Difference between pages "ZFS Install Guide" and "Funtoo Linux Installation"

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== Introduction ==
+
== Introduction ==  
  
This tutorial will show you how to install Funtoo on ZFS (rootfs). This tutorial is meant to be an "overlay" over the [[Funtoo_Linux_Installation|Regular Funtoo Installation]]. Follow the normal installation and only use this guide for steps 2, 3, and 8.
+
This document was written to help you install Funtoo Linux as concisely as possible, with a minimum number of distracting options regarding system configuration.  
  
=== Introduction to ZFS ===
+
These docs assume you have a "PC compatible" computer system with a standard PC BIOS. Many new computers support UEFI for booting, which is a new firmware interface that frequently replaces the older MBR-based BIOS. If you have a system with UEFI, you will want to use this documentation along with the [[UEFI Install Guide]], which will augment these instructions and explain how to get your system to boot. You may need to change your PC BIOS settings to enable or disable UEFI booting. The [[UEFI Install Guide]] has more information on this, and steps on how to determine if your system supports UEFI.
  
Since ZFS is a new technology for Linux, it can be helpful to understand some of its benefits, particularly in comparison to BTRFS, another popular next-generation Linux filesystem:
+
We also offer a [[ZFS Install Guide]], which augment the instructions on this page for those who want to install Funtoo Linux on ZFS.  If you are installing Funtoo Linux on [[Funtoo Linux Installation on ARM|ARM]] architecture, please see [[Funtoo Linux Installation on ARM]] for notable differences regarding ARM support. An experimental Funtoo Linux build also exists for [[Funtoo Linux Installation on SPARC|SPARC]] platforms. See [[Funtoo Linux Installation on SPARC]].
  
* On Linux, the ZFS code can be updated independently of the kernel to obtain the latest fixes. btrfs is exclusive to Linux and you need to build the latest kernel sources to get the latest fixes.
+
If you've had previous experience installing Gentoo Linux then a lot of steps will be familiar, but you should still read through as there are a few differences.
  
* ZFS is supported on multiple platforms. The platforms with the best support are Solaris, FreeBSD and Linux. Other platforms with varying degrees of support are NetBSD, Mac OS X and Windows. btrfs is exclusive to Linux.
+
== Installation Overview ==
  
* ZFS has the Adaptive Replacement Cache replacement algorithm while btrfs uses the Linux kernel's Last Recently Used replacement algorithm. The former often has an overwhelmingly superior hit rate, which means fewer disk accesses.
+
This is a basic overview of the Funtoo installation process:
  
* ZFS has the ZFS Intent Log and SLOG devices, which accelerates small synchronous write performance.
+
# [[#Live CD|Download and boot the live CD of your choice]].
 +
# [[#Prepare Hard Disk|Prepare your disk]].
 +
# [[#Creating filesystems|Create]] and [[#Mounting filesystems|mount]] filesystems.
 +
# [[#Installing the Stage 3 tarball|Install the Funtoo stage tarball]] of your choice.
 +
# [[#Chroot into Funtoo|Chroot into your new system]].
 +
# [[#Downloading the Portage tree|Download the Portage tree]].
 +
# [[#Configuring your system|Configure your system]] and [[#Configuring your network|network]].
 +
# [[#Configuring and installing the Linux kernel|Install a kernel]].
 +
# [[#Installing a Bootloader|Install a bootloader]].
 +
# [[#Finishing Steps|Complete final steps]].
 +
# [[#Restart your system|Reboot and enjoy]].
  
* ZFS handles internal fragmentation gracefully, such that you can fill it until 100%. Internal fragmentation in btrfs can make btrfs think it is full at 10%. Btrfs has no automatic rebalancing code, so it requires a manual rebalance to correct it.
+
=== Live CD ===
  
* ZFS has raidz, which is like RAID 5/6 (or a hypothetical RAID 7 that supports 3 parity disks), except it does not suffer from the RAID write hole issue thanks to its use of CoW and a variable stripe size. btrfs gained integrated RAID 5/6 functionality in Linux 3.9. However, its implementation uses a stripe cache that can only partially mitigate the effect of the RAID write hole.
+
Funtoo doesn't provide an "official" Funtoo Live CD, but there are plenty of good ones out there to choose from. A great choice is the Gentoo-based [http://www.sysresccd.org/ System Rescue CD] as it contains lots of tools and utilities and supports both 32-bit and 64-bit systems.
  
* ZFS send/receive implementation supports incremental update when doing backups. btrfs' send/receive implementation requires sending the entire snapshot.
+
It is also possible to install Funtoo Linux using many other Linux-based live CDs. Generally, any modern bootable Linux live CD or live USB media will work. See [[Requirements|requirements]] for an overview of what the Live Media must provide to allow a problem-free install of Funtoo Linux.
  
* ZFS supports data deduplication, which is a memory hog and only works well for specialized workloads. btrfs has no equivalent.
+
To begin a Funtoo Linux installation, download System Rescue CD from:
  
* ZFS datasets have a hierarchical namespace while btrfs subvolumes have a flat namespace.
+
{{MirrorList}}
  
* ZFS has the ability to create virtual block devices called zvols in its namespace. btrfs has no equivalent and must rely on the loop device for this functionality, which is cumbersome.
+
Or, use your preferred live media. Insert it into your disc drive, and boot from it. If using an older version of System Rescue CD, '''be sure to select the <tt>rescue64</tt> kernel at the boot menu if you are installing a 64-bit system'''. By default, System Rescue CD used to boot in 32-bit mode though the latest version attempts to automatically detect 64-bit processors.
  
The only area where btrfs is ahead of ZFS is in the area of small file
+
=== Prepare Hard Disk ===
efficiency. btrfs supports a feature called block suballocation, which
+
==== Partitions ====
enables it to store small files far more efficiently than ZFS. It is
+
possible to use another filesystem (e.g. reiserfs) on top of a ZFS zvol
+
to obtain similar benefits (with arguably better data integrity) when
+
dealing with many small files (e.g. the portage tree).
+
  
For a quick tour of ZFS and have a big picture of its common operations you can consult the page [[ZFS Fun]].
+
Funtoo Linux fully supports traditional MBR partitions, as well as newer GPT/GUID partition formats. See below to determine which partitioning scheme to use:
  
=== Disclaimers ===
+
===== MBR Partitions =====
  
{{fancywarning|This guide is a work in progress. Expect some quirks.}}
+
* '''Recommended if your system disk is <=2TB in size'''
{{fancyimportant|'''Since ZFS was really designed for 64 bit systems, we are only recommending and supporting 64 bit platforms and installations. We will not be supporting 32 bit platforms'''!}}
+
* Legacy, DOS partitioning scheme
 +
* Only 4 primary partitions per disk; after that, you must use "logical" partitions
 +
* Does not support 2 TB+ disks for booting
 +
* Compatible with certain problematic systems (such as the HP ProBook 4520)
 +
* Dual-boot with Windows for BIOS systems (Windows handle GPT only on true EFI systems, whatever version it is)
 +
* Multiple boot loader options, e.g. GRUB 2, GRUB Legacy, lilo
  
== Video Tutorial ==
+
{{fancynote|Due to the fact that it is more widely supported on PC hardware, it is best to use MBR partitions if possible.}}
  
As a companion to the installation instructions below, a YouTube video tutorial is now available:
+
===== GPT Partitions =====
  
{{#widget:YouTube|id=SWyThdxNoP8|width=640|height=360}}
+
* '''Recommended if your disk is >2TB in size'''
 +
* Newer format for Linux systems
 +
* Supports 2 TB+ hard drives for booting
 +
* Supports hundreds of partitions per disk of any size
 +
* Requires legacy BIOS boot partition (~32 MB) to be created if system does not use EFI
 +
* Requires bootloader with support for GPT such as GRUB 2, EXTLINUX, or a patched version of GRUB Legacy
  
== Downloading the ISO (With ZFS) ==
+
{{fancyimportant|If you have a system disk that is 2TB or greater and want to use the space beyond 2TB, you ''must'' partition using the GPT/GUID format. Otherwise, MBR is recommended as the most reliable boot method.}}
In order for us to install Funtoo on ZFS, you will need an environment that already provides the ZFS tools. Therefore we will download a customized version of System Rescue CD with ZFS included.  
+
  
<pre>
+
===== Filesystem Resources =====
Name: sysresccd-4.0.1_zfs_0.6.2.iso  (545 MB)
+
Release Date: 2014-02-25
+
md5sum 01f4e6929247d54db77ab7be4d156d85
+
</pre>
+
  
 +
Advanced users may be interested in the following topics:
  
'''[http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/funtoo/distfiles/sysresccd/ Download System Rescue CD with ZFS]'''<br />
+
* [[GUID Booting Guide]]
 +
* [[LVM Install Guide]]
 +
* [[Rootfs over encrypted lvm]]
 +
* [[Rootfs over encrypted lvm over raid-1 on GPT]]
 +
* '''NEW!''' '''[[ZFS Install Guide]] (Also contains instructions for Rootfs over Encrypted ZFS!)'''
  
== Creating a bootable USB from ISO (From a Linux Environment) ==
+
===== Partitioning Recommendations =====
After you download the iso, you can do the following steps to create a bootable USB:
+
  
<console>
+
Below are our partitioning recommendations in table form. For MBR-based partitions, use the MBR Block Device and MBR code columns with <tt>fdisk</tt>. For GPT-based partitions, use the GPT Block Device and GPT Code columns with <tt>gdisk</tt>:
Make a temporary directory
+
# ##i##mkdir /tmp/loop
+
  
Mount the iso
+
{{TableStart}}
# ##i##mount -o ro,loop /root/sysresccd-4.0.1_zfs_0.6.2.iso /tmp/loop
+
<tr class="active"><th>Partition</th>
 +
<th>Size</th>
 +
<th>MBR Block Device (<code>fdisk</code>)</th>
 +
<th>GPT Block Device (<code>gdisk</code>)</th>
 +
<th>Filesystem</th>
 +
<th>MBR Code</th>
 +
<th>GPT Code</th>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><tt>/boot</tt></td>
 +
<td>128 MB for MBR, 512 MB for GPT</td>
 +
<td><tt>/dev/sda1</tt></td>
 +
<td><tt>/dev/sda1</tt></td>
 +
<td>ext2</td>
 +
<td>83</td>
 +
<td>8300</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td>GRUB boot loader partition</td>
 +
<td>1 MB</td>
 +
<td>''not required for MBR''</td>
 +
<td><tt>/dev/sda2</tt></td>
 +
<td>For GPT/GUID only, skip for MBR - no filesystem.</td>
 +
<td>''N/A''</td>
 +
<td>EF02</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td>swap</td>
 +
<td>2x RAM for low-memory systems and production servers; otherwise 2GB.</td>
 +
<td><tt>/dev/sda2</tt></td>
 +
<td><tt>/dev/sda3</tt></td>
 +
<td>swap (default)</td>
 +
<td>82</td>
 +
<td>8200</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><tt>/</tt> (root)</td>
 +
<td>Rest of the disk, minimum of 10GB.</td>
 +
<td><tt>/dev/sda3</tt></td>
 +
<td><tt>/dev/sda4</tt></td>
 +
<td>XFS recommended, alternatively ext4</td>
 +
<td>83</td>
 +
<td>8300</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><tt>/home</tt> (optional) </td>
 +
<td>User storage and media. Typically most of the disk.</td>
 +
<td><tt>/dev/sda4</tt> (if created)</td>
 +
<td><tt>/dev/sda5</tt> (if created)</td>
 +
<td>XFS recommended, alternatively ext4</td>
 +
<td>83</td>
 +
<td>8300</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td>LVM (optional)</td>
 +
<td>If you want to create an LVM volume.</td>
 +
<td><tt>/dev/sda4</tt> (PV, if created)</td>
 +
<td><tt>/dev/sda5</tt> (PV, if created)</td>
 +
<td>LVM PV</td>
 +
<td>8E</td>
 +
<td>8E00</td>
 +
</tr>{{TableEnd}}
  
Run the usb installer
+
===== Partitioning Using fdisk (MBR) =====
# ##i##/tmp/loop/usb_inst.sh
+
</console>
+
  
That should be all you need to do to get your flash drive working.
+
{{fancyimportant|If you need to create a GPT partition table, see [[Partitioning using gdisk]].}}
  
== Booting the ISO ==
+
{{fancynote|These install instructions assume you are installing Funtoo Linux to an hard disk using Master Boot Record partition tables (MBR). If you are installing Funtoo Linux on a machine where another OS is installed, there is an existing Linux distribution on your system that you want to keep or any other scenario (such as differing swap size requirements), then you will need to adapt these instructions to suit your needs.}}
  
{{fancywarning|'''When booting into the ISO, Make sure that you select the "Alternate 64 bit kernel (altker64)". The ZFS modules have been built specifically for this kernel rather than the standard kernel. If you select a different kernel, you will get a fail to load module stack error message.'''}}
+
<code>fdisk</code> is the tool used to create an MBR partition table. MBR is well-supported on PCs and is recommended if your system disk is 2TB or smaller.
  
== Creating partitions ==
+
====== Preparation ======
There are two ways to partition your disk: You can use your entire drive and let ZFS automatically partition it for you, or you can do it manually.
+
  
We will be showing you how to partition it '''manually''' because if you partition it manually you get to create your own layout, you get to have your own separate /boot partition (Which is nice since not every bootloader supports booting from ZFS pools), and you get to boot into RAID10, RAID5 (RAIDZ) pools and any other layouts due to you having a separate /boot partition.
+
First, it's a good idea to make sure that you've found the correct hard disk to partition. Try this command and verify that <code>/dev/sda</code> is the disk that you want to partition:
  
==== gdisk (GPT Style) ====
+
<console>
 +
# ##i##fdisk -l /dev/sda
  
'''A Fresh Start''':
+
Disk /dev/sda: 640.1 GB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
 +
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
 +
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
Disk label type: gpt
  
First lets make sure that the disk is completely wiped from any previous disk labels and partitions.
+
 
We will also assume that <tt>/dev/sda</tt> is the target drive.<br />
+
#        Start          End    Size  Type            Name
 +
1        2048  1250263694  596.2G  Linux filesyste Linux filesystem
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Now, it's recommended that you erase any existing MBR or GPT partition tables on the disk, which could confuse the system's BIOS at boot time. We do this using <code>sgdisk</code>:
 +
{{fancywarning|This will make your current partitions inaccessable! You are '''strongly''' cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding. In case of need, you can try recovering your partition table using <code>testdisk</code>.}}
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##sgdisk -Z /dev/sda
+
# ##i##sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda
 +
 
 +
Creating new GPT entries.
 +
GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or
 +
other utilities.
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
{{fancywarning|This is a destructive operation and the program will not ask you for confirmation! Make sure you really don't want anything on this disk.}}
+
This output is also nothing to worry about, as the command still succeded:
  
Now that we have a clean drive, we will create the new layout.
+
<console>
 +
***************************************************************
 +
Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format
 +
in memory.  
 +
***************************************************************
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
====== Partitioning ======
  
First open up the application:
+
Now we will use <code>fdisk</code> to create the MBR partition table and partitions:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##gdisk /dev/sda
+
# ##i##fdisk /dev/sda
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Within <code>fdisk</code>, follow these steps:
 +
 
 +
'''Empty the partition table''':
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
Command (m for help): ##i##o ↵
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
 
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
 
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
 +
 
<console>
 
<console>
Command: ##i##n ↵
+
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
Partition Number: ##i##↵
+
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
 +
Partition number (1-4, default 1): ##i##↵
 
First sector: ##i##↵
 
First sector: ##i##↵
Last sector: ##i##+250M ↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+128M
Hex Code: ##i##
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
'''Create Partition 2''' (BIOS Boot Partition):
+
'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
<console>Command: ##i##n ↵
+
 
Partition Number: ##i##↵
+
<console>
 +
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
 +
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
 +
Partition number (2-4, default 2): ##i##↵
 
First sector: ##i##↵
 
First sector: ##i##↵
Last sector: ##i##+32M
+
Last sector: ##i##+2G ↵
Hex Code: ##i##EF02
+
Command (m for help): ##i##t ↵
 +
Partition number (1,2, default 2): ##i##
 +
Hex code (type L to list all codes): ##i##82
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
'''Create Partition 3''' (ZFS):
+
'''Create the root partition:'''
<console>Command: ##i##n ↵
+
 
Partition Number: ##i##↵
+
<console>
 +
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
 +
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
 +
Partition number (3,4, default 3): ##i##↵
 
First sector: ##i##↵
 
First sector: ##i##↵
 
Last sector: ##i##↵
 
Last sector: ##i##↵
Hex Code: ##i##bf00 ↵
+
</console>
  
Command: ##i##p ↵
+
'''Verify the partition table:'''
  
Number  Start (sector)   End (sector) Size      Code  Name
+
<console>
  1            2048          514047  250.0 MiB  8300  Linux filesystem
+
Command (m for help): ##i##p
  2          514048          579583  32.0 MiB    EF02  BIOS boot partition
+
 
  3          579584      1953525134  931.2 GiB  BF00  Solaris root
+
Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
 +
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
 +
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
Disklabel type: dos
 +
Disk identifier: 0x82abc9a6
  
Command: ##i##w ↵
+
Device    Boot    Start      End    Blocks  Id System
 +
/dev/sda1          2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
 +
/dev/sda2        264192  4458495  2097152  82 Linux swap / Solaris
 +
/dev/sda3        4458496 625142447 310341976  83 Linux
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
 
+
'''Write the parition table to disk:'''
=== Format your /boot partition ===
+
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 -m 1 /dev/sda1
+
Command (m for help): ##i##w
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
=== Encryption (Optional) ===
+
Your new MBR partition table will now be written to your system disk.
If you want encryption, then create your encrypted vault(s) now by doing the following:
+
  
<console>
+
==== Creating filesystems ====
# ##i##cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/sda3
+
# ##i##cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda3 vault_1
+
</console>
+
  
{{fancywarning|On some machines, a combination of ZFS and LUKS has caused instability and system crashes.}}
+
Before your newly-created partitions can be used, the block devices need to be initialized with filesystem ''metadata''. This process is known as ''creating a filesystem'' on the block devices. After filesystems are created on the block devices, they can be mounted and used to store files.
  
=== Create the zpool ===
+
You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, but will initialize it using the <tt>mkswap</tt> command so that it can be used as disk-based virtual memory. Then we'll run the <tt>swapon</tt> command to make your newly-initialized swap space active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process.
We will first create the pool. The pool will be named `tank` and the disk will be aligned to 4096 (using ashift=12)
+
<console># ##i##zpool create -f -o ashift=12 -o cachefile= -O compression=on -m none -R /mnt/funtoo tank /dev/sda3</console>
+
  
{{fancyimportant|If you are using encrypted root, change '''/dev/sda3 to /dev/mapper/vault_1'''.}}
+
Note that we will not create a filesystem on the GRUB boot loader partition, as GRUB writes binary data directly to that partition when the boot loader is installed, which we'll do later.
  
{{fancynote|1=
+
You can see the commands you will need to type below. Like the rest of this document, it assumes that you are using a GPT partitioning scheme. If you are using MBR, your root filesystem will likely be created on <tt>/dev/sda3</tt> instead and you will need to adjust the target block devices. If you are following our recommendations, then simply do this:
If you have a previous pool that you would like to import, you can do a: <code>zpool import -f -R /mnt/funtoo pool_name</code>.}}
+
  
=== Create the zfs datasets ===
+
'''We generally recommend XFS for root filesystems, although ext4 is also a good choice.''' This tutorial assumes the use of XFS. If you want to use ext4, then be sure that your <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> file reflects this.
We will now create some datasets. For this installation, we will create a small but future proof amount of datasets. We will have a dataset for the OS (/), and your swap. We will also show you how to create some optional datasets: <tt>/home</tt>, <tt>/var</tt>, <tt>/usr/src</tt>, and <tt>/usr/portage</tt>.
+
 
 +
{{fancywarning|1=
 +
When deploying an OpenVZ host, please use ext4 exclusively. The Parallels development team tests extensively with ext4, and modern versions of <tt>openvz-rhel6-stable</tt> are '''not''' compatible with XFS, and you may experience kernel bugs.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
'''To use ext4 as your root filesystem:'''
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
Create some empty containers for organization purposes, and make the dataset that will hold /
+
# ##i##mke2fs -t ext2 /dev/sda1
# ##i##zfs create -p tank/funtoo
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/ tank/funtoo/root
+
# ##i##mkswap /dev/sda2
 +
# ##i##swapon /dev/sda2
 +
</console>
  
Optional, but recommended datasets: /home
+
'''To use XFS as your root filesystem:'''
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/home tank/funtoo/home
+
  
Optional datasets: /usr/src, /usr/portage/{distfiles,packages}
+
<console>
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/src tank/funtoo/src
+
# ##i##mke2fs -t ext2 /dev/sda1
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage -o compression=off tank/funtoo/portage
+
# ##i##mkfs.xfs /dev/sda3
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/distfiles tank/funtoo/portage/distfiles
+
# ##i##mkswap /dev/sda2
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/packages tank/funtoo/portage/packages
+
# ##i##swapon /dev/sda2
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
=== Create your swap zvol ===
+
==== Mounting filesystems ====
For modern machines that have greater than 4 GB of RAM, A swap size of 2G should be enough. However if your machine doesn't have a lot of RAM, the rule of thumb is either 2x the RAM or RAM + 1 GB.
+
  
For this tutorial we will assume that it is a newer machine and make a 2 GB swap.
+
Mount the newly-created filesystems as follows, creating <tt>/mnt/funtoo</tt> as the installation mount point:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##zfs create -o sync=always -o primarycache=metadata -o secondarycache=none -o volblocksize=4K -V 2G tank/swap
+
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo
 +
# ##i##mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/funtoo
 +
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
 +
# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
=== Format your swap zvol ===
+
Optionally, if you have a separate filesystem for <tt>/home</tt> or anything else:
 +
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##mkswap -f /dev/zvol/tank/swap
+
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/home
# ##i##swapon /dev/zvol/tank/swap
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/funtoo/home
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Now we will continue to install funtoo.
+
If you have <tt>/tmp</tt> or <tt>/var/tmp</tt> on a separate filesystem, be sure to change the permissions of the mount point to be globally-writeable after mounting, as follows:
  
== Installing Funtoo ==
+
<console>
 +
# ##i##chmod 1777 /mnt/funtoo/tmp
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
=== Installing the Stage 3 tarball ===
 +
After creating filesystems, the next step is downloading the initial Stage 3 tarball. The Stage 3 is a pre-compiled system used as a starting point to install Funtoo Linux. Load one of the following URLs in another browser window:
 +
 
 +
{{MirrorList}}
 +
 
 +
Now, let's navigate the directories on the mirrors to find the appropriate build of Funtoo Linux for you.
 +
 
 +
==== Stable or Current? ====
 +
Funtoo Linux has a "stable" build and a "current" build. Most people use the "current" build of Funtoo Linux, and it's generally recommended that you do too. You will find "current' builds in the main <code>/funtoo-current</code> directory on our mirrors, and "stable" builds in <code>/funtoo-stable</code>.
 +
<br />If you want to read more about this, have a look at [[Funtoo_Linux#What_are_the_differences_between_.27stable.27.2C_.27current.27_and_.27experimental.27_.3F|Differences between stable, current and experimental]].
 +
 
 +
==== 32 or 64-bit? ====
 +
There are three different types of Funtoo Linux that you can install. If you are installing on an older 32-bit system (if you don't know, then you probably are not) then you want to grab a stage3 tarball from the <code>x86-32bit</code> sub-directory. Most likely, you'll want to grab a 64-bit build from the <code>x86-64bit</code> sub-directory.
 +
 
 +
==== Your SubArch ====
 +
Inside <code>/funtoo-current/x86-64bit/</code> on one of our mirrors, you'll see a bunch of directories for various ''subarches'' of Funtoo Linux.
 +
 
 +
Subarches are builds of Funtoo Linux that are designed to run on a particular type of CPU, to offer the best possible performance. They take advantage of the instruction sets available for each CPU.
 +
 
 +
For example, the <code>corei7</code> and <code>corei7-pure64</code> sub-arches require an Intel Core i7 processor to run (this includes Xeon x3400+ series, or other Nehalem-based CPUs such as Xeon x5500/x5600 series.)
 +
 
 +
If you are using an AMD-based CPU, download a stage3 from <code>generic_64</code>, <code>amd64-k8</code> or <code>amd64-k10</code>.
 +
 
 +
If you are using an Intel-based CPU, download a stage3 from <code>generic_64</code>, <code>atom_64</code>, <code>core2_64</code> or <code>corei7</code>.
 +
 
 +
===== Pure64 Builds =====
 +
Inside <code>x86-64bit</code>, you may notice a sub-directory named <code>pure64</code>. These builds are recommended for server systems, and they do not offer any 32-bit compatibility, which is generally not needed on server systems. If you are setting up a desktop or workstation system, it's recommended that you avoid these builds as you will need 32-bit compatibility to run several binary desktop-oriented applications such as Skype. But for servers, pure64 is recommended.
 +
 
 +
==== Setting the Date ====
 +
 
 +
{{fancyimportant|If your system's date and time are too far off (typically by months or years,) then it may prevent Portage from properly downloading source tarballs. This is because some of our sources are downloaded via HTTPS, which use SSL certificates and are marked with an activation and expiration date.}}
  
=== Pre-Chroot ===
+
Now is a good time to verify the date and time are correctly set to UTC. Use the <tt>date</tt> command to verify the date and time:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
Go into the directory that you will chroot into
+
# ##i##date
# ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
+
Fri Jul 15 19:47:18 UTC 2011
 +
</console>
  
Make a boot folder and mount your boot drive
+
If the date and/or time need to be corrected, do so using <tt>date MMDDhhmmYYYY</tt>, keeping in mind <tt>hhmm</tt> are in 24-hour format. The example below changes the date and time to "July 16th, 2011 @ 8:00PM" UTC:
# ##i##mkdir boot
+
 
# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 boot
+
<console>
 +
# ##i##date 071620002011
 +
Fri Jul 16 20:00:00 UTC 2011
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
[[Funtoo_Linux_Installation|Now download and extract the Funtoo stage3 ...]]
+
==== Download the Stage3 ====
 +
Once you are in your Funtoo Linux root filesystem, use <tt>wget</tt> to download the Stage 3 tarball you have chosen to use as the basis for your new Funtoo Linux system. It should be saved to the <tt>/mnt/funtoo</tt> directory as follows:
  
Once you've extracted the stage3, do a few more preparations and chroot into your new funtoo environment:
+
<console># ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
 +
# ##i##wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-64bit/generic_64/stage3-latest.tar.xz
 +
</console>
  
 +
 +
Note that 64-bit systems can run 32-bit or 64-bit stages, but 32-bit systems can only run 32-bit stages. Make sure that you select a Stage 3 build that is appropriate for your CPU. If you are not certain, it is a safe bet to choose the <tt>generic_64</tt> or <tt>generic_32</tt> stage. Consult the [[Download]] page for more information.
 +
 +
Once the stage is downloaded, extract the contents with the following command, substituting in the actual name of your stage 3 tarball:
 
<console>
 
<console>
Bind the kernel related directories
+
# ##i##tar xpf stage3-latest.tar.xz
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
{{fancyimportant|It is very important to use <tt>tar's</tt> "<tt>'''p'''</tt>" option when extracting the Stage 3 tarball - it tells <tt>tar</tt> to ''preserve'' any permissions and ownership that exist within the archive. Without this option, your Funtoo Linux filesystem permissions will be incorrect.}}
 +
 
 +
=== Chroot into Funtoo ===
 +
Before chrooting into your new system, there's a few things that need to be done first. You will need to mount /proc and /dev inside your new system. Use the following commands:
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
 
# ##i##mount -t proc none proc
 
# ##i##mount -t proc none proc
# ##i##mount --rbind /dev dev
 
 
# ##i##mount --rbind /sys sys
 
# ##i##mount --rbind /sys sys
 +
# ##i##mount --rbind /dev dev
 +
</console>
  
Copy network settings
+
You'll also want to copy over <tt>resolv.conf</tt> in order to have proper DNS name resolution from inside the chroot:
# ##i##cp -f /etc/resolv.conf etc
+
<console>
 +
# ##i##cp /etc/resolv.conf etc
 +
</console>
  
Make the zfs folder in 'etc' and copy your zpool.cache
+
Now you can chroot into your new system. Use <tt>env</tt> before <tt>chroot</tt> to ensure that no environment variables from the installation media are used by your new system:
# ##i##mkdir etc/zfs
+
# ##i##cp /etc/zfs/zpool.cache etc/zfs
+
  
Chroot into Funtoo
+
<console>
 
# ##i##env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l
 
# ##i##env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
=== In Chroot ===
+
{{fancynote|Users of live CDs with 64-bit kernels: Some software may use <tt>uname -r</tt> to check whether the system is 32 or 64-bit. You may want append linux32 to the chroot command as a workaround, but it's generally not needed.}}
 +
{{fancyimportant|If you receive the error "<tt>chroot: failed to run command `/bin/bash': Exec format error</tt>", it is probably because you are running a 32-bit kernel and trying to execute 64-bit code. SystemRescueCd boots with a 32-bit kernel by default.}}
  
 +
It's also a good idea to change the default command prompt while inside the chroot. This will avoid confusion if you have to change terminals. Use this command:
 
<console>
 
<console>
Create a symbolic link to your mountpoints
+
# ##i##export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"
# ##i##ln -sf /proc/mounts /etc/mtab
+
 
+
Sync your tree
+
# ##i##emerge --sync
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
=== Add filesystems to /etc/fstab ===
+
Congratulations! You are now chrooted inside a Funtoo Linux system. Now it's time to get Funtoo Linux properly configured so that Funtoo Linux will boot successfully when your system is restarted.
  
Before we continue to compile and or install our kernel in the next step, we will edit the <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> file because if we decide to install our kernel through portage, portage will need to know where our <tt>/boot</tt> is, so that it can place the files in there.
+
=== Downloading the Portage tree ===
  
Edit <tt>/etc/fstab</tt>:
+
{{fancynote|For an alternative way to do this, see [[Installing Portage From Snapshot]].}}
 +
Now it's time to install a copy of the Portage repository, which contains package scripts (ebuilds) that tell portage how to build and install thousands of different software packages. To create the Portage repository, simply run <tt>emerge --sync</tt> from within the chroot. This will automatically clone the portage tree from [https://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012 GitHub]:
  
<pre>
+
<console>
# <fs>                  <mountpoint>    <type>          <opts>          <dump/pass>
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge --sync
 +
</console>
  
/dev/sda1              /boot          ext2            defaults        0 2
+
{{fancyimportant|If you receive the error with initial <tt>emerge --sync</tt> due to git protocol restrictions, change <tt>SYNC</tt> variable in <tt>/etc/make.conf</tt>}}
/dev/zvol/tank/swap    none            swap            sw              0 0
+
<pre>
 +
SYNC="https://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012.git"
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
== Kernel Configuration ==
+
=== Configuring your system ===
To speed up this step, you can install a pre-configured/compiled kernel called '''bliss-kernel'''. This kernel already has the correct configurations for ZFS and a variety of other scenarios. It's a vanilla kernel from kernel.org without any external patches.
+
As is expected from a Linux distribution, Funtoo Linux has its share of configuration files. The one file you are absolutely required to edit in order to ensure that Funtoo Linux boots successfully is <tt>/etc/fstab</tt>. The others are optional. Here are a list of files that you should consider editing:
 +
{{TableStart}}
 +
<tr class="active"><th>File</th>
 +
<th>Do I need to change it?</th>
 +
<th>Description</th>
 +
</tr><tr  class="danger">
 +
<td><tt>/etc/fstab</tt></td>
 +
<td>'''YES - required'''</td>
 +
<td>Mount points for all filesystems to be used at boot time. This file must reflect your disk partition setup. We'll guide you through modifying this file below.</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><tt>/etc/localtime</tt></td>
 +
<td>''Maybe - recommended''</td>
 +
<td>Your timezone, which will default to UTC if not set. This should be a symbolic link to something located under /usr/share/zoneinfo (e.g. /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/Montreal) </td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><tt>/etc/make.conf</tt> (symlink) - also known as:<br/><tt>/etc/portage/make.conf</tt></td>
 +
<td>''Maybe - recommended''</td>
 +
<td>Parameters used by gcc (compiler), portage, and make. It's a good idea to set MAKEOPTS. This is covered later in this document.</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><tt>/etc/conf.d/hostname</tt></td>
 +
<td>''Maybe - recommended''</td>
 +
<td>Used to set system hostname. Set the <tt>hostname</tt> variable to the fully-qualified (with dots, ie. <tt>foo.funtoo.org</tt>) name if you have one. Otherwise, set to the local system hostname (without dots, ie. <tt>foo</tt>). Defaults to <tt>localhost</tt> if not set.</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><tt>/etc/hosts</tt></td>
 +
<td>''No''</td>
 +
<td> You no longer need to manually set the hostname in this file. This file is automatically generated by <tt>/etc/init.d/hostname</tt>.</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><tt>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</tt></td>
 +
<td>Optional</td>
 +
<td>Keyboard mapping configuration file (for console pseudo-terminals). Set if you have a non-US keyboard. See [[Funtoo Linux Localization]].</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><tt>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</tt></td>
 +
<td>Optional</td>
 +
<td>How the time of the battery-backed hardware clock of the system is interpreted (UTC or local time). Linux uses the battery-backed hardware clock to initialize the system clock when the system is booted.</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><tt>/etc/conf.d/modules</tt></td>
 +
<td>Optional</td>
 +
<td>Kernel modules to load automatically at system startup. Typically not required. See [[Additional Kernel Resources]] for more info.</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><code>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</code></td>
 +
<td>Optional</td>
 +
<td>Allows you to specify the default console font. To apply this font, enable the consolefont service by running rc-update add consolefont.</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><tt>profiles</tt></td>
 +
<td>Optional</td>
 +
<td>Some useful portage settings that may help speed up intial configuration.</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
{{TableEnd}}
  
To install {{Package|sys-kernel/bliss-kernel}} type the following:
+
If you're installing an English version of Funtoo Linux, you're in luck as most of the configuration files can be used as-is. If you're installing for another locale, don't worry. We will walk you through the necessary configuration steps on the [[Funtoo Linux Localization]] page, and if needed, there's always plenty of friendly, helpful support. (See [[#Community portal|Community]])
  
<console>
+
Let's go ahead and see what we have to do. Use <tt>nano -w <name_of_file></tt> to edit files -- the "<tt>-w</tt>" disables word-wrapping, which is handy when editing configuration files. You can copy and paste from the examples.
# ##i##emerge bliss-kernel
+
 
</console>
+
{{fancywarning|It's important to edit your <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> file before you reboot! You will need to modify both the "fs" and "type" columns to match the settings for your partitions and filesystems that you created with <tt>gdisk</tt> or <tt>fdisk</tt>. Skipping this step may prevent Funtoo Linux from booting successfully.}}
 +
 
 +
==== /etc/fstab ====
  
Now make sure that your <tt>/usr/src/linux symlink</tt> is pointing to this kernel by typing the following:
+
<tt>/etc/fstab</tt> is used by the <tt>mount</tt> command which is ran when your system boots. Statements of this file inform <tt>mount</tt> about partitions to be mounted and how they are mounted. In order for the system to boot properly, you must edit <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> and ensure that it reflects the partition configuration you used earlier:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##eselect kernel list
+
(chroot) # ##i##nano -w /etc/fstab
Available kernel symlink targets:
+
[1]  linux-3.12.13-KS.02 *
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
You should see a star next to the version you installed. In this case it was 3.12.13-KS.02. If it's not set, you can type '''eselect kernel set #'''.
+
You can use arrow keys to move around and hit Control-X to exit. If you want to save your changes, type "<tt>Y</tt>" when asked if you want to save the modified buffer, or hit Control-O before closing <tt>nano</tt>. Otherwise your changes will be discarded.
  
== Installing the ZFS userspace tools and kernel modules ==
+
<pre>
Emerge {{Package|sys-fs/zfs}}. This package will bring in {{Package|sys-kernel/spl}}, and {{Package|sys-fs/zfs-kmod}} as its dependencies:
+
# The root filesystem should have a pass number of either 0 or 1.
 +
# All other filesystems should have a pass number of 0 or greater than 1.
 +
#
 +
# NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
 +
#
 +
# See the manpage fstab(5) for more information.
 +
#
 +
# <fs>     <mountpoint>  <type>  <opts>        <dump/pass>
 +
 
 +
/dev/sda1    /boot        ext2    noauto,noatime 1 2
 +
/dev/sda2    none          swap    sw            0 0
 +
/dev/sda3    /            ext4    noatime        0 1
 +
#/dev/cdrom  /mnt/cdrom    auto    noauto,ro      0 0
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
==== /etc/localtime ====
 +
 
 +
<tt>/etc/localtime</tt> is used to specify the timezone that your machine is in, and defaults to UTC. If you would like your Funtoo Linux system to use local time, you should replace <tt>/etc/localtime</tt> with a symbolic link to the timezone that you wish to use.
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##emerge zfs
+
(chroot) # ##i##ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/MST7MDT /etc/localtime
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Check to make sure that the zfs tools are working. The <code>zpool.cache</code> file that you copied before should be displayed.
+
The above sets the timezone to Mountain Standard Time (with daylight savings). Type <tt>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</tt> to see what timezones are available. There are also sub-directories containing timezones described by location.
  
 +
==== /etc/make.conf ====
 +
 +
MAKEOPTS can be used to define how many parallel compilations should occur when you compile a package, which can speed up compilation significantly. A rule of thumb is the number of CPUs (or CPU threads) in your system plus one. If for example you have a dual core processor without [[wikipedia:Hyper-threading|hyper-threading]], then you would set MAKEOPTS to 3:
 +
 +
<pre>
 +
MAKEOPTS="-j3"
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
If you are unsure about how many processors/threads you have then use /proc/cpuinfo to help you.
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##zpool status
+
(chroot) # ##i##grep "processor" /proc/cpuinfo | wc -l
# ##i##zfs list
+
16
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
If everything worked, continue.
+
Set MAKEOPTS to this number plus one:
  
== Create the initramfs ==
+
<pre>
There are two ways to do this, you can use "genkernel" or "bliss-initramfs". Both will be shown.
+
MAKEOPTS="-j17"
 +
</pre>
  
=== genkernel ===
+
USE flags define what functionality is enabled when packages are built. It is not recommended to add a lot of them during installation; you should wait until you have a working, bootable system before changing your USE flags. A USE flag prefixed with a minus ("<tt>-</tt>") sign tells Portage not to use the flag when compiling.  A Funtoo guide to USE flags will be available in the future. For now, you can find out more information about USE flags in the [http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-amd64.xml?part=2&chap=2 Gentoo Handbook].
Install genkernel and run it:
+
<console>
+
# ##i##emerge genkernel
+
  
You only need to add --luks if you used encryption
+
LINGUAS tells Portage which local language to compile the system and applications in (those who use LINGUAS variable like OpenOffice). It is not usually necessary to set this if you use English. If you want another language such as French (fr) or German (de), set LINGUAS appropriately:
# ##i##genkernel --zfs --luks initramfs
+
</console>
+
  
=== Bliss Initramfs Creator ===
+
<pre>
If you are encrypting your drives, then add the "luks" use flag to your package.use before emerging:
+
LINGUAS="fr"
 +
</pre>
  
 +
==== /etc/conf.d/hwclock ====
 +
If you dual-boot with Windows, you'll need to edit this file and change the value of '''clock''' from '''UTC''' to '''local''', because Windows will set your hardware clock to local time every time you boot Windows. Otherwise you normally wouldn't need to edit this file.
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##echo "sys-kernel/bliss-initramfs luks" >> /etc/portage/package.use
+
(chroot) # ##i##nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Now install the program and run it:
+
==== Localization ====
<console>
+
# ##i##emerge bliss-initramfs
+
  
You can either run it without any parameters to get an interactive menu
+
By default, Funtoo Linux is configured with Unicode (UTF-8) enabled, and for the US English locale and keyboard. If you would like to configure your system to use a non-English locale or keyboard, see [[Funtoo Linux Localization]].
or you can pass the parameters directly. 1 = zfs, 6 = encrypted zfs, and the kernel name.
+
# ##i##bliss-initramfs 1 3.12.13-KS.02
+
</console>
+
  
=== Moving into the correct location ===
+
==== Profiles ====
Place the file that was generated by the above applications into either your /boot folder (If you are using boot-update) or into your /boot/kernels/3.12.13-KS.02 folder (If you are using bliss-boot). For bliss-boot, the file needs to be called 'initrd' rather than 'initrd-3.12.13-KS.02'.
+
 
 +
[[Funtoo 1.0 Profile|Funtoo profiles]] are used to define defaults for Portage specific to your needs. There are 4 basic profile types: arch, build, [[Flavors and Mix-ins|flavor, and mix-ins]]:
 +
 
 +
;arch: typically <tt>x86-32bit</tt> or <tt>x86-64bit</tt>, this defines the processor type and support of your system. This is defined when your stage was built and should not be changed.
 +
;build: defines whether your system is a <tt>current</tt>, <tt>stable</tt> or <tt>experimental</tt> build. <tt>current</tt> systems will have newer packages unmasked than <tt>stable</tt> systems.
 +
;flavor: defines the general type of system, such as <tt>server</tt> or <tt>desktop</tt>, and will set default USE flags appropriate for your needs.
 +
;mix-ins: define various optional settings that you may be interested in enabling.
 +
 
 +
One arch, build and flavor must be set for each Funtoo Linux system, while mix-ins are optional and you can enable more than one if desired.
 +
 
 +
Remember that profiles can often be inherited. For example, the <tt>desktop</tt> flavor inherits the <tt>workstation</tt> flavor settings, which in turn inherits the <tt>X</tt> and <tt>audio</tt> mix-ins. You can view this by using eselect:
  
==== boot-update ====
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##mv initrd-3.12.13-KS.02 /boot
+
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile show
 +
Currently set profiles:
 +
    arch: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit
 +
  build: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current
 +
  flavor: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/desktop
 +
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/kde
 +
 
 +
Automatically enabled profiles:
 +
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/print
 +
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/X
 +
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/audio
 +
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd
 +
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media
 +
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/console-extras
 +
 
 +
 
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
==== bliss-boot ====
+
To view installed profiles:
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##mv initrd-3.12.13-KS.02 /boot/kernels/3.12.13-KS.02/initrd
+
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile list
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
== Installing & Configuring the Bootloader ==
+
To change the profile flavor:
 
+
=== GRUB 2 (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
+
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##emerge grub
+
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile set-flavor 7
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
You can check that grub is version 2.00 by typing the following command:
+
To add a mix-in:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##grub-install --version
+
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile add 10
grub-install (GRUB) 2.00
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Now install grub to the drive itself (not a partition):
+
=== Introducing Portage ===
 +
 
 +
Portage, the Funtoo Linux package manager has a command called <tt>emerge</tt> which is used to build and install packages from source. It also takes care of installing all of the package's dependencies. You call emerge like this:
 +
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##grub-install /dev/sda
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge packagename
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
You should receive the following message:
+
When you install a package by specifying its name in the command-line, Portage records its name in the <tt>/var/lib/portage/world</tt> file. It does so because it assumes that, since you have installed it by name, you want to consider it part of your system and want to keep the package updated in the future. This is a handy feature, since when packages are being added to the <code>world</code> set, we can update our entire system by typing:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
Installation finished. No error reported.
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge --sync
 +
(chroot) # ##i##emerge -auDN @world
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
You should now see some a grub directory with some files inside your /boot folder:
+
This is the "official" way to update your Funtoo Linux system. Above, we first update our Portage tree using git to grab the latest ebuilds (scripts), and then run an emerge command to update the <code>world</code> set of packages. The options specified tell <tt>emerge</tt> to:
 +
 
 +
* '''<tt>a</tt>''' - show us what will be emerged, and '''ask''' us if we want to proceed
 +
* '''<tt>u</tt>''' - ''update'' the packages we specify -- don't emerge them again if they are already emerged.
 +
* '''<tt>D</tt>''' - Consider the entire dependency tree of packages when looking for updates. In other words, do a '''deep''' update.
 +
* '''<tt>N</tt>''' - Update any packages that have changed ('''new''') USE settings.
 +
 
 +
You should also consider passing <code>--with-bdeps=y</code> when emerging @world, at least once in a while. This will update build dependencies as well.
 +
 
 +
Of course, sometimes we want to install a package but not add it to the <code>world</code> file. This is often done because you only want the package installed temproarily or because you know the package in question is a dependnecy of another package. If this behavior is desired, you call emerge like this:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##ls -l /boot/grub
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge -1 packagename
total 2520
+
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    1024 Jan  4 16:09 grubenv
+
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    8192 Jan 12 14:29 i386-pc
+
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    4096 Jan 12 14:28 locale
+
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2555597 Feb  4 11:50 unifont.pf2
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
=== Extlinux (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
+
Advanced users may be interested in the [[Emerge]] wiki page.
To install extlinux, you can follow the guide here: [[Extlinux|Link to Extlinux Guide]].
+
 
 +
==== Updating World ====
  
=== LILO (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
+
Now it is actually a very good time to update the entire system and it is very important that you do so before rebooting to resolve various issues.
To install lilo you can type the following:
+
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##emerge lilo
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge --sync
 +
(chroot) # ##i##emerge -auDN @world
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
=== boot-update ===
+
{{fancyimportant|1=
boot-update comes as a dependency of grub2, so if you already installed grub, it's already on your system!
+
Make sure you read any post emerge messages and follow their instructions. This is especially true if you have upgraded perl or python.}}
  
==== Genkernel ====
+
=== Configuring and installing the Linux kernel ===
If your using genkernel you must add 'real_root=ZFS=<root>' and 'dozfs' to your params.
+
Example entry for <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt>:
+
  
<pre>
+
Now it's time to build and install a Linux kernel, which is the heart of any Funtoo Linux system. The kernel is loaded by the boot loader, and interfaces directly with your system's hardware, and allows regular (userspace) programs to run.
"Funtoo ZFS" {
+
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
+
        initrd initramfs-genkernel-x86_64[-v]
+
        params real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root
+
        params += dozfs=force
+
        # Also add 'params += crypt_root=/dev/sda3' if you used encryption
+
        # Adjust the above setting to your system if needed
+
  
        # You should also add 'root=none' to your params (not 'params +=') if you plan to use it along with boot-update
+
A kernel must be configured properly for your system's hardware, so that it supports your hard drives, file systems, network cards, and so on. More experienced Linux users can choose to install kernel sources and configure and install their own kernel. If you don't know how to do this, we provide ebuilds that will automatically build a "univeral" kernel, modules and initramfs for booting your system that supports all hardware. This is an extremely simple way of building a kernel that will get your system booted.
        # If root variable will not be set, boot-update will fail to generate boot.conf
+
        # This is right for <=sys-boot/boot-update-1.6.11 on 16.08.2014 date
+
}
+
</pre>
+
  
==== Bliss Initramfs Creator ====
+
What is our goal? To build a kernel that will recognize all the hardware in your system necessary for booting, so that you will be greeted by a friendly login prompt after installation is complete. These instructions will guide you through the process of installing a kernel the "easy" way -- without requiring user configuration, by using a "universal" kernel.
If you used Bliss Initramfs Creator then all you need to do is add 'root=<root>' to your params.
+
Example entry for <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt>:
+
  
<pre>
+
==== Package Sets ====
"Funtoo ZFS" {
+
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
+
        initrd initrd[-v]
+
        params root=tank/funtoo/root quiet
+
        # If you have an encrypted device with a regular passphrase,
+
        # you can add the following line
+
        params += enc_root=/dev/sda3 enc_type=pass
+
}
+
</pre>
+
  
After editing /etc/boot.conf, you just need to run boot-update to update grub.cfg
+
Before we install a kernel, we're going to cover a feature of Portage called package sets. Earlier we learned about one such package set called the ''world set''. This is a handy feature because packages in additionally defined package sets  are not updated when the ''world set'' is updated. This behavior is generally desired for packages that are time consuming or should not change be updated often without reasons, such as kernel packages.
 +
 
 +
==== Kernel Package Set ====
 +
 
 +
{{Fancynote|1=
 +
See [[Funtoo Linux Kernels]] for a full list of kernels supported in Funtoo Linux. We recommend <tt>debian-sources</tt> for new users.}}
 +
 
 +
{{fancyimportant|1=
 +
<tt>debian-sources</tt> with <tt>binary</tt> USE flag requires at least 14GB free in <tt>/var/tmp</tt> and takes around 1 hour to build on a Intel Core i7 Processor.}}
 +
 
 +
To create the kernel package set, perform the following steps:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
###i## boot-update
+
(chroot) # ##i##mkdir /etc/portage/sets
 +
(chroot) # ##i##echo sys-kernel/debian-sources > /etc/portage/sets/kernel
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
=== bliss-boot ===
+
Now, we'll want to set a USE variable to tell <tt>debian-sources</tt> to build a "universal" kernel and initramfs for us, to take the guess-work out of getting Funtoo Linux booted. To do this, we're going to set the <tt>binary</tt> USE variable for <tt>debian-sources</tt>, as follows:
This is a new program that is designed to generate a simple, human-readable/editable, configuration file for a variety of bootloaders. It currently supports grub2, extlinux, and lilo.
+
  
You can install it via the following command:
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##emerge bliss-boot
+
(chroot) # ##i##echo "sys-kernel/debian-sources binary" >> /etc/portage/package.use
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
==== Bootloader Configuration ====
+
If USE variables are new to you, you'll be getting a lot more familiar with them as you use Funtoo Linux. At their essence, they are "switches" that you can set to configure options that can be built in to various packages. They're used to customize your Funtoo Linux system to meet your exact needs. We added support for a <tt>binary</tt> USE flag to the <tt>debian-sources</tt> ebuilds, as well as a few other of our kernel ebuilds, to make it easier for new users to get Funtoo Linux up and running.
In order to generate our bootloader configuration file, we will first configure bliss-boot so that it knows what we want. The 'bliss-boot' configuration file is located in '''/etc/bliss-boot/conf.py'''. Open that file and make sure that the following variables are set appropriately:
+
  
<pre>
+
Now, when we just want to update our system's packages, we'll type <tt>emerge -auDN @world</tt>, and it will update our world set, leaving out the kernel. Likewise, when we just want to update our kernel, we'll type <tt>emerge -au @kernel</tt>, and it will update our kernel, leaving out the world set.
# This should be set to the bootloader you installed earlier: (grub2, extlinux, and lilo are the available options)
+
bootloader = "grub2"
+
  
# This should be set to the kernel you installed earlier
+
==== Building the Kernel ====
default = "3.12.13-KS.02"
+
</pre>
+
  
Scroll all the way down until you find 'kernels'. You will need to add the kernels and the options
+
Let's emerge our kernel:
you want for these kernels here. Below are a few configuration options depending if you are using
+
'''bliss-initramfs''' or '''genkernel'''.
+
  
===== Genkernel =====
+
<console>
 +
(chroot) # ##i##emerge @kernel
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Note that while use of the <tt>binary</tt> USE flag makes installing a working kernel extremely simple, it is one part of Funtoo Linux that takes a ''very'' long time to build from source, because it is building a kernel that supports ''all'' hardware that Linux supports! So, get the build started, and then let your machine compile. Slower machines can take up to several hours to build the kernel, and you'll want to make sure that you've set <tt>MAKEOPTS</tt> in <tt>/etc/make.conf</tt> to the number of processing cores/threads (plus one) in your system before starting to build it as quickly as possible -- see the [[#/etc/make.conf|/etc/make.conf section]] if you forgot to do this.
 +
 
 +
{{fancynote|NVIDIA card users: the <tt>binary</tt> USE flag installs the Nouveau drivers which cannot be loaded at the same time as the proprietary drivers, and cannot be unloaded at runtime because of KMS. You need to blacklist it under <tt>/etc/modprobe.d/</tt>.}}
 +
 
 +
{{fancynote|For an overview of other kernel options for Funtoo Linux, see [[Funtoo Linux Kernels]]. There may be modules that the Debian kernel doesn't include, a situation where [http://www.funtoo.org/wiki/Funtoo_Linux_Kernels#Using_Debian-Sources_with_Genkernel genkernel] would be useful. Also be sure to see [[:Category:Hardware Compatibility|hardware compatibility]] information.}}
 +
 
 +
Once <tt>emerge</tt> completes, you'll have a brand new kernel and initramfs installed to <tt>/boot</tt>, plus kernel headers installed in <tt>/usr/src/linux</tt>, and you'll be ready to configure the boot loader to load these to boot your Funtoo Linux system.
 +
 
 +
=== Installing a Bootloader ===
 +
 
 +
==== Installing Grub ====
 +
 
 +
The boot loader is responsible for loading the kernel from disk when your computer boots. For new installations, GRUB 2 and Funtoo's boot-update tool should be used as a boot loader. GRUB supports both GPT/GUID and legacy MBR partitioning schemes.
 +
 
 +
To use this recommended boot method, first emerge <tt>boot-update</tt>. This will also cause <tt>grub-2</tt> to be merged, since it is a dependency of <tt>boot-update</tt>. (You may need to adjust <tt>GRUB_PLATFORMS</tt> if you are on a UEFI system. See [[UEFI Install Guide]]).
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
(chroot) # ##i##emerge boot-update
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Then, edit <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt> and specify "<tt>Funtoo Linux genkernel</tt>" as the <tt>default</tt> setting at the top of the file, replacing <tt>"Funtoo Linux"</tt>.
 +
 
 +
<tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt> should now look like this:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
kernel = {
+
boot {
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root dozfs=force quiet',
+
        generate grub
 +
        default "Funtoo Linux genkernel"
 +
        timeout 3  
 
}
 
}
 +
 +
"Funtoo Linux" {
 +
        kernel bzImage[-v]
 +
        # params += nomodeset
 +
}
 +
 +
"Funtoo Linux genkernel" {
 +
# if you use bliss-kernel package
 +
# you should change string
 +
# kernel kernel[-v]
 +
# to
 +
# kernel kernel/[-v]/kernel[-v]
 +
        kernel kernel[-v]
 +
        initrd initramfs[-v]
 +
        params += real_root=auto
 +
        # params += nomodeset
 +
}
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
'''If you are using encryption you can add the crypt_root option:'''
+
If you use bliss-kernel, your <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt> should look like:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
kernel = {
+
boot {
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root dozfs=force crypt_root=/dev/sda3 quiet',
+
        generate grub
 +
        default "Funtoo Linux genkernel"
 +
        timeout 3  
 
}
 
}
</pre>
 
  
===== Bliss Initramfs Creator =====
+
"Funtoo Linux" {
<pre>
+
        kernel bzImage[-v]
kernel = {
+
        # params += nomodeset
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'root=tank/funtoo/root quiet',
+
 
}
 
}
 +
 +
"Funtoo Linux genkernel" {
 +
        kernel kernels/[-v]/kernel[-v]
 +
        initrd initramfs[-v]
 +
        params += real_root=auto
 +
        # params += nomodeset
 +
}
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
'''If you are using encryption then you would let the initramfs know:'''
+
Please read <tt>man boot.conf</tt> for further details.
  
#"What type of encryption authentication you want to use? ('''enc_type=''')
+
===== Running grub-install and boot-update =====
::* pass = will ask for passphrase directly
+
::* key = a plain unencrypted key file
+
::* key_gpg = an encrypted key file
+
#"Where is the encrypted drive?" ('''enc_root=''')
+
#"Where is the root pool after it has been decrypted?" ('''root=''')
+
  
<pre>
+
Finally, we will need to actually install the GRUB boot loader to your disk, and also run <tt>boot-update</tt> which will generate your boot loader configuration file:
kernel = {
+
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'root=tank/funtoo/root enc_root=/dev/sda3 enc_type=pass quiet',
+
}
+
</pre>
+
  
==== Generate the configuration ====
+
<console>
Now that we have configure our '''/etc/bliss-boot/conf.py''' file, we can generate our config. Simply run the following command:
+
(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --no-floppy /dev/sda
 +
(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
 +
</console>
  
 +
if you boot system in efi/uefi mode to run installation process and want to install new system with grub for booting via classic/legacy mode - you will need to add <tt>GRUB_PLATFORMS="pc"</tt> to <tt>/etc/make.conf</tt> configuration file and install grub with this command instad of one that you see above:
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##bliss-boot
+
(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --loader=i386-pc --no-floppy /dev/sda
 
</console>
 
</console>
 +
if you get:
 +
<console>mkdir: cannot create directory '/boot/grub': Read-only file system</console>
 +
or
 +
<console>grub2-install: error: failed to get canonical path of `/boot/grub'</console>
 +
then run:
 +
<console>(chroot) # ##i##mount -o rw,remount /dev/sda1</console>
 +
replacing /dev/sda1 with whatever your boot partition is (/dev/sdc1, etc.) and run the grub-install command again.
  
This will generate a configuration file for the bootloader you specified previously in your current directory. You can check your config file before hand to make sure it doesn't have any errors. Simply open either: grub.cfg, extlinux.conf, or lilo.conf.
+
Now you need to update your boot loader configuration file:
 +
<console>
 +
(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
 +
</console>
 +
You only need to run <tt>grub-install</tt> when you first install Funtoo Linux, but you need to re-run <tt>boot-update</tt> every time you modify your <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt> file, so your changes are applied on next boot.
  
Once you have checked it for errors, place this file in the correct directory:
+
OK - your system should be ready to boot! Well, there are a few more loose ends...
  
* grub2 = /boot/grub/
+
==== Installing Syslinux/Extlinux ====
* extlinux = /boot/extlinux/
+
* lilo = /etc/lilo.conf
+
  
=== LILO (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
+
An alternate boot loader called extlinux can be used instead of GRUB if you desire. See the [[Extlinux|extlinux Guide]] for information on how to do this.
Now that bliss-boot generated the lilo.conf file, move that config file to its appropriate location
+
 
and install lilo to the MBR:
+
=== Configuring your network ===
 +
 
 +
It's important to ensure that you will be able to connect to your local-area network after you reboot into Funtoo Linux. There are three approaches you can use for configuring your network: NetworkManager, dhcpcd, and the [[Funtoo Linux Networking]] scripts. Here's how to choose which one to use based on the type of network you want to set up.
 +
 
 +
==== Wi-Fi ====
 +
===== Using NetworkManager =====
 +
For laptop/mobile systems where you will be using Wi-Fi and connecting to various networks, NetworkManager is strongly recommended. The Funtoo version of NetworkManager is fully functional even from the command-line, so you can use it even without X or without the Network Manager applet. Here are the steps involved in setting up NetworkManager:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##mv lilo.conf /etc
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge linux-firmware
# ##i##lilo
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge networkmanager
 +
(chroot) # ##i##rc-update add NetworkManager default
 +
</console>
  
You should see the following:
+
Above, we installed linux-firmware which contains a complete collection of available firmware for many hardware devices including Wi-Fi adapters, plus NetworkManager to manage our network connection. Then we added NetworkManager to the <tt>default</tt> runlevel so it will start when Funtoo Linux boots.
  
Warning: LBA32 addressing assumed
+
After you reboot into Funtoo Linux, you will be able to add a Wi-Fi connection this way:
Added Funtoo + *
+
 
One warning was issued
+
<console>
 +
# ##i##addwifi -S wpa -K 'wifipassword' mywifinetwork
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
== Final configuration ==
+
The <tt>addwifi</tt> command is used to configure and connect to a WPA/WPA2 Wi-Fi network named <tt>mywifinetwork</tt> with the password <tt>wifipassword</tt>. This network configuration entry is stored in <tt>/etc/NetworkManager/system-connections</tt> so that it will be remembered in the future. You should only need to enter this command once for each Wi-Fi network you connect to.
=== Add the zfs tools to openrc ===
+
<console># ##i##rc-update add zfs boot</console>
+
  
=== Clean up and reboot ===
+
===== Using wpa_supplicant =====
We are almost done, we are just going to clean up, '''set our root password''', and unmount whatever we mounted and get out.
+
If for some reason you don't want to use a tool such as NetworkManager or <tt>wicd</tt>, you can use wpa_supplicant for wireless network connections.
 +
 
 +
First, emerge wpa_supplicant:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
Delete the stage3 tarball that you downloaded earlier so it doesn't take up space.
+
(chroot) ###i## emerge -a wpa_supplicant
# ##i##cd /
+
</console>
# ##i##rm stage3-latest.tar.xz
+
  
Set your root password
+
Now, edit the wpa_supplicant configuration file, located at /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf.
# ##i##passwd
+
The syntax is very easy:
>> Enter your password, you won't see what you are writing (for security reasons), but it is there!
+
<pre>
 +
network={
 +
ssid="MyWifiName"
 +
psk="lol42-wifi"
 +
}
  
Get out of the chroot environment
+
network={
# ##i##exit
+
ssid="Other Network"
 +
psk="6d96270004515a0486bb7f76196a72b40c55a47f"
 +
}
 +
</pre>
  
Unmount all the kernel filesystem stuff and boot (if you have a separate /boot)
+
You will need to add both <tt>wpa_supplicant</tt> and <tt>dhcpcd</tt> to the default runlevel. <tt>wpa_supplicant</tt> will connect to your access point, and <tt>dhcpcd</tt> will acquire an IP address via DHCP:
# ##i##umount -l proc dev sys boot
+
  
Turn off the swap
+
<console>
# ##i##swapoff /dev/zvol/tank/swap
+
(chroot) # ##i##rc-update add dhcpcd default
 +
(chroot) # ##i##rc-update add wpa_supplicant default
 +
</console>
  
Export the zpool
+
==== Desktop (Wired Ethernet) ====
# ##i##cd /
+
# ##i##zpool export tank
+
  
Reboot
+
For a home desktop or workstation with wired Ethernet that will use DHCP, the simplest and most effective option to enable network connectivity is to simply add <tt>dhcpcd</tt> to the default runlevel:
# ##i##reboot
+
 
 +
<console>
 +
(chroot) # ##i##rc-update add dhcpcd default
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
{{fancyimportant|'''Don't forget to set your root password as stated above before exiting chroot and rebooting. If you don't set the root password, you won't be able to log into your new system.'''}}
+
When you reboot, <tt>dhcpcd</tt> will run in the background and manage all network interfaces and use DHCP to acquire network addresses from a DHCP server.
  
and that should be enough to get your system to boot on ZFS.
+
==== Server (Static IP) ====
  
== After reboot ==
+
For servers, the [[Funtoo Linux Networking]] scripts are recommended. They are optimized for static configurations and things like virtual ethernet bridging for virtualization setups. See [[Funtoo Linux Networking]] for information on how to use Funtoo Linux's template-based network configuration system.
  
=== Forgot to reset password? ===
+
=== Finishing Steps ===
==== System Rescue CD ====
+
If you aren't using bliss-initramfs, then you can reboot back into your sysresccd and reset through there by mounting your drive, chrooting, and then typing passwd.
+
  
Example:
+
==== Set your root password ====
 +
It's imperative that you set your root password before rebooting so that you can log in.
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##zpool import -f -R /mnt/funtoo tank
+
(chroot) # ##i##passwd
# ##i##chroot /mnt/funtoo bash -l
+
# ##i##passwd
+
# ##i##exit
+
# ##i##zpool export -f tank
+
# ##i##reboot
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
==== Using bliss-initramfs ====
+
===Restart your system ===
If you forgot to reset your password and are using '''bliss-initramfs''', you can add the '''su''' option to your bootloader parameters and the initramfs will throw you into the rootfs of your drive. In there you can run 'passwd' and then type 'exit'. Once you type 'exit', the initramfs will continue to boot your system as normal.
+
  
=== Create initial ZFS Snapshot ===
+
Now is the time to leave chroot, to unmount Funtoo Linux partitions and files and to restart your computer. When you restart, the GRUB boot loader will start, load the Linux kernel and initramfs, and your system will begin booting.
Continue to set up anything you need in terms of /etc configurations. Once you have everything the way you like it, take a snapshot of your system. You will be using this snapshot to revert back to this state if anything ever happens to your system down the road. The snapshots are cheap, and almost instant.  
+
  
To take the snapshot of your system, type the following:
+
Leave the chroot, change directory to /mnt, unmount your Funtoo partitions, and reboot.
<console># ##i##zfs snapshot -r tank@install</console>
+
<console>
 +
(chroot) # ##i##exit
 +
# ##i##cd /mnt
 +
# ##i##umount -l funtoo
 +
# ##i##reboot
 +
</console>
  
To see if your snapshot was taken, type:
+
{{fancynote|System Rescue CD will gracefully unmount your new Funtoo filesystems as part of its normal shutdown sequence.}}
<console># ##i##zfs list -t snapshot</console>
+
  
If your machine ever fails and you need to get back to this state, just type (This will only revert your / dataset while keeping the rest of your data intact):
+
You should now see your system reboot, the GRUB boot loader appear for a few seconds, and then see the Linux kernel and initramfs loading. After this, you should see Funtoo Linux itself start to boot, and you should be greeted with a <tt>login:</tt> prompt. Funtoo Linux has been successfully installed!
<console># ##i##zfs rollback tank/funtoo/root@install</console>
+
  
{{fancyimportant|'''For a detailed overview, presentation of ZFS' capabilities, as well as usage examples, please refer to the [[ZFS_Fun|ZFS Fun]] page.'''}}
+
===Next Steps===
  
== Troubleshooting ==
+
If you are brand new to Funtoo Linux and Gentoo Linux, please check out [[Funtoo Linux First Steps]], which will help get you acquainted with your new system. We also have a category for our [[:Category:Official Documentation|official documentation]], which includes all docs that we officially maintain for installation and operation of Funtoo Linux.
  
=== Starting from scratch ===
+
We also have a number of pages dedicated to setting up your system, which you can find below. If you are interested in adding a page to this list, add it to the "First Steps" MediaWiki category.
If your installation has gotten screwed up for whatever reason and you need a fresh restart, you can do the following from sysresccd to start fresh:
+
  
<console>
+
{{#ask: [[Category:First Steps]] | format=category }}
Destroy the pool and any snapshots and datasets it has
+
# ##i##zpool destroy -R -f tank
+
  
This deletes the files from /dev/sda1 so that even after we zap, recreating the drive in the exact sector
+
If your system did not boot correctly, see [[Installation Troubleshooting]] for steps you can take to resolve the problem.
position and size will not give us access to the old files in this partition.
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
+
# ##i##sgdisk -Z /dev/sda
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now start the guide again :).
+
  
 
[[Category:HOWTO]]
 
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Revision as of 00:59, September 21, 2014

Introduction

This document was written to help you install Funtoo Linux as concisely as possible, with a minimum number of distracting options regarding system configuration.

These docs assume you have a "PC compatible" computer system with a standard PC BIOS. Many new computers support UEFI for booting, which is a new firmware interface that frequently replaces the older MBR-based BIOS. If you have a system with UEFI, you will want to use this documentation along with the UEFI Install Guide, which will augment these instructions and explain how to get your system to boot. You may need to change your PC BIOS settings to enable or disable UEFI booting. The UEFI Install Guide has more information on this, and steps on how to determine if your system supports UEFI.

We also offer a ZFS Install Guide, which augment the instructions on this page for those who want to install Funtoo Linux on ZFS. If you are installing Funtoo Linux on ARM architecture, please see Funtoo Linux Installation on ARM for notable differences regarding ARM support. An experimental Funtoo Linux build also exists for SPARC platforms. See Funtoo Linux Installation on SPARC.

If you've had previous experience installing Gentoo Linux then a lot of steps will be familiar, but you should still read through as there are a few differences.

Installation Overview

This is a basic overview of the Funtoo installation process:

  1. Download and boot the live CD of your choice.
  2. Prepare your disk.
  3. Create and mount filesystems.
  4. Install the Funtoo stage tarball of your choice.
  5. Chroot into your new system.
  6. Download the Portage tree.
  7. Configure your system and network.
  8. Install a kernel.
  9. Install a bootloader.
  10. Complete final steps.
  11. Reboot and enjoy.

Live CD

Funtoo doesn't provide an "official" Funtoo Live CD, but there are plenty of good ones out there to choose from. A great choice is the Gentoo-based System Rescue CD as it contains lots of tools and utilities and supports both 32-bit and 64-bit systems.

It is also possible to install Funtoo Linux using many other Linux-based live CDs. Generally, any modern bootable Linux live CD or live USB media will work. See requirements for an overview of what the Live Media must provide to allow a problem-free install of Funtoo Linux.

To begin a Funtoo Linux installation, download System Rescue CD from:

Or, use your preferred live media. Insert it into your disc drive, and boot from it. If using an older version of System Rescue CD, be sure to select the rescue64 kernel at the boot menu if you are installing a 64-bit system. By default, System Rescue CD used to boot in 32-bit mode though the latest version attempts to automatically detect 64-bit processors.

Prepare Hard Disk

Partitions

Funtoo Linux fully supports traditional MBR partitions, as well as newer GPT/GUID partition formats. See below to determine which partitioning scheme to use:

MBR Partitions
  • Recommended if your system disk is <=2TB in size
  • Legacy, DOS partitioning scheme
  • Only 4 primary partitions per disk; after that, you must use "logical" partitions
  • Does not support 2 TB+ disks for booting
  • Compatible with certain problematic systems (such as the HP ProBook 4520)
  • Dual-boot with Windows for BIOS systems (Windows handle GPT only on true EFI systems, whatever version it is)
  • Multiple boot loader options, e.g. GRUB 2, GRUB Legacy, lilo

Note

Due to the fact that it is more widely supported on PC hardware, it is best to use MBR partitions if possible.

GPT Partitions
  • Recommended if your disk is >2TB in size
  • Newer format for Linux systems
  • Supports 2 TB+ hard drives for booting
  • Supports hundreds of partitions per disk of any size
  • Requires legacy BIOS boot partition (~32 MB) to be created if system does not use EFI
  • Requires bootloader with support for GPT such as GRUB 2, EXTLINUX, or a patched version of GRUB Legacy

Important

If you have a system disk that is 2TB or greater and want to use the space beyond 2TB, you must partition using the GPT/GUID format. Otherwise, MBR is recommended as the most reliable boot method.

Filesystem Resources

Advanced users may be interested in the following topics:

Partitioning Recommendations

Below are our partitioning recommendations in table form. For MBR-based partitions, use the MBR Block Device and MBR code columns with fdisk. For GPT-based partitions, use the GPT Block Device and GPT Code columns with gdisk:

Partition Size MBR Block Device (fdisk) GPT Block Device (gdisk) Filesystem MBR Code GPT Code
/boot 128 MB for MBR, 512 MB for GPT /dev/sda1 /dev/sda1 ext2 83 8300
GRUB boot loader partition 1 MB not required for MBR /dev/sda2 For GPT/GUID only, skip for MBR - no filesystem. N/A EF02
swap 2x RAM for low-memory systems and production servers; otherwise 2GB. /dev/sda2 /dev/sda3 swap (default) 82 8200
/ (root) Rest of the disk, minimum of 10GB. /dev/sda3 /dev/sda4 XFS recommended, alternatively ext4 83 8300
/home (optional) User storage and media. Typically most of the disk. /dev/sda4 (if created) /dev/sda5 (if created) XFS recommended, alternatively ext4 83 8300
LVM (optional) If you want to create an LVM volume. /dev/sda4 (PV, if created) /dev/sda5 (PV, if created) LVM PV 8E 8E00
Partitioning Using fdisk (MBR)

Important

If you need to create a GPT partition table, see Partitioning using gdisk.

Note

These install instructions assume you are installing Funtoo Linux to an hard disk using Master Boot Record partition tables (MBR). If you are installing Funtoo Linux on a machine where another OS is installed, there is an existing Linux distribution on your system that you want to keep or any other scenario (such as differing swap size requirements), then you will need to adapt these instructions to suit your needs.

fdisk is the tool used to create an MBR partition table. MBR is well-supported on PCs and is recommended if your system disk is 2TB or smaller.

Preparation

First, it's a good idea to make sure that you've found the correct hard disk to partition. Try this command and verify that /dev/sda is the disk that you want to partition:

# fdisk -l /dev/sda

Disk /dev/sda: 640.1 GB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: gpt


#         Start          End    Size  Type            Name
 1         2048   1250263694  596.2G  Linux filesyste Linux filesystem

Now, it's recommended that you erase any existing MBR or GPT partition tables on the disk, which could confuse the system's BIOS at boot time. We do this using sgdisk:

Warning

This will make your current partitions inaccessable! You are strongly cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding. In case of need, you can try recovering your partition table using testdisk.

# sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda

Creating new GPT entries.
GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or
other utilities.

This output is also nothing to worry about, as the command still succeded:

***************************************************************
Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format
in memory. 
***************************************************************
Partitioning

Now we will use fdisk to create the MBR partition table and partitions:

# fdisk /dev/sda

Within fdisk, follow these steps:

Empty the partition table:

Command (m for help): o ↵

Create Partition 1 (boot):

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (1-4, default 1): 
First sector: 
Last sector: +128M ↵

Create Partition 2 (swap):

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (2-4, default 2): 
First sector: 
Last sector: +2G ↵
Command (m for help): t ↵ 
Partition number (1,2, default 2): 
Hex code (type L to list all codes): 82 ↵

Create the root partition:

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (3,4, default 3): 
First sector: 
Last sector: 

Verify the partition table:

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x82abc9a6

Device    Boot     Start       End    Blocks  Id System
/dev/sda1           2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
/dev/sda2         264192   4458495   2097152  82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda3        4458496 625142447 310341976  83 Linux

Write the parition table to disk:

Command (m for help): w

Your new MBR partition table will now be written to your system disk.

Creating filesystems

Before your newly-created partitions can be used, the block devices need to be initialized with filesystem metadata. This process is known as creating a filesystem on the block devices. After filesystems are created on the block devices, they can be mounted and used to store files.

You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, but will initialize it using the mkswap command so that it can be used as disk-based virtual memory. Then we'll run the swapon command to make your newly-initialized swap space active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process.

Note that we will not create a filesystem on the GRUB boot loader partition, as GRUB writes binary data directly to that partition when the boot loader is installed, which we'll do later.

You can see the commands you will need to type below. Like the rest of this document, it assumes that you are using a GPT partitioning scheme. If you are using MBR, your root filesystem will likely be created on /dev/sda3 instead and you will need to adjust the target block devices. If you are following our recommendations, then simply do this:

We generally recommend XFS for root filesystems, although ext4 is also a good choice. This tutorial assumes the use of XFS. If you want to use ext4, then be sure that your /etc/fstab file reflects this.

Warning

When deploying an OpenVZ host, please use ext4 exclusively. The Parallels development team tests extensively with ext4, and modern versions of openvz-rhel6-stable are not compatible with XFS, and you may experience kernel bugs.

To use ext4 as your root filesystem:

# mke2fs -t ext2 /dev/sda1 
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3
# mkswap /dev/sda2
# swapon /dev/sda2

To use XFS as your root filesystem:

# mke2fs -t ext2 /dev/sda1 
# mkfs.xfs /dev/sda3
# mkswap /dev/sda2
# swapon /dev/sda2

Mounting filesystems

Mount the newly-created filesystems as follows, creating /mnt/funtoo as the installation mount point:

# mkdir /mnt/funtoo
# mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/funtoo
# mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot

Optionally, if you have a separate filesystem for /home or anything else:

# mkdir /mnt/funtoo/home
# mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/funtoo/home

If you have /tmp or /var/tmp on a separate filesystem, be sure to change the permissions of the mount point to be globally-writeable after mounting, as follows:

# chmod 1777 /mnt/funtoo/tmp

Installing the Stage 3 tarball

After creating filesystems, the next step is downloading the initial Stage 3 tarball. The Stage 3 is a pre-compiled system used as a starting point to install Funtoo Linux. Load one of the following URLs in another browser window:

Now, let's navigate the directories on the mirrors to find the appropriate build of Funtoo Linux for you.

Stable or Current?

Funtoo Linux has a "stable" build and a "current" build. Most people use the "current" build of Funtoo Linux, and it's generally recommended that you do too. You will find "current' builds in the main /funtoo-current directory on our mirrors, and "stable" builds in /funtoo-stable.
If you want to read more about this, have a look at Differences between stable, current and experimental.

32 or 64-bit?

There are three different types of Funtoo Linux that you can install. If you are installing on an older 32-bit system (if you don't know, then you probably are not) then you want to grab a stage3 tarball from the x86-32bit sub-directory. Most likely, you'll want to grab a 64-bit build from the x86-64bit sub-directory.

Your SubArch

Inside /funtoo-current/x86-64bit/ on one of our mirrors, you'll see a bunch of directories for various subarches of Funtoo Linux.

Subarches are builds of Funtoo Linux that are designed to run on a particular type of CPU, to offer the best possible performance. They take advantage of the instruction sets available for each CPU.

For example, the corei7 and corei7-pure64 sub-arches require an Intel Core i7 processor to run (this includes Xeon x3400+ series, or other Nehalem-based CPUs such as Xeon x5500/x5600 series.)

If you are using an AMD-based CPU, download a stage3 from generic_64, amd64-k8 or amd64-k10.

If you are using an Intel-based CPU, download a stage3 from generic_64, atom_64, core2_64 or corei7.

Pure64 Builds

Inside x86-64bit, you may notice a sub-directory named pure64. These builds are recommended for server systems, and they do not offer any 32-bit compatibility, which is generally not needed on server systems. If you are setting up a desktop or workstation system, it's recommended that you avoid these builds as you will need 32-bit compatibility to run several binary desktop-oriented applications such as Skype. But for servers, pure64 is recommended.

Setting the Date

Important

If your system's date and time are too far off (typically by months or years,) then it may prevent Portage from properly downloading source tarballs. This is because some of our sources are downloaded via HTTPS, which use SSL certificates and are marked with an activation and expiration date.

Now is a good time to verify the date and time are correctly set to UTC. Use the date command to verify the date and time:

# date
Fri Jul 15 19:47:18 UTC 2011

If the date and/or time need to be corrected, do so using date MMDDhhmmYYYY, keeping in mind hhmm are in 24-hour format. The example below changes the date and time to "July 16th, 2011 @ 8:00PM" UTC:

# date 071620002011
Fri Jul 16 20:00:00 UTC 2011

Download the Stage3

Once you are in your Funtoo Linux root filesystem, use wget to download the Stage 3 tarball you have chosen to use as the basis for your new Funtoo Linux system. It should be saved to the /mnt/funtoo directory as follows:

# cd /mnt/funtoo
# wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-64bit/generic_64/stage3-latest.tar.xz


Note that 64-bit systems can run 32-bit or 64-bit stages, but 32-bit systems can only run 32-bit stages. Make sure that you select a Stage 3 build that is appropriate for your CPU. If you are not certain, it is a safe bet to choose the generic_64 or generic_32 stage. Consult the Download page for more information.

Once the stage is downloaded, extract the contents with the following command, substituting in the actual name of your stage 3 tarball:

# tar xpf stage3-latest.tar.xz

Important

It is very important to use tar's "p" option when extracting the Stage 3 tarball - it tells tar to preserve any permissions and ownership that exist within the archive. Without this option, your Funtoo Linux filesystem permissions will be incorrect.

Chroot into Funtoo

Before chrooting into your new system, there's a few things that need to be done first. You will need to mount /proc and /dev inside your new system. Use the following commands:

# cd /mnt/funtoo
# mount -t proc none proc
# mount --rbind /sys sys
# mount --rbind /dev dev

You'll also want to copy over resolv.conf in order to have proper DNS name resolution from inside the chroot:

# cp /etc/resolv.conf etc

Now you can chroot into your new system. Use env before chroot to ensure that no environment variables from the installation media are used by your new system:

# env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l

Note

Users of live CDs with 64-bit kernels: Some software may use uname -r to check whether the system is 32 or 64-bit. You may want append linux32 to the chroot command as a workaround, but it's generally not needed.

Important

If you receive the error "chroot: failed to run command `/bin/bash': Exec format error", it is probably because you are running a 32-bit kernel and trying to execute 64-bit code. SystemRescueCd boots with a 32-bit kernel by default.

It's also a good idea to change the default command prompt while inside the chroot. This will avoid confusion if you have to change terminals. Use this command:

# export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"

Congratulations! You are now chrooted inside a Funtoo Linux system. Now it's time to get Funtoo Linux properly configured so that Funtoo Linux will boot successfully when your system is restarted.

Downloading the Portage tree

Note

For an alternative way to do this, see Installing Portage From Snapshot.

Now it's time to install a copy of the Portage repository, which contains package scripts (ebuilds) that tell portage how to build and install thousands of different software packages. To create the Portage repository, simply run emerge --sync from within the chroot. This will automatically clone the portage tree from GitHub:

(chroot) # emerge --sync

Important

If you receive the error with initial emerge --sync due to git protocol restrictions, change SYNC variable in /etc/make.conf

SYNC="https://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012.git"

Configuring your system

As is expected from a Linux distribution, Funtoo Linux has its share of configuration files. The one file you are absolutely required to edit in order to ensure that Funtoo Linux boots successfully is /etc/fstab. The others are optional. Here are a list of files that you should consider editing:

File Do I need to change it? Description
/etc/fstab YES - required Mount points for all filesystems to be used at boot time. This file must reflect your disk partition setup. We'll guide you through modifying this file below.
/etc/localtime Maybe - recommended Your timezone, which will default to UTC if not set. This should be a symbolic link to something located under /usr/share/zoneinfo (e.g. /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/Montreal)
/etc/make.conf (symlink) - also known as:
/etc/portage/make.conf
Maybe - recommended Parameters used by gcc (compiler), portage, and make. It's a good idea to set MAKEOPTS. This is covered later in this document.
/etc/conf.d/hostname Maybe - recommended Used to set system hostname. Set the hostname variable to the fully-qualified (with dots, ie. foo.funtoo.org) name if you have one. Otherwise, set to the local system hostname (without dots, ie. foo). Defaults to localhost if not set.
/etc/hosts No You no longer need to manually set the hostname in this file. This file is automatically generated by /etc/init.d/hostname.
/etc/conf.d/keymaps Optional Keyboard mapping configuration file (for console pseudo-terminals). Set if you have a non-US keyboard. See Funtoo Linux Localization.
/etc/conf.d/hwclock Optional How the time of the battery-backed hardware clock of the system is interpreted (UTC or local time). Linux uses the battery-backed hardware clock to initialize the system clock when the system is booted.
/etc/conf.d/modules Optional Kernel modules to load automatically at system startup. Typically not required. See Additional Kernel Resources for more info.
/etc/conf.d/consolefont Optional Allows you to specify the default console font. To apply this font, enable the consolefont service by running rc-update add consolefont.
profiles Optional Some useful portage settings that may help speed up intial configuration.

If you're installing an English version of Funtoo Linux, you're in luck as most of the configuration files can be used as-is. If you're installing for another locale, don't worry. We will walk you through the necessary configuration steps on the Funtoo Linux Localization page, and if needed, there's always plenty of friendly, helpful support. (See Community)

Let's go ahead and see what we have to do. Use nano -w <name_of_file> to edit files -- the "-w" disables word-wrapping, which is handy when editing configuration files. You can copy and paste from the examples.

Warning

It's important to edit your /etc/fstab file before you reboot! You will need to modify both the "fs" and "type" columns to match the settings for your partitions and filesystems that you created with gdisk or fdisk. Skipping this step may prevent Funtoo Linux from booting successfully.

/etc/fstab

/etc/fstab is used by the mount command which is ran when your system boots. Statements of this file inform mount about partitions to be mounted and how they are mounted. In order for the system to boot properly, you must edit /etc/fstab and ensure that it reflects the partition configuration you used earlier:

(chroot) # nano -w /etc/fstab

You can use arrow keys to move around and hit Control-X to exit. If you want to save your changes, type "Y" when asked if you want to save the modified buffer, or hit Control-O before closing nano. Otherwise your changes will be discarded.

# The root filesystem should have a pass number of either 0 or 1.
# All other filesystems should have a pass number of 0 or greater than 1.
#
# NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
#
# See the manpage fstab(5) for more information.
#
# <fs>	     <mountpoint>  <type>  <opts>         <dump/pass>

/dev/sda1    /boot         ext2    noauto,noatime 1 2
/dev/sda2    none          swap    sw             0 0
/dev/sda3    /             ext4    noatime        0 1
#/dev/cdrom  /mnt/cdrom    auto    noauto,ro      0 0

/etc/localtime

/etc/localtime is used to specify the timezone that your machine is in, and defaults to UTC. If you would like your Funtoo Linux system to use local time, you should replace /etc/localtime with a symbolic link to the timezone that you wish to use.

(chroot) # ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/MST7MDT /etc/localtime

The above sets the timezone to Mountain Standard Time (with daylight savings). Type ls /usr/share/zoneinfo to see what timezones are available. There are also sub-directories containing timezones described by location.

/etc/make.conf

MAKEOPTS can be used to define how many parallel compilations should occur when you compile a package, which can speed up compilation significantly. A rule of thumb is the number of CPUs (or CPU threads) in your system plus one. If for example you have a dual core processor without hyper-threading, then you would set MAKEOPTS to 3:

MAKEOPTS="-j3" 

If you are unsure about how many processors/threads you have then use /proc/cpuinfo to help you.

(chroot) # grep "processor" /proc/cpuinfo | wc -l
16

Set MAKEOPTS to this number plus one:

MAKEOPTS="-j17"

USE flags define what functionality is enabled when packages are built. It is not recommended to add a lot of them during installation; you should wait until you have a working, bootable system before changing your USE flags. A USE flag prefixed with a minus ("-") sign tells Portage not to use the flag when compiling. A Funtoo guide to USE flags will be available in the future. For now, you can find out more information about USE flags in the Gentoo Handbook.

LINGUAS tells Portage which local language to compile the system and applications in (those who use LINGUAS variable like OpenOffice). It is not usually necessary to set this if you use English. If you want another language such as French (fr) or German (de), set LINGUAS appropriately:

LINGUAS="fr"

/etc/conf.d/hwclock

If you dual-boot with Windows, you'll need to edit this file and change the value of clock from UTC to local, because Windows will set your hardware clock to local time every time you boot Windows. Otherwise you normally wouldn't need to edit this file.

(chroot) # nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock

Localization

By default, Funtoo Linux is configured with Unicode (UTF-8) enabled, and for the US English locale and keyboard. If you would like to configure your system to use a non-English locale or keyboard, see Funtoo Linux Localization.

Profiles

Funtoo profiles are used to define defaults for Portage specific to your needs. There are 4 basic profile types: arch, build, flavor, and mix-ins:

arch
typically x86-32bit or x86-64bit, this defines the processor type and support of your system. This is defined when your stage was built and should not be changed.
build
defines whether your system is a current, stable or experimental build. current systems will have newer packages unmasked than stable systems.
flavor
defines the general type of system, such as server or desktop, and will set default USE flags appropriate for your needs.
mix-ins
define various optional settings that you may be interested in enabling.

One arch, build and flavor must be set for each Funtoo Linux system, while mix-ins are optional and you can enable more than one if desired.

Remember that profiles can often be inherited. For example, the desktop flavor inherits the workstation flavor settings, which in turn inherits the X and audio mix-ins. You can view this by using eselect:

(chroot) # eselect profile show
Currently set profiles:
    arch: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit
   build: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current
  flavor: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/desktop
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/kde

Automatically enabled profiles:
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/print
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/X
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/audio
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/console-extras


To view installed profiles:

(chroot) # eselect profile list

To change the profile flavor:

(chroot) # eselect profile set-flavor 7

To add a mix-in:

(chroot) # eselect profile add 10

Introducing Portage

Portage, the Funtoo Linux package manager has a command called emerge which is used to build and install packages from source. It also takes care of installing all of the package's dependencies. You call emerge like this:

(chroot) # emerge packagename

When you install a package by specifying its name in the command-line, Portage records its name in the /var/lib/portage/world file. It does so because it assumes that, since you have installed it by name, you want to consider it part of your system and want to keep the package updated in the future. This is a handy feature, since when packages are being added to the world set, we can update our entire system by typing:

(chroot) # emerge --sync
(chroot) # emerge -auDN @world

This is the "official" way to update your Funtoo Linux system. Above, we first update our Portage tree using git to grab the latest ebuilds (scripts), and then run an emerge command to update the world set of packages. The options specified tell emerge to:

  • a - show us what will be emerged, and ask us if we want to proceed
  • u - update the packages we specify -- don't emerge them again if they are already emerged.
  • D - Consider the entire dependency tree of packages when looking for updates. In other words, do a deep update.
  • N - Update any packages that have changed (new) USE settings.

You should also consider passing --with-bdeps=y when emerging @world, at least once in a while. This will update build dependencies as well.

Of course, sometimes we want to install a package but not add it to the world file. This is often done because you only want the package installed temproarily or because you know the package in question is a dependnecy of another package. If this behavior is desired, you call emerge like this:

(chroot) # emerge -1 packagename

Advanced users may be interested in the Emerge wiki page.

Updating World

Now it is actually a very good time to update the entire system and it is very important that you do so before rebooting to resolve various issues.

(chroot) # emerge --sync
(chroot) # emerge -auDN @world

Important

Make sure you read any post emerge messages and follow their instructions. This is especially true if you have upgraded perl or python.

Configuring and installing the Linux kernel

Now it's time to build and install a Linux kernel, which is the heart of any Funtoo Linux system. The kernel is loaded by the boot loader, and interfaces directly with your system's hardware, and allows regular (userspace) programs to run.

A kernel must be configured properly for your system's hardware, so that it supports your hard drives, file systems, network cards, and so on. More experienced Linux users can choose to install kernel sources and configure and install their own kernel. If you don't know how to do this, we provide ebuilds that will automatically build a "univeral" kernel, modules and initramfs for booting your system that supports all hardware. This is an extremely simple way of building a kernel that will get your system booted.

What is our goal? To build a kernel that will recognize all the hardware in your system necessary for booting, so that you will be greeted by a friendly login prompt after installation is complete. These instructions will guide you through the process of installing a kernel the "easy" way -- without requiring user configuration, by using a "universal" kernel.

Package Sets

Before we install a kernel, we're going to cover a feature of Portage called package sets. Earlier we learned about one such package set called the world set. This is a handy feature because packages in additionally defined package sets are not updated when the world set is updated. This behavior is generally desired for packages that are time consuming or should not change be updated often without reasons, such as kernel packages.

Kernel Package Set

Note

See Funtoo Linux Kernels for a full list of kernels supported in Funtoo Linux. We recommend debian-sources for new users.

Important

debian-sources with binary USE flag requires at least 14GB free in /var/tmp and takes around 1 hour to build on a Intel Core i7 Processor.

To create the kernel package set, perform the following steps:

(chroot) # mkdir /etc/portage/sets
(chroot) # echo sys-kernel/debian-sources > /etc/portage/sets/kernel

Now, we'll want to set a USE variable to tell debian-sources to build a "universal" kernel and initramfs for us, to take the guess-work out of getting Funtoo Linux booted. To do this, we're going to set the binary USE variable for debian-sources, as follows:

(chroot) # echo "sys-kernel/debian-sources binary" >> /etc/portage/package.use

If USE variables are new to you, you'll be getting a lot more familiar with them as you use Funtoo Linux. At their essence, they are "switches" that you can set to configure options that can be built in to various packages. They're used to customize your Funtoo Linux system to meet your exact needs. We added support for a binary USE flag to the debian-sources ebuilds, as well as a few other of our kernel ebuilds, to make it easier for new users to get Funtoo Linux up and running.

Now, when we just want to update our system's packages, we'll type emerge -auDN @world, and it will update our world set, leaving out the kernel. Likewise, when we just want to update our kernel, we'll type emerge -au @kernel, and it will update our kernel, leaving out the world set.

Building the Kernel

Let's emerge our kernel:

(chroot) # emerge @kernel

Note that while use of the binary USE flag makes installing a working kernel extremely simple, it is one part of Funtoo Linux that takes a very long time to build from source, because it is building a kernel that supports all hardware that Linux supports! So, get the build started, and then let your machine compile. Slower machines can take up to several hours to build the kernel, and you'll want to make sure that you've set MAKEOPTS in /etc/make.conf to the number of processing cores/threads (plus one) in your system before starting to build it as quickly as possible -- see the /etc/make.conf section if you forgot to do this.

Note

NVIDIA card users: the binary USE flag installs the Nouveau drivers which cannot be loaded at the same time as the proprietary drivers, and cannot be unloaded at runtime because of KMS. You need to blacklist it under /etc/modprobe.d/.

Note

For an overview of other kernel options for Funtoo Linux, see Funtoo Linux Kernels. There may be modules that the Debian kernel doesn't include, a situation where genkernel would be useful. Also be sure to see hardware compatibility information.

Once emerge completes, you'll have a brand new kernel and initramfs installed to /boot, plus kernel headers installed in /usr/src/linux, and you'll be ready to configure the boot loader to load these to boot your Funtoo Linux system.

Installing a Bootloader

Installing Grub

The boot loader is responsible for loading the kernel from disk when your computer boots. For new installations, GRUB 2 and Funtoo's boot-update tool should be used as a boot loader. GRUB supports both GPT/GUID and legacy MBR partitioning schemes.

To use this recommended boot method, first emerge boot-update. This will also cause grub-2 to be merged, since it is a dependency of boot-update. (You may need to adjust GRUB_PLATFORMS if you are on a UEFI system. See UEFI Install Guide).

(chroot) # emerge boot-update

Then, edit /etc/boot.conf and specify "Funtoo Linux genkernel" as the default setting at the top of the file, replacing "Funtoo Linux".

/etc/boot.conf should now look like this:

boot {
        generate grub
        default "Funtoo Linux genkernel"
        timeout 3 
}

"Funtoo Linux" {
        kernel bzImage[-v]
        # params += nomodeset
}

"Funtoo Linux genkernel" {
# if you use bliss-kernel package
# you should change string
# kernel kernel[-v]
# to
# kernel kernel/[-v]/kernel[-v]
        kernel kernel[-v]
        initrd initramfs[-v]
        params += real_root=auto 
        # params += nomodeset
} 

If you use bliss-kernel, your /etc/boot.conf should look like:

boot {
        generate grub
        default "Funtoo Linux genkernel"
        timeout 3 
}

"Funtoo Linux" {
        kernel bzImage[-v]
        # params += nomodeset
}

"Funtoo Linux genkernel" {
        kernel kernels/[-v]/kernel[-v]
        initrd initramfs[-v]
        params += real_root=auto 
        # params += nomodeset
} 

Please read man boot.conf for further details.

Running grub-install and boot-update

Finally, we will need to actually install the GRUB boot loader to your disk, and also run boot-update which will generate your boot loader configuration file:

(chroot) # grub-install --no-floppy /dev/sda
(chroot) # boot-update

if you boot system in efi/uefi mode to run installation process and want to install new system with grub for booting via classic/legacy mode - you will need to add GRUB_PLATFORMS="pc" to /etc/make.conf configuration file and install grub with this command instad of one that you see above:

(chroot) # grub-install --loader=i386-pc --no-floppy /dev/sda

if you get:

mkdir: cannot create directory '/boot/grub': Read-only file system

or

grub2-install: error: failed to get canonical path of `/boot/grub'

then run:

(chroot) # mount -o rw,remount /dev/sda1

replacing /dev/sda1 with whatever your boot partition is (/dev/sdc1, etc.) and run the grub-install command again.

Now you need to update your boot loader configuration file:

(chroot) # boot-update

You only need to run grub-install when you first install Funtoo Linux, but you need to re-run boot-update every time you modify your /etc/boot.conf file, so your changes are applied on next boot.

OK - your system should be ready to boot! Well, there are a few more loose ends...

Installing Syslinux/Extlinux

An alternate boot loader called extlinux can be used instead of GRUB if you desire. See the extlinux Guide for information on how to do this.

Configuring your network

It's important to ensure that you will be able to connect to your local-area network after you reboot into Funtoo Linux. There are three approaches you can use for configuring your network: NetworkManager, dhcpcd, and the Funtoo Linux Networking scripts. Here's how to choose which one to use based on the type of network you want to set up.

Wi-Fi

Using NetworkManager

For laptop/mobile systems where you will be using Wi-Fi and connecting to various networks, NetworkManager is strongly recommended. The Funtoo version of NetworkManager is fully functional even from the command-line, so you can use it even without X or without the Network Manager applet. Here are the steps involved in setting up NetworkManager:

(chroot) # emerge linux-firmware
(chroot) # emerge networkmanager
(chroot) # rc-update add NetworkManager default

Above, we installed linux-firmware which contains a complete collection of available firmware for many hardware devices including Wi-Fi adapters, plus NetworkManager to manage our network connection. Then we added NetworkManager to the default runlevel so it will start when Funtoo Linux boots.

After you reboot into Funtoo Linux, you will be able to add a Wi-Fi connection this way:

# addwifi -S wpa -K 'wifipassword' mywifinetwork

The addwifi command is used to configure and connect to a WPA/WPA2 Wi-Fi network named mywifinetwork with the password wifipassword. This network configuration entry is stored in /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections so that it will be remembered in the future. You should only need to enter this command once for each Wi-Fi network you connect to.

Using wpa_supplicant

If for some reason you don't want to use a tool such as NetworkManager or wicd, you can use wpa_supplicant for wireless network connections.

First, emerge wpa_supplicant:

(chroot) # emerge -a wpa_supplicant

Now, edit the wpa_supplicant configuration file, located at /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf. The syntax is very easy:

network={
ssid="MyWifiName"
psk="lol42-wifi"
}

network={
ssid="Other Network"
psk="6d96270004515a0486bb7f76196a72b40c55a47f"
}

You will need to add both wpa_supplicant and dhcpcd to the default runlevel. wpa_supplicant will connect to your access point, and dhcpcd will acquire an IP address via DHCP:

(chroot) # rc-update add dhcpcd default
(chroot) # rc-update add wpa_supplicant default

Desktop (Wired Ethernet)

For a home desktop or workstation with wired Ethernet that will use DHCP, the simplest and most effective option to enable network connectivity is to simply add dhcpcd to the default runlevel:

(chroot) # rc-update add dhcpcd default

When you reboot, dhcpcd will run in the background and manage all network interfaces and use DHCP to acquire network addresses from a DHCP server.

Server (Static IP)

For servers, the Funtoo Linux Networking scripts are recommended. They are optimized for static configurations and things like virtual ethernet bridging for virtualization setups. See Funtoo Linux Networking for information on how to use Funtoo Linux's template-based network configuration system.

Finishing Steps

Set your root password

It's imperative that you set your root password before rebooting so that you can log in.

(chroot) # passwd

Restart your system

Now is the time to leave chroot, to unmount Funtoo Linux partitions and files and to restart your computer. When you restart, the GRUB boot loader will start, load the Linux kernel and initramfs, and your system will begin booting.

Leave the chroot, change directory to /mnt, unmount your Funtoo partitions, and reboot.

(chroot) # exit
# cd /mnt
# umount -l funtoo
# reboot

Note

System Rescue CD will gracefully unmount your new Funtoo filesystems as part of its normal shutdown sequence.

You should now see your system reboot, the GRUB boot loader appear for a few seconds, and then see the Linux kernel and initramfs loading. After this, you should see Funtoo Linux itself start to boot, and you should be greeted with a login: prompt. Funtoo Linux has been successfully installed!

Next Steps

If you are brand new to Funtoo Linux and Gentoo Linux, please check out Funtoo Linux First Steps, which will help get you acquainted with your new system. We also have a category for our official documentation, which includes all docs that we officially maintain for installation and operation of Funtoo Linux.

We also have a number of pages dedicated to setting up your system, which you can find below. If you are interested in adding a page to this list, add it to the "First Steps" MediaWiki category.



If your system did not boot correctly, see Installation Troubleshooting for steps you can take to resolve the problem.