Difference between pages "GNOME First Steps" and "Hostname"

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== What is GNOME? ==
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==Introduction==
"GNOME 3 is an easy and elegant way to use your computer. It is designed to put you in control and bring freedom to everybody. GNOME 3 is developed by the GNOME community, a diverse, international group of contributors that is supported by an independent, non-profit foundation." [http://gnome.org GNOME]
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A hostname is a unique name created to identify a machine on a network. In computer networking, a hostname  is a label that is assigned to a device connected to a computer network and that is used to identify the device in various forms of electronic communication such as the World Wide Web, e-mail or Usenet. Hostnames may be simple names consisting of a single word or phrase, or they may be structured.
 
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==Configuration==
== Prerequisites ==
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In Funtoo Linux <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> is the only configuration file for setting a hostname. In OpenRC framework <code>/etc/conf.d/foo</code> is the configuration file for a corresponding Init script <code>/etc/init.d/foo</code>.  With the case of hostname, default value in <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> is set to ''localhost'', means when system boots and OpenRC's <code>/etc/init.d/hostname</code> script started a hostname getting only ''localhost'' name. How it looks?  In your shell promt this will look in following way, an example for root:
 
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Before installing GNOME, ensure that the [[X Window System]] has been installed.
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{{fancywarning|1=
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Please note that Linux kernel 3.15.* may still have serious incompatibility with various graphics drivers. If you like to use <tt>gentoo-sources</tt> or <tt>vanilla-sources</tt>, please use a 3.14.* kernel. This is of particular importance if you plan to run GNOME, and want to use NVIDIA (commercial or nouveau) or ATI (ati-drivers) graphics drivers.}}
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== Preparing to emerge ==
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To get your system ready to emerge gnome, it is recommended that you first set the gnome profile mix-in. To accomplish this, do the following:
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<console>
 
<console>
##r### ##b## eselect profile list
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localhost ~ # ##i## Hello :)
##g##Currently available mix-ins profiles:
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  [11]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/audio 
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  [12]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/console-extras 
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  [13]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd 
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  [14]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/gnome 
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  [15]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/kde 
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  [16]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/mate 
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  [17]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media 
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  [18]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/print 
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  [19]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/python3-only
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  [20]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/rhel5-compat
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  [21]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/server-db 
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  [22]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/server-mail
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  [23]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/server-web
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  [24]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/X
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  [25]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/xfce
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  [26]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/vmware-guest
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  [27]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/hardened
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</console>
 
</console>
After seeing a list of available profiles, we want to add in the appropriate number for the gnome mix-in. To do this, run the following:
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Let's play a bit with a configuration. Open <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> with your favorite editor and set a hostname of your choice. Below, I will use a real examples  from one of my working test boxes.
 
<console>
 
<console>
##r### ##b##eselect profile add 14
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localhost ~ # ##i## nano /etc/conf.d/hostname
 
</console>
 
</console>
 
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Let's set it to hostname="oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org". Save the file and restart  a hostname service:
By enabling the gnome mix-in, various USE and other settings will be optimized to provide you with a pain-free GNOME installation experience.
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== Emerging ==
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You are provided with two packages that will pull in this desktop environment:
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* ''gnome''
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{{fancynote|This is the "whole shabang" - pulls in a range of applications made for the gnome desktop environment including a few games, an archive manager, a system monitor, a web browser, a terminal, etc.}}
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* ''gnome-light''
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{{fancynote|As the name implies, this pulls in the base minimal you need to get a functioning GNOME Desktop Environment.}}
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=== GNOME 3.12 from a clean install ===
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==== gnome ====
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To emerge ''gnome'' run the following command
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<console>
 
<console>
# ##i## emerge -va gnome
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localhost ~ # ##i## service hostname restart
 
</console>
 
</console>
 
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Now, let's examine our changes, after a restarting a hostname
==== gnome-light ====
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To emerge ''gnome-light'' run the following command
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<console>
 
<console>
# ##i## emerge -va gnome-light
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oleg-stable ~ # ##i## Hello :)
 
</console>
 
</console>
 
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== Diving deeper==
=== Upgrading from GNOME 3.6 ===
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Notice, that in above output we seeing a shortened hostname and not a FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name). Don't be frustrated. This is  how  default bash promt <code>PS1</code> set. To get nice promts, please, follow http://www.funtoo.org/Prompt_Magic
 
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Another way to test our settings is using a '''hostname''' command. Here we will show only  some of it's features. Let's try to execute '''hostname''' command:
==== gnome ====
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To emerge ''gnome'', remove nautilus-open-terminal if it is installed as it now bundled into gnome-terminal
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<console>
 
<console>
# ##i## emerge -vaC nautilus-open-terminal
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oleg-stable ~ # ##i## hostname
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oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org
 
</console>
 
</console>
 
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Now we see our fully qualified domain name hostname just how we configured it in <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> in above paragraph. To get a short hostname we need to set '''-s ''' (short) argument to hostname command.
Then, run the following command
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<console>
 
<console>
# ##i## emerge -vauDN world
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oleg-stable ~ # ##i## hostname -s
 +
oleg-stable
 
</console>
 
</console>
 
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Good! Hostname offers more then just displaying a system host name but can also set one. Let's try:
==== gnome-light ====
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To emerge ''gnome-light'' remove the following packages as there have been changes since 3.6 (you will have up reinstall any packages that have been renamed after gnome-light completes).
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<console>
 
<console>
# ##i## emerge -vaC gnome-fallback gnome-panel gnome-screensaver metacity gnome-games gcalctool nautilus-open-terminal
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oleg-stable ~ # ##i## hostname foo.bar.baz
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oleg-stable ~ # ##i## hostname
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foo.bar.baz
 
</console>
 
</console>
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As you can see, we changed a hostname on-the-fly. This is not recommended way.
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{{fancywarning|Please, notice that using '''hostname''' command to configure will work temporary for a current session and will be reverted back to a value set in <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> file with next system restart.}}
  
Then, run the following command
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Now that we got a brief description of a hostname and basic configuration steps, its time to reflect another important case which is directly related to a Funtoo Linux hostname generation, a hosts.
  
<console>
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==Hosts case==
# ##i## emerge -vauDN world
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As per man page <code>hosts</code> stands for static table lookup for hostnames and it's configuration file is <code>/etc/hosts</code>. Here is how it looks
</console>
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{{file|name=/etc/hosts|body=
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# Auto-generated hostname. Please do not remove this comment.
 +
127.0.0.1      oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain
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::1            oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain
 +
}}
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As you can see it has entries from our <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code>. As you may have guessed, in Funtoo Linux <code>/etc/hosts</code> file entries are auto-generated, when OpenRC hostname service starts. Previously, it is used to edit <code>/etc/hosts</code> manually. In Funtoo Linux there is no such need.
  
Finally, restore any applications that have been renamed (such as gcalctool => gnome-calculator)
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What about custom hosts entries? This can be easily configured with 'aliases'. For example you want to have a hosts for your remote router or a computer in home LAN. Let's try to modify <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> with adding following - my remote computer oleg.distant.home has an IP 10.1.1.2:
 
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<console>
<console>
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oleg-stable ~ # ##i## echo 'aliases="10.1.12 oleg.distant.home"' >> /etc/conf.d/hostname
# ##i## emerge -va gnome-calculator
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oleg-stable ~ # ##i## service hostname restart
 
</console>
 
</console>
 
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Examine our changes:
== Subsystems ==
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=== Bluetooth ===
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For bluetooth support, ensure that:
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# Bluetooth support is enabled in your kernel (using modules is fine).
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# Your bluetooth hardware is turned on.
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# Add the <code>bluetooth</code> startup script to the default runlevel, and start it.
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This can be done as follows:
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<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##rc-update add bluetooth default
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oleg-stable ~ # ##i## cat /etc/hosts
# ##i##rc
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</console>
 
</console>
 
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{{file|name=/etc/hosts|body=
Once this is done, you should now be able to navigate to ''Settings'' -> ''Bluetooth'' and turn bluetooth on. The icon next to devices should now animate and you should be able to discover and add devices such as keyboards.
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# Auto-generated hostname. Please do not remove this comment.
 
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10.1.1.2        oleg.distant.home
=== Printing ===
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127.0.0.1      oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain
 
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::1            oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain
To enable printing support, add <code>cupsd</code> to the default runlevel:
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}}
 
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<console>
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# ##i##rc-update add cupsd default
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# ##i##rc
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</console>
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You should now be able to navigate to ''Settings'' -> ''Printers'' and add printers to your system, and print.
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=== Scanning ===
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To enable scanning support, add your user account to the <code>lp</code> group. This will allow your user to access the USB scanner.
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Then, <code>emerge xsane</code>, and run it. It should be able to access your scanner.
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== Finishing Touches ==
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=== X ===
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==== Setting up xdm (GUI log-in) ====
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Typically, you will want to use <tt>gdm</tt>, the GNOME display manager, to log in to GNOME. This will allow you to log in graphically, rather than using the text console.
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To enable gdm, edit <tt>/etc/conf.d/xdm</tt> and set <tt>DISPLAYMANAGER</tt> to <tt>gdm</tt> instead of <tt>xdm</tt>. Then, perform the following steps to add <tt>xdm</tt> to the default runlevel, and have it start automatically from now on when your system starts:
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<console>
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# ##i##rc-update add xdm default
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</console>
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Then, if you want to start it now do
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<console>
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# ##i##rc
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</console>
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But you should reboot to avoid having an open login terminal
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==== Setting up xinitrc (text log-in) ====
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Adding the following to your <tt>~/.xinitrc</tt> file is sufficient:
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<pre>
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# Fix Missing Applications in Gnome
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export XDG_MENU_PREFIX=gnome-
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# Properly Launch the Desired X Session
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exec ck-launch-session gnome-session
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</pre>
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Additionaly, if you need support for different input sources, there is no longer a need to configure ibus or scrim in your <tt>.xinitrc</tt> file as GNOME uses ibus natively. Simply configure it in the Control Center under Region & Langauge.
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=== Verify the inode/directory MimeType Handler ===
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In some odd instances, baobab might take priority over nautilus when handling the inode/directory MimeType. If this behavior is not desired, add the following to /home/~/.local/share/applications/mimeapps.list:
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<pre>
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[Added Associations]
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inode/directory=nautilus.desktop;baobab.desktop;
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</pre>
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=== Automatically Starting Applications at Login ===
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When using an old-fashioned <tt>.xinitrc</tt>, starting up applications when X starts is relatively easy. When using GDM, this can still be accomplished, by using the <tt>~/.xprofile</tt> file. Here's my sample <tt>.xprofile</tt> to start <tt>xflux</tt> to dim the screen at night:
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<pre>
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xflux -z 87107
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</pre>
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Remember to add a <tt>&</tt> at the end of any command that doesn't return to the shell prompt after running.
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[[Category:Desktop Environments]]
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[[Category:First Steps]]
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[[Category:Official Documentation]]
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Revision as of 16:06, February 24, 2015

Introduction

A hostname is a unique name created to identify a machine on a network. In computer networking, a hostname is a label that is assigned to a device connected to a computer network and that is used to identify the device in various forms of electronic communication such as the World Wide Web, e-mail or Usenet. Hostnames may be simple names consisting of a single word or phrase, or they may be structured.

Configuration

In Funtoo Linux /etc/conf.d/hostname is the only configuration file for setting a hostname. In OpenRC framework /etc/conf.d/foo is the configuration file for a corresponding Init script /etc/init.d/foo. With the case of hostname, default value in /etc/conf.d/hostname is set to localhost, means when system boots and OpenRC's /etc/init.d/hostname script started a hostname getting only localhost name. How it looks? In your shell promt this will look in following way, an example for root:

localhost ~ #  Hello :)

Let's play a bit with a configuration. Open /etc/conf.d/hostname with your favorite editor and set a hostname of your choice. Below, I will use a real examples from one of my working test boxes.

localhost ~ #  nano /etc/conf.d/hostname

Let's set it to hostname="oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org". Save the file and restart a hostname service:

localhost ~ #  service hostname restart

Now, let's examine our changes, after a restarting a hostname

oleg-stable ~ #  Hello :)

Diving deeper

Notice, that in above output we seeing a shortened hostname and not a FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name). Don't be frustrated. This is how default bash promt PS1 set. To get nice promts, please, follow http://www.funtoo.org/Prompt_Magic Another way to test our settings is using a hostname command. Here we will show only some of it's features. Let's try to execute hostname command:

oleg-stable ~ #  hostname
oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org

Now we see our fully qualified domain name hostname just how we configured it in /etc/conf.d/hostname in above paragraph. To get a short hostname we need to set -s (short) argument to hostname command.

oleg-stable ~ #  hostname -s
oleg-stable

Good! Hostname offers more then just displaying a system host name but can also set one. Let's try:

oleg-stable ~ #  hostname foo.bar.baz
oleg-stable ~ #  hostname 
foo.bar.baz

As you can see, we changed a hostname on-the-fly. This is not recommended way.

Warning

Please, notice that using hostname command to configure will work temporary for a current session and will be reverted back to a value set in /etc/conf.d/hostname file with next system restart.

Now that we got a brief description of a hostname and basic configuration steps, its time to reflect another important case which is directly related to a Funtoo Linux hostname generation, a hosts.

Hosts case

As per man page hosts stands for static table lookup for hostnames and it's configuration file is /etc/hosts. Here is how it looks

/etc/hosts
# Auto-generated hostname. Please do not remove this comment.
127.0.0.1       oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain
::1             oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain

As you can see it has entries from our /etc/conf.d/hostname. As you may have guessed, in Funtoo Linux /etc/hosts file entries are auto-generated, when OpenRC hostname service starts. Previously, it is used to edit /etc/hosts manually. In Funtoo Linux there is no such need.

What about custom hosts entries? This can be easily configured with 'aliases'. For example you want to have a hosts for your remote router or a computer in home LAN. Let's try to modify /etc/conf.d/hostname with adding following - my remote computer oleg.distant.home has an IP 10.1.1.2:

oleg-stable ~ #  echo 'aliases="10.1.12 oleg.distant.home"' >> /etc/conf.d/hostname
oleg-stable ~ #  service hostname restart
Examine our changes:
oleg-stable ~ #  cat /etc/hosts
/etc/hosts
# Auto-generated hostname. Please do not remove this comment.
10.1.1.2        oleg.distant.home
127.0.0.1       oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain
::1             oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain