funtoo Linux /etc/hosts file entries are auto-generated, when OpenRC hostname service starts. Previously, it is used to edit /etc/hosts manually. In Funtoo Linux there is no such need.

What about custom hosts entries? This can be easily configured with 'aliases'. For example you want to have a hosts for your remote router or a computer in home LAN. Let's try to modify /etc/conf.d/hostname with adding following - my remote computer oleg.distant.home has an IP 10.1.1.2:

oleg-stable ~ #  echo 'aliases="10.1.12 oleg.distant.home"' >> /etc/conf.d/hostname
oleg-stable ~ #  service hostname restart
Examine our changes:
oleg-stable ~ #  cat /etc/hosts
/etc/hosts
# Auto-generated hostname. Please do not remove this comment.
10.1.1.2        oleg.distant.home
127.0.0.1       oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain
::1             oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain