Difference between pages "Funtoo Linux Installation" and "Help:Funtoo Editing Guidelines"

(Difference between pages)
(Configuring your system)
 
 
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== Introduction ==
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This guide is meant to serve as a reference for those who are interested in helping improve the Funtoo Wiki.
 +
__TOC__
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First, to perform edits on the wiki, you must {{CreateAccount}} and log in.
  
This document was written to help you install Funtoo Linux as concisely as possible, with a minimum number of distracting options regarding system configuration.  
+
{{fancynote|A new wiki capability has been added, called ''annotations'', which allows you to make in-line comments to wiki text. To create or view annotations, click the '''View annotations''' tab. Hover over any yellow highlighted text to view an annotation (there is one for the first sentence of this page), or select text with your mouse and use the widget that appears to add your own annotation. Note that annotations are wiped when the page is edited.}}
  
These docs assume you have a "PC compatible" computer system with a standard PC BIOS. Many new computers support UEFI for booting, which is a new firmware interface that frequently replaces the older MBR-based BIOS. If you have a system with UEFI, you will want to use this documentation along with the [[UEFI Install Guide]], which will augment these instructions and explain how to get your system to boot. You may need to change your PC BIOS settings to enable or disable UEFI booting. The [[UEFI Install Guide]] has more information on this, and steps on how to determine if your system supports UEFI.
+
You can create a new page by navigating to http://www.funtoo.org/New_Page_Name. Underscores are the equivalent of spaces. Then click the "Create" button in the upper right.
  
We also offer a [[ZFS Install Guide]], which augment the instructions on this page for those who want to install Funtoo Linux on ZFS. If you are installing Funtoo Linux on [[Funtoo Linux Installation on ARM|ARM]] architecture, please see [[Funtoo Linux Installation on ARM]] for notable differences regarding ARM support. An experimental Funtoo Linux build also exists for [[Funtoo Linux Installation on SPARC|SPARC]] platforms. See [[Funtoo Linux Installation on SPARC]].
+
Whether creating a new page or editing an existing page by clicking "Edit", you will be presented with Web-based text editor that allows you to modify the ''wikitext'' of the page. The wikitext is rendered to produce the document you see when you view the page normally.
  
If you've had previous experience installing Gentoo Linux then a lot of steps will be familiar, but you should still read through as there are a few differences.
+
This wiki uses the ApprovedRevs Extension, which means that any changes you make to a page will need to be approved by an Editor before they are displayed. Editors can visit the [[Special:ApprovedRevs]] page to approve edits made on pages (click "Pages whose approved revision is not their latest" or "Unapproved pages".)
  
== Installation Overview ==
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Until your edits are approved, you can continue to edit the page and your changes will be displayed in the page's History -- click "View History" in the upper right to view the page's history. You will see that the approved version of a page has a star next to it.
  
This is a basic overview of the Funtoo installation process:
+
Another fun thing you can do is click on your name in the upper right once you have logged in. This will bring you to your "User" page. Then click "Create with Form" and enter your geographic and other information. This will allow you to be displayed on our [[Usermap]] and will also allow your full name to be displayed on [[:Category:Ebuilds|Ebuild pages]] for which you are an author. It's generally a good idea to do this.
  
# [[#Live CD|Download and boot the live CD of your choice]].
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{{fancytip|The following sections document how to use wikitext and Funtoo templates on the Funtoo wiki.}}
# [[#Prepare Hard Disk|Prepare your disk]].
+
# [[#Creating filesystems|Create]] and [[#Mounting filesystems|mount]] filesystems.
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# [[#Installing the Stage 3 tarball|Install the Funtoo stage tarball]] of your choice.
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# [[#Chroot into Funtoo|Chroot into your new system]].
+
# [[#Downloading the Portage tree|Download the Portage tree]].
+
# [[#Configuring your system|Configure your system]] and [[#Configuring your network|network]].
+
# [[#Configuring and installing the Linux kernel|Install a kernel]].
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# [[#Installing a Bootloader|Install a bootloader]].
+
# [[#Finishing Steps|Complete final steps]].
+
# [[#Restart your system|Reboot and enjoy]].
+
  
=== Live CD ===
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== Paragraphs ==
  
Funtoo doesn't provide an "official" Funtoo Live CD, but there are plenty of good ones out there to choose from. A great choice is the Gentoo-based [http://www.sysresccd.org/ System Rescue CD] as it contains lots of tools and utilities and supports both 32-bit and 64-bit systems.
+
To create a new paragraph, insert a blank line between two lines of text. If a blank line doesn't exist between two lines of wikitext, they will be combined into a single flowing paragraph.
  
It is also possible to install Funtoo Linux using many other Linux-based live CDs. Generally, any modern bootable Linux live CD or live USB media will work. See [[Requirements|requirements]] for an overview of what the Live Media must provide to allow a problem-free install of Funtoo Linux.
+
If you leave leading whitespace at the beginning of a line, MediaWiki will render it as pre-formatted text. Beware of this. Here's an example:
  
To begin a Funtoo Linux installation, download System Rescue CD from:
+
foobar
  
{{MirrorList}}
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== Page and Section Capitalization ==
  
Or, use your preferred live media. Insert it into your disc drive, and boot from it. If using an older version of System Rescue CD, '''be sure to select the <tt>rescue64</tt> kernel at the boot menu if you are installing a 64-bit system'''. By default, System Rescue CD used to boot in 32-bit mode though the latest version attempts to automatically detect 64-bit processors.
+
In general, capitalize all words in page names and section heading except:
 +
* Articles: a, an, the
 +
* Coordinating Conjunctions: and, but, or, for, nor, etc.
 +
* Prepositions (fewer than five letters): on, at, to, from, by, etc.
  
=== Prepare Hard Disk ===
+
== Document Heirarchy ==
==== Partitions ====
+
  
Funtoo Linux fully supports traditional MBR partitions, as well as newer GPT/GUID partition formats. See below to determine which partitioning scheme to use:
+
Use section headings to create a document heirarchy for your page. These will define the table of contents that appears at the top of the wiki page. Create chapters, sections and sub-sections as follows:
  
===== MBR Partitions =====
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<pre>= Page Title =
  
* '''Recommended if your system disk is <=2TB in size'''
+
== Chapter Title ==
* Legacy, DOS partitioning scheme
+
* Only 4 primary partitions per disk; after that, you must use "logical" partitions
+
* Does not support 2 TB+ disks for booting
+
* Compatible with certain problematic systems (such as the HP ProBook 4520)
+
* Dual-boot with Windows for BIOS systems (Windows handle GPT only on true EFI systems, whatever version it is)
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* Multiple boot loader options, e.g. GRUB 2, GRUB Legacy, lilo
+
  
{{fancynote|Due to the fact that it is more widely supported on PC hardware, it is best to use MBR partitions if possible.}}
+
=== Section Title ===
  
===== GPT Partitions =====
+
==== SubSection Title ====
  
* '''Recommended if your disk is >2TB in size'''
+
</pre>
* Newer format for Linux systems
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* Supports 2 TB+ hard drives for booting
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* Supports hundreds of partitions per disk of any size
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* Requires legacy BIOS boot partition (~32 MB) to be created if system does not use EFI
+
* Requires bootloader with support for GPT such as GRUB 2, EXTLINUX, or a patched version of GRUB Legacy
+
  
{{fancyimportant|If you have a system disk that is 2TB or greater and want to use the space beyond 2TB, you ''must'' partition using the GPT/GUID format. Otherwise, MBR is recommended as the most reliable boot method.}}
+
== Links ==
  
===== Filesystem Resources =====
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Internal links to other wiki pages can be specified as <tt><nowiki>[[pagename]]</nowiki></tt>. To specify an alternate name for the link, use <tt><nowiki>[[pagename|my link name]]</nowiki></tt>.
  
Advanced users may be interested in the following topics:
+
For external links, use <tt><nowiki>[http://funtoo.org my link]</nowiki></tt> to specify a URL. If you want the URL to appear in the wikitext, you can specify it without brackets: http://forums.funtoo.org.
  
* [[GUID Booting Guide]]
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== Lists ==
* [[LVM Install Guide]]
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* [[Rootfs over encrypted lvm]]
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* [[Rootfs over encrypted lvm over raid-1 on GPT]]
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* '''NEW!''' '''[[ZFS Install Guide]] (Also contains instructions for Rootfs over Encrypted ZFS!)'''
+
  
===== Partitioning Recommendations =====
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MediaWiki supports a number of list formats:
  
Below are our partitioning recommendations in table form. For MBR-based partitions, use the MBR Block Device and MBR code columns with <tt>fdisk</tt>. For GPT-based partitions, use the GPT Block Device and GPT Code columns with <tt>gdisk</tt>:
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* Unordered List
 +
* Unordered Item 2
 +
** Unordered sub-item
  
{{TableStart}}
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# Ordered List
<tr class="active"><th>Partition</th>
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# Ordered Item 2
<th>Size</th>
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## Ordered sub-item
<th>MBR Block Device (<code>fdisk</code>)</th>
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<th>GPT Block Device (<code>gdisk</code>)</th>
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<th>Filesystem</th>
+
<th>MBR Code</th>
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<th>GPT Code</th>
+
</tr><tr>
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<td><tt>/boot</tt></td>
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<td>128 MB for MBR,  512 MB for GPT</td>
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<td><tt>/dev/sda1</tt></td>
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<td><tt>/dev/sda1</tt></td>
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<td>ext2</td>
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<td>83</td>
+
<td>8300</td>
+
</tr><tr>
+
<td>GRUB boot loader partition</td>
+
<td>1 MB</td>
+
<td>''not required for MBR''</td>
+
<td><tt>/dev/sda2</tt></td>
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<td>For GPT/GUID only, skip for MBR - no filesystem.</td>
+
<td>''N/A''</td>
+
<td>EF02</td>
+
</tr><tr>
+
<td>swap</td>
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<td>2x RAM for low-memory systems and production servers; otherwise 2GB.</td>
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<td><tt>/dev/sda2</tt></td>
+
<td><tt>/dev/sda3</tt></td>
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<td>swap (default)</td>
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<td>82</td>
+
<td>8200</td>
+
</tr><tr>
+
<td><tt>/</tt> (root)</td>
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<td>Rest of the disk, minimum of 10GB.</td>
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<td><tt>/dev/sda3</tt></td>
+
<td><tt>/dev/sda4</tt></td>
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<td>XFS recommended, alternatively ext4</td>
+
<td>83</td>
+
<td>8300</td>
+
</tr><tr>
+
<td><tt>/home</tt> (optional) </td>
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<td>User storage and media. Typically most of the disk.</td>
+
<td><tt>/dev/sda4</tt> (if created)</td>
+
<td><tt>/dev/sda5</tt> (if created)</td>
+
<td>XFS recommended, alternatively ext4</td>
+
<td>83</td>
+
<td>8300</td>
+
</tr><tr>
+
<td>LVM (optional)</td>
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<td>If you want to create an LVM volume.</td>
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<td><tt>/dev/sda4</tt> (PV, if created)</td>
+
<td><tt>/dev/sda5</tt> (PV, if created)</td>
+
<td>LVM PV</td>
+
<td>8E</td>
+
<td>8E00</td>
+
</tr>{{TableEnd}}
+
  
===== Partitioning Using fdisk (MBR) =====
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;Term: This is called a "definition list". It is used when defining various terms.
  
{{fancyimportant|If you need to create a GPT partition table, see [[Partitioning using gdisk]].}}
+
If you need to quote a portion of text from another site, use <tt><nowiki><blockquote></nowiki></tt> as follows:
  
{{fancynote|These install instructions assume you are installing Funtoo Linux to an hard disk using Master Boot Record partition tables (MBR). If you are installing Funtoo Linux on a machine where another OS is installed, there is an existing Linux distribution on your system that you want to keep or any other scenario (such as differing swap size requirements), then you will need to adapt these instructions to suit your needs.}}
+
<blockquote>
 +
Wikipedia (ˌwɪkɨˈpiːdiə/ or wɪkiˈpiːdiə/ wik-i-pee-dee-ə) is a collaboratively edited, multilingual, free-access, free content Internet encyclopedia that is supported and hosted by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Volunteers worldwide collaboratively write Wikipedia's 30 million articles in 287 languages, including over 4.5 million in the English Wikipedia. Anyone who can access the site can edit almost any of its articles, which on the Internet comprise[4] the largest and most popular general reference work.[5][6][7][8][9] In February 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia is ranked fifth globally among all websites stating, "With 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month..., Wikipedia trails just Yahoo, Facebook, Microsoft and Google, the largest with 1.2 billion unique visitors."[10]
 +
</blockquote>
  
<code>fdisk</code> is the tool used to create an MBR partition table. MBR is well-supported on PCs and is recommended if your system disk is 2TB or smaller.
+
== Literal Text and HTML Symbols ==
  
====== Preparation ======
+
Here is wikitext for the section above, which I am displaying by placing the literal wikitext between a &#60;pre&#62; and &#60;/pre&#62; tag. If you want to disable wikitext processing for an inline span of text, use &#60;nowiki&#62; and &#60;/nowiki&#62;. If you want to print out a tag literally, use &amp;#60; and &amp;#62; (In the wikitext, I used &amp;amp;#60; and &amp;amp;#62 to display these!)
  
First, it's a good idea to make sure that you've found the correct hard disk to partition. Try this command and verify that <code>/dev/sda</code> is the disk that you want to partition:
+
<pre>
 +
* Unordered List
 +
* Unordered Item 2
 +
** Unordered sub-item
  
<console>
+
# Ordered List
# ##i##fdisk -l /dev/sda
+
# Ordered Item 2
 +
## Ordered sub-item
  
Disk /dev/sda: 640.1 GB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
+
;Term: This is called a "definition list". It is used when defining various terms.
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
+
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
+
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
+
Disk label type: gpt
+
  
 +
If you need to quote a portion of text from another site, use <tt><nowiki><blockquote></nowiki></tt> as follows:
  
#        Start          End    Size  Type            Name
+
<blockquote>
1         2048  1250263694  596.2G  Linux filesyste Linux filesystem
+
Wikipedia (ˌwɪkɨˈpiːdiə/ or wɪkiˈpiːdiə/ wik-i-pee-dee-ə) is a collaboratively edited, multilingual, free-access,
</console>
+
free content Internet encyclopedia that is supported and hosted by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Volunteers
 +
worldwide collaboratively write Wikipedia's 30 million articles in 287 languages, including over 4.5 million in the
 +
English Wikipedia. Anyone who can access the site can edit almost any of its articles, which on the Internet
 +
comprise[4] the largest and most popular general reference work.[5][6][7][8][9] In February 2014, The New York
 +
Times reported that Wikipedia is ranked fifth globally among all websites stating, "With 18 billion page views
 +
and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month..., Wikipedia trails just Yahoo, Facebook, Microsoft and Google,
 +
the largest with 1.2 billion unique visitors."[10]
 +
</blockquote>
 +
</pre>
  
Now, it's recommended that you erase any existing MBR or GPT partition tables on the disk, which could confuse the system's BIOS at boot time. We do this using <code>sgdisk</code>:
+
== Displaying Source Code ==
{{fancywarning|This will make your current partitions inaccessable! You are '''strongly''' cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding. In case of need, you can try recovering your partition table using <code>testdisk</code>.}}
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda
+
 
+
Creating new GPT entries.
+
GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or
+
other utilities.
+
</console>
+
 
+
This output is also nothing to worry about, as the command still succeded:
+
 
+
<console>
+
***************************************************************
+
Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format
+
in memory.
+
***************************************************************
+
</console>
+
 
+
====== Partitioning ======
+
 
+
Now we will use <code>fdisk</code> to create the MBR partition table and partitions:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##fdisk /dev/sda
+
</console>
+
 
+
Within <code>fdisk</code>, follow these steps:
+
 
+
'''Empty the partition table''':
+
 
+
<console>
+
Command (m for help): ##i##o ↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
+
 
+
<console>
+
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
+
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
+
Partition number (1-4, default 1): ##i##↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+128M ↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
+
 
+
<console>
+
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
+
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
+
Partition number (2-4, default 2): ##i##↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+2G ↵
+
Command (m for help): ##i##t ↵
+
Partition number (1,2, default 2): ##i## ↵
+
Hex code (type L to list all codes): ##i##82 ↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Create the root partition:'''
+
 
+
<console>
+
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
+
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
+
Partition number (3,4, default 3): ##i##↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Verify the partition table:'''
+
 
+
<console>
+
Command (m for help): ##i##p
+
 
+
Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
+
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
+
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
+
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
+
Disklabel type: dos
+
Disk identifier: 0x82abc9a6
+
 
+
Device    Boot    Start      End    Blocks  Id System
+
/dev/sda1          2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
+
/dev/sda2        264192  4458495  2097152  82 Linux swap / Solaris
+
/dev/sda3        4458496 625142447 310341976  83 Linux
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Write the parition table to disk:'''
+
 
+
<console>
+
Command (m for help): ##i##w
+
</console>
+
 
+
Your new MBR partition table will now be written to your system disk.
+
 
+
==== Creating filesystems ====
+
 
+
Before your newly-created partitions can be used, the block devices need to be initialized with filesystem ''metadata''. This process is known as ''creating a filesystem'' on the block devices. After filesystems are created on the block devices, they can be mounted and used to store files.
+
 
+
You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, but will initialize it using the <tt>mkswap</tt> command so that it can be used as disk-based virtual memory. Then we'll run the <tt>swapon</tt> command to make your newly-initialized swap space active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process.
+
 
+
Note that we will not create a filesystem on the GRUB boot loader partition, as GRUB writes binary data directly to that partition when the boot loader is installed, which we'll do later.
+
 
+
You can see the commands you will need to type below. Like the rest of this document, it assumes that you are using a GPT partitioning scheme. If you are using MBR, your root filesystem will likely be created on <tt>/dev/sda3</tt> instead and you will need to adjust the target block devices. If you are following our recommendations, then simply do this:
+
 
+
'''We generally recommend XFS for root filesystems, although ext4 is also a good choice.''' This tutorial assumes the use of XFS. If you want to use ext4, then be sure that your <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> file reflects this.
+
 
+
{{fancywarning|1=
+
When deploying an OpenVZ host, please use ext4 exclusively. The Parallels development team tests extensively with ext4, and modern versions of <tt>openvz-rhel6-stable</tt> are '''not''' compatible with XFS, and you may experience kernel bugs.
+
}}
+
 
+
'''To use ext4 as your root filesystem:'''
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mke2fs -t ext2 /dev/sda1
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3
+
# ##i##mkswap /dev/sda2
+
# ##i##swapon /dev/sda2
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''To use XFS as your root filesystem:'''
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mke2fs -t ext2 /dev/sda1
+
# ##i##mkfs.xfs /dev/sda3
+
# ##i##mkswap /dev/sda2
+
# ##i##swapon /dev/sda2
+
</console>
+
 
+
==== Mounting filesystems ====
+
 
+
Mount the newly-created filesystems as follows, creating <tt>/mnt/funtoo</tt> as the installation mount point:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/funtoo
+
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot
+
</console>
+
 
+
Optionally, if you have a separate filesystem for <tt>/home</tt> or anything else:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/home
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/funtoo/home
+
</console>
+
 
+
If you have <tt>/tmp</tt> or <tt>/var/tmp</tt> on a separate filesystem, be sure to change the permissions of the mount point to be globally-writeable after mounting, as follows:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##chmod 1777 /mnt/funtoo/tmp
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== Installing the Stage 3 tarball ===
+
After creating filesystems, the next step is downloading the initial Stage 3 tarball. The Stage 3 is a pre-compiled system used as a starting point to install Funtoo Linux. Load one of the following URLs in another browser window:
+
 
+
{{MirrorList}}
+
 
+
Now, let's navigate the directories on the mirrors to find the appropriate build of Funtoo Linux for you.
+
 
+
==== Stable or Current? ====
+
Funtoo Linux has a "stable" build and a "current" build. Most people use the "current" build of Funtoo Linux, and it's generally recommended that you do too. You will find "current' builds in the main <code>/funtoo-current</code> directory on our mirrors, and "stable" builds in <code>/funtoo-stable</code>.
+
<br />If you want to read more about this, have a look at [[Funtoo_Linux#What_are_the_differences_between_.27stable.27.2C_.27current.27_and_.27experimental.27_.3F|Differences between stable, current and experimental]].
+
 
+
==== 32 or 64-bit? ====
+
There are three different types of Funtoo Linux that you can install. If you are installing on an older 32-bit system (if you don't know, then you probably are not) then you want to grab a stage3 tarball from the <code>x86-32bit</code> sub-directory. Most likely, you'll want to grab a 64-bit build from the <code>x86-64bit</code> sub-directory.
+
 
+
==== Your SubArch ====
+
Inside <code>/funtoo-current/x86-64bit/</code> on one of our mirrors, you'll see a bunch of directories for various ''subarches'' of Funtoo Linux.
+
 
+
Subarches are builds of Funtoo Linux that are designed to run on a particular type of CPU, to offer the best possible performance. They take advantage of the instruction sets available for each CPU.
+
 
+
For example, the <code>corei7</code> and <code>corei7-pure64</code> sub-arches require an Intel Core i7 processor to run (this includes Xeon x3400+ series, or other Nehalem-based CPUs such as Xeon x5500/x5600 series.)
+
 
+
If you are using an AMD-based CPU, download a stage3 from <code>generic_64</code>, <code>amd64-k8</code> or <code>amd64-k10</code>.
+
 
+
If you are using an Intel-based CPU, download a stage3 from <code>generic_64</code>, <code>atom_64</code>, <code>core2_64</code> or <code>corei7</code>.
+
 
+
===== Pure64 Builds =====
+
Inside <code>x86-64bit</code>, you may notice a sub-directory named <code>pure64</code>. These builds are recommended for server systems, and they do not offer any 32-bit compatibility, which is generally not needed on server systems. If you are setting up a desktop or workstation system, it's recommended that you avoid these builds as you will need 32-bit compatibility to run several binary desktop-oriented applications such as Skype. But for servers, pure64 is recommended.
+
 
+
==== Setting the Date ====
+
 
+
{{fancyimportant|If your system's date and time are too far off (typically by months or years,) then it may prevent Portage from properly downloading source tarballs. This is because some of our sources are downloaded via HTTPS, which use SSL certificates and are marked with an activation and expiration date.}}
+
 
+
Now is a good time to verify the date and time are correctly set to UTC. Use the <tt>date</tt> command to verify the date and time:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##date
+
Fri Jul 15 19:47:18 UTC 2011
+
</console>
+
 
+
If the date and/or time need to be corrected, do so using <tt>date MMDDhhmmYYYY</tt>, keeping in mind <tt>hhmm</tt> are in 24-hour format. The example below changes the date and time to "July 16th, 2011 @ 8:00PM" UTC:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##date 071620002011
+
Fri Jul 16 20:00:00 UTC 2011
+
</console>
+
 
+
==== Download the Stage3 ====
+
Once you are in your Funtoo Linux root filesystem, use <tt>wget</tt> to download the Stage 3 tarball you have chosen to use as the basis for your new Funtoo Linux system. It should be saved to the <tt>/mnt/funtoo</tt> directory as follows:
+
 
+
<console># ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
+
# ##i##wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-64bit/generic_64/stage3-latest.tar.xz
+
</console>
+
 
+
 
+
Note that 64-bit systems can run 32-bit or 64-bit stages, but 32-bit systems can only run 32-bit stages. Make sure that you select a Stage 3 build that is appropriate for your CPU. If you are not certain, it is a safe bet to choose the <tt>generic_64</tt> or <tt>generic_32</tt> stage. Consult the [[Download]] page for more information.
+
 
+
Once the stage is downloaded, extract the contents with the following command, substituting in the actual name of your stage 3 tarball:
+
<console>
+
# ##i##tar xpf stage3-latest.tar.xz
+
</console>
+
 
+
{{fancyimportant|It is very important to use <tt>tar's</tt> "<tt>'''p'''</tt>" option when extracting the Stage 3 tarball - it tells <tt>tar</tt> to ''preserve'' any permissions and ownership that exist within the archive. Without this option, your Funtoo Linux filesystem permissions will be incorrect.}}
+
 
+
=== Chroot into Funtoo ===
+
Before chrooting into your new system, there's a few things that need to be done first. You will need to mount /proc and /dev inside your new system. Use the following commands:
+
<console>
+
# ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
+
# ##i##mount -t proc none proc
+
# ##i##mount --rbind /sys sys
+
# ##i##mount --rbind /dev dev
+
</console>
+
 
+
You'll also want to copy over <tt>resolv.conf</tt> in order to have proper DNS name resolution from inside the chroot:
+
<console>
+
# ##i##cp /etc/resolv.conf etc
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now you can chroot into your new system. Use <tt>env</tt> before <tt>chroot</tt> to ensure that no environment variables from the installation media are used by your new system:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l
+
</console>
+
 
+
{{fancynote|Users of live CDs with 64-bit kernels: Some software may use <tt>uname -r</tt> to check whether the system is 32 or 64-bit. You may want append linux32 to the chroot command as a workaround, but it's generally not needed.}}
+
{{fancyimportant|If you receive the error "<tt>chroot: failed to run command `/bin/bash': Exec format error</tt>", it is probably because you are running a 32-bit kernel and trying to execute 64-bit code. SystemRescueCd boots with a 32-bit kernel by default.}}
+
 
+
It's also a good idea to change the default command prompt while inside the chroot. This will avoid confusion if you have to change terminals. Use this command:
+
<console>
+
# ##i##export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"
+
</console>
+
 
+
Congratulations! You are now chrooted inside a Funtoo Linux system. Now it's time to get Funtoo Linux properly configured so that Funtoo Linux will boot successfully when your system is restarted.
+
 
+
=== Downloading the Portage tree ===
+
 
+
{{fancynote|For an alternative way to do this, see [[Installing Portage From Snapshot]].}}
+
Now it's time to install a copy of the Portage repository, which contains package scripts (ebuilds) that tell portage how to build and install thousands of different software packages. To create the Portage repository, simply run <tt>emerge --sync</tt> from within the chroot. This will automatically clone the portage tree from [https://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012 GitHub]:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge --sync
+
</console>
+
  
{{fancyimportant|If you receive the error with initial <tt>emerge --sync</tt> due to git protocol restrictions, change <tt>SYNC</tt> variable in <tt>/etc/make.conf</tt>}}
+
To display source code, use the <tt>&#60;syntaxhighlight&#62;</tt> tag, which has the ability to perform syntax highlighting on the source code for easier reading:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
SYNC="https://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012.git"
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="python">
 +
import system
 +
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
=== Configuring your system ===
+
This will produce the following output:
As is expected from a Linux distribution, Funtoo Linux has its share of configuration files. The one file you are absolutely required to edit in order to ensure that Funtoo Linux boots successfully is <tt>/etc/fstab</tt>. The others are optional. Here are a list of files that you should consider editing:
+
{{TableStart}}
+
<tr class="active"><th>File</th>
+
<th>Do I need to change it?</th>
+
<th>Description</th>
+
</tr><tr  class="danger">
+
<td><tt>/etc/fstab</tt></td>
+
<td>'''YES - required'''</td>
+
<td>Mount points for all filesystems to be used at boot time. This file must reflect your disk partition setup. We'll guide you through modifying this file below.</td>
+
</tr><tr>
+
<td><tt>/etc/localtime</tt></td>
+
<td>''Maybe - recommended''</td>
+
<td>Your timezone, which will default to UTC if not set. This should be a symbolic link to something located under /usr/share/zoneinfo (e.g. /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/Montreal) </td>
+
</tr><tr>
+
<td><tt>/etc/make.conf</tt> (symlink) - also known as:<br/><tt>/etc/portage/make.conf</tt></td>
+
<td>''Maybe - recommended''</td>
+
<td>Parameters used by gcc (compiler), portage, and make. It's a good idea to set MAKEOPTS. This is covered later in this document.</td>
+
</tr><tr>
+
<td><tt>/etc/conf.d/hostname</tt></td>
+
<td>''Maybe - recommended''</td>
+
<td>Used to set system hostname. Set the <tt>hostname</tt> variable to the fully-qualified (with dots, ie. <tt>foo.funtoo.org</tt>) name if you have one. Otherwise, set to the local system hostname (without dots, ie. <tt>foo</tt>). Defaults to <tt>localhost</tt> if not set.</td>
+
</tr><tr>
+
<td><tt>/etc/hosts</tt></td>
+
<td>''No''</td>
+
<td> You no longer need to manually set the hostname in this file. This file is automatically generated by <tt>/etc/init.d/hostname</tt>.</td>
+
</tr><tr>
+
<td><tt>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</tt></td>
+
<td>Optional</td>
+
<td>Keyboard mapping configuration file (for console pseudo-terminals). Set if you have a non-US keyboard. See [[Funtoo Linux Localization]].</td>
+
</tr><tr>
+
<td><tt>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</tt></td>
+
<td>Optional</td>
+
<td>How the time of the battery-backed hardware clock of the system is interpreted (UTC or local time). Linux uses the battery-backed hardware clock to initialize the system clock when the system is booted.</td>
+
</tr><tr>
+
<td><tt>/etc/conf.d/modules</tt></td>
+
<td>Optional</td>
+
<td>Kernel modules to load automatically at system startup. Typically not required. See [[Additional Kernel Resources]] for more info.</td>
+
</tr><tr>
+
<td><code>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</code></td>
+
<td>Optional</td>
+
<td>Allows you to specify the default console font. To apply this font, enable the consolefont service by running rc-update add consolefont.</td>
+
</tr><tr>
+
<td><tt>profiles</tt></td>
+
<td>Optional</td>
+
<td>Some useful portage settings that may help speed up intial configuration.</td>
+
</tr>
+
{{TableEnd}}
+
  
If you're installing an English version of Funtoo Linux, you're in luck as most of the configuration files can be used as-is. If you're installing for another locale, don't worry. We will walk you through the necessary configuration steps on the [[Funtoo Linux Localization]] page, and if needed, there's always plenty of friendly, helpful support. (See [[#Community portal|Community]])
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="python">
 +
import system
 +
</syntaxhighlight>
  
Let's go ahead and see what we have to do. Use <tt>nano -w <name_of_file></tt> to edit files -- the "<tt>-w</tt>" disables word-wrapping, which is handy when editing configuration files. You can copy and paste from the examples.
+
Alternatively, if you need a caption, use can use the file template, specifying a <tt>lang=</tt> parameter:
 
+
{{fancywarning|It's important to edit your <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> file before you reboot! You will need to modify both the "fs" and "type" columns to match the settings for your partitions and filesystems that you created with <tt>gdisk</tt> or <tt>fdisk</tt>. Skipping this step may prevent Funtoo Linux from booting successfully.}}
+
 
+
==== /etc/fstab ====
+
 
+
<tt>/etc/fstab</tt> is used by the <tt>mount</tt> command which is ran when your system boots. Statements of this file inform <tt>mount</tt> about partitions to be mounted and how they are mounted. In order for the system to boot properly, you must edit <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> and ensure that it reflects the partition configuration you used earlier:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##nano -w /etc/fstab
+
</console>
+
 
+
You can use arrow keys to move around and hit Control-X to exit. If you want to save your changes, type "<tt>Y</tt>" when asked if you want to save the modified buffer, or hit Control-O before closing <tt>nano</tt>. Otherwise your changes will be discarded.
+
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
# The root filesystem should have a pass number of either 0 or 1.
+
{{file|name=foobar|lang=python|desc=foobarosity|body=
# All other filesystems should have a pass number of 0 or greater than 1.
+
import system
#
+
}}
# NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
+
#
+
# See the manpage fstab(5) for more information.
+
#
+
# <fs>     <mountpoint>  <type>  <opts>        <dump/pass>
+
 
+
/dev/sda1    /boot        ext2    noauto,noatime 1 2
+
/dev/sda2    none          swap    sw            0 0
+
/dev/sda3    /            ext4    noatime        0 1
+
#/dev/cdrom  /mnt/cdrom    auto    noauto,ro      0 0
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
==== /etc/localtime ====
+
This will produce:
  
<tt>/etc/localtime</tt> is used to specify the timezone that your machine is in, and defaults to UTC. If you would like your Funtoo Linux system to use local time, you should replace <tt>/etc/localtime</tt> with a symbolic link to the timezone that you wish to use.
+
{{file|name=foobar|lang=python|desc=foobarosity|body=
 +
import system
 +
}}
  
<console>
+
{{fancyimportant|If you need to display the pipe ("{{!}}") character within the body of a file template, replace each "{{!}}" with <nowiki>{{!}}</nowiki> -- otherwise your file contents will not display properly. This is necessary because <nowiki>{{file}}</nowiki> is a template and the "{{!}}" character is used as a delimiter for arguments to the template.}}
(chroot) # ##i##ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/MST7MDT /etc/localtime
+
</console>
+
  
The above sets the timezone to Mountain Standard Time (with daylight savings). Type <tt>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</tt> to see what timezones are available. There are also sub-directories containing timezones described by location.
+
Note that the language should be specified in the <tt>lang</tt> attribute. For a list of supported languages, see [http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Extension:SyntaxHighlight_GeSHi#Supported_languages this list].
  
==== /etc/make.conf ====
+
== Displaying Text File Contents ==
  
MAKEOPTS can be used to define how many parallel compilations should occur when you compile a package, which can speed up compilation significantly. A rule of thumb is the number of CPUs (or CPU threads) in your system plus one. If for example you have a dual core processor without [[wikipedia:Hyper-threading|hyper-threading]], then you would set MAKEOPTS to 3:
+
For displaying the contents of non-programming language text files (like config files), you have two options. You can enclose your lines within <tt>&#60;pre&#62;</tt> tags, or use the new [[Template:File|file template]]. The file template is used like so:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
MAKEOPTS="-j3"
+
{{file|name=/etc/foo.conf|desc=My foo.conf file|body=
 +
# /etc/host.conf:
 +
# $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/src/patchsets/glibc/extra/etc/host.conf,v 1.1 2006/09/29
 +
}}
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
If you are unsure about how many processors/threads you have then use /proc/cpuinfo to help you.
+
This will produce:
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##grep "processor" /proc/cpuinfo | wc -l
+
16
+
</console>
+
  
Set MAKEOPTS to this number plus one:
+
{{file|name=/etc/foo.conf|desc=My foo.conf file|body=
 +
# /etc/host.conf:
 +
# $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/src/patchsets/glibc/extra/etc/host.conf,v 1.1 2006/09/29
 +
}}
  
<pre>
+
== Console ==
MAKEOPTS="-j17"
+
To display console output, use the <tt>&#60;console&#62;</tt> tag:
</pre>
+
 
+
USE flags define what functionality is enabled when packages are built. It is not recommended to add a lot of them during installation; you should wait until you have a working, bootable system before changing your USE flags. A USE flag prefixed with a minus ("<tt>-</tt>") sign tells Portage not to use the flag when compiling.  A Funtoo guide to USE flags will be available in the future. For now, you can find out more information about USE flags in the [http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-amd64.xml?part=2&chap=2 Gentoo Handbook].
+
 
+
LINGUAS tells Portage which local language to compile the system and applications in (those who use LINGUAS variable like OpenOffice). It is not usually necessary to set this if you use English. If you want another language such as French (fr) or German (de), set LINGUAS appropriately:
+
  
 +
For a root console:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
LINGUAS="fr"
 
</pre>
 
 
==== /etc/conf.d/hwclock ====
 
If you dual-boot with Windows, you'll need to edit this file and change the value of '''clock''' from '''UTC''' to '''local''', because Windows will set your hardware clock to local time every time you boot Windows. Otherwise you normally wouldn't need to edit this file.
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
(chroot) # ##i##nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock
+
###i## run a command as root
 
</console>
 
</console>
 
+
</pre>
==== Localization ====
+
Produces:
 
+
By default, Funtoo Linux is configured with Unicode (UTF-8) enabled, and for the US English locale and keyboard. If you would like to configure your system to use a non-English locale or keyboard, see [[Funtoo Linux Localization]].
+
 
+
==== Profiles ====
+
 
+
[[Funtoo 1.0 Profile|Funtoo profiles]] are used to define defaults for Portage specific to your needs. There are 4 basic profile types: arch, build, [[Flavors and Mix-ins|flavor, and mix-ins]]:
+
 
+
;arch: typically <tt>x86-32bit</tt> or <tt>x86-64bit</tt>, this defines the processor type and support of your system. This is defined when your stage was built and should not be changed.
+
;build: defines whether your system is a <tt>current</tt>, <tt>stable</tt> or <tt>experimental</tt> build. <tt>current</tt> systems will have newer packages unmasked than <tt>stable</tt> systems.
+
;flavor: defines the general type of system, such as <tt>server</tt> or <tt>desktop</tt>, and will set default USE flags appropriate for your needs.
+
;mix-ins: define various optional settings that you may be interested in enabling.
+
 
+
One arch, build and flavor must be set for each Funtoo Linux system, while mix-ins are optional and you can enable more than one if desired.
+
 
+
Remember that profiles can often be inherited. For example, the <tt>desktop</tt> flavor inherits the <tt>workstation</tt> flavor settings, which in turn inherits the <tt>X</tt> and <tt>audio</tt> mix-ins. You can view this by using eselect:
+
 
+
 
<console>
 
<console>
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile show
+
###i## run a command as root
Currently set profiles:
+
    arch: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit
+
  build: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current
+
  flavor: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/desktop
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/kde
+
 
+
Automatically enabled profiles:
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/print
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/X
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/audio
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/console-extras
+
 
+
 
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
To view installed profiles:
+
For a non-root console:
 +
<pre>
 
<console>
 
<console>
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile list
+
$ ##i##run a command as user
 
</console>
 
</console>
 
+
</pre>
To change the profile flavor:
+
Produces:
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile set-flavor 7
+
</console>
+
 
+
To add a mix-in:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile add 10
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== Introducing Portage ===
+
 
+
Portage, the Funtoo Linux package manager has a command called <tt>emerge</tt> which is used to build and install packages from source. It also takes care of installing all of the package's dependencies. You call emerge like this:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge packagename
+
</console>
+
 
+
When you install a package by specifying its name in the command-line, Portage records its name in the <tt>/var/lib/portage/world</tt> file. It does so because it assumes that, since you have installed it by name, you want to consider it part of your system and want to keep the package updated in the future. This is a handy feature, since when packages are being added to the <code>world</code> set, we can update our entire system by typing:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge --sync
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge -auDN @world
+
</console>
+
 
+
This is the "official" way to update your Funtoo Linux system. Above, we first update our Portage tree using git to grab the latest ebuilds (scripts), and then run an emerge command to update the <code>world</code> set of packages. The options specified tell <tt>emerge</tt> to:
+
 
+
* '''<tt>a</tt>''' - show us what will be emerged, and '''ask''' us if we want to proceed
+
* '''<tt>u</tt>''' - ''update'' the packages we specify -- don't emerge them again if they are already emerged.
+
* '''<tt>D</tt>''' - Consider the entire dependency tree of packages when looking for updates. In other words, do a '''deep''' update.
+
* '''<tt>N</tt>''' - Update any packages that have changed ('''new''') USE settings.
+
 
+
You should also consider passing <code>--with-bdeps=y</code> when emerging @world, at least once in a while. This will update build dependencies as well.
+
 
+
Of course, sometimes we want to install a package but not add it to the <code>world</code> file. This is often done because you only want the package installed temproarily or because you know the package in question is a dependnecy of another package. If this behavior is desired, you call emerge like this:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge -1 packagename
+
</console>
+
 
+
Advanced users may be interested in the [[Emerge]] wiki page.
+
 
+
==== Updating World ====
+
 
+
Now it is actually a very good time to update the entire system and it is very important that you do so before rebooting to resolve various issues.
+
 
+
 
<console>
 
<console>
(chroot) # ##i##emerge --sync
+
$ ##i##run a command as user
(chroot) # ##i##emerge -auDN @world
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
 
{{fancyimportant|1=
 
{{fancyimportant|1=
Make sure you read any post emerge messages and follow their instructions. This is especially true if you have upgraded perl or python.}}
+
Note that we use a <tt>#</tt> prompt for <tt>root</tt> and a <tt>$</tt> prompt to denote a non-root user.}}
  
=== Configuring and installing the Linux kernel ===
+
{{Fancyimportant|The <tt>##i##</tt> text tags the rest of the line as being ''user input'' ("i" is for "input"). It is then highlighted in a noticeable color so it stands out from text that is not typed in by the user.}}
  
Now it's time to build and install a Linux kernel, which is the heart of any Funtoo Linux system. The kernel is loaded by the boot loader, and interfaces directly with your system's hardware, and allows regular (userspace) programs to run.
+
If you need to end highlighting of user input prior to the end of a line, use <code>##!i##</code> to mark the end of the highlighted area.
  
A kernel must be configured properly for your system's hardware, so that it supports your hard drives, file systems, network cards, and so on. More experienced Linux users can choose to install kernel sources and configure and install their own kernel. If you don't know how to do this, we provide ebuilds that will automatically build a "univeral" kernel, modules and initramfs for booting your system that supports all hardware. This is an extremely simple way of building a kernel that will get your system booted.
+
The following special character sequences are also available:
 +
* <code>##g##</code> - Green
 +
* <code>##y##</code> - Yellow
 +
* <code>##bl##</code> - Blue
 +
* <code>##r##</code> - Red
 +
* <code>##b##</code> - Bold
  
What is our goal? To build a kernel that will recognize all the hardware in your system necessary for booting, so that you will be greeted by a friendly login prompt after installation is complete. These instructions will guide you through the process of installing a kernel the "easy" way -- without requiring user configuration, by using a "universal" kernel.
+
Please use the above coloring options sparingly. It is sometimes nice to use them to get wiki console output to match the colors that are displayed on a Linux console. Also note that for every color above, there is a matching <code>##!(colorcode)##</code> option to turn color off prior to end of line.
  
==== Package Sets ====
+
Here is an example of its use:<console>
 
+
# ##i##bluetoothctl
Before we install a kernel, we're going to cover a feature of Portage called package sets. Earlier we learned about one such package set called the ''world set''. This is a handy feature because packages in additionally defined package sets  are not updated when the ''world set'' is updated. This behavior is generally desired for packages that are time consuming or should not change be updated often without reasons, such as kernel packages.
+
[##g##NEW##!g##] Controller 00:02:72:C9:62:65 antec [default]
 
+
##bl##[bluetooth]##!bl###power on
==== Kernel Package Set ====
+
Changing power on succeeded
 
+
##bl##[bluetooth]##!bl### ##i##agent on
{{Fancynote|1=
+
Agent registered
See [[Funtoo Linux Kernels]] for a full list of kernels supported in Funtoo Linux. We recommend <tt>debian-sources</tt> for new users.}}
+
##bl##[bluetooth]##!bl### ##i##scan on
 
+
Discovery started
{{fancyimportant|1=
+
##bl##[bluetooth]##!bl### ##i##devices
<tt>debian-sources</tt> with <tt>binary</tt> USE flag requires at least 14GB free in <tt>/var/tmp</tt> and takes around 1 hour to build on a Intel Core i7 Processor.}}
+
Device 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75 Logitech K760
 
+
##bl##[bluetooth]##!bl### ##i##pair 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75
To create the kernel package set, perform the following steps:
+
Attempting to pair with 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75
 
+
[##y##CHG##!y##] Device 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75 Connected: yes
<console>
+
##r##[agent]##!r## Passkey: 454358
(chroot) # ##i##mkdir /etc/portage/sets
+
##r##[agent]##!r## Passkey: ##i##4##!i##54358
(chroot) # ##i##echo sys-kernel/debian-sources > /etc/portage/sets/kernel
+
##r##[agent]##!r## Passkey: ##i##45##!i##4358
 +
##r##[agent]##!r## Passkey: ##i##454##!i##358
 +
##r##[agent]##!r## Passkey: ##i##4543##!i##58
 +
##r##[agent]##!r## Passkey: ##i##45435##!i##8
 +
##r##[agent]##!r## Passkey: ##i##454358##!i##
 +
[##y##CHG##!y##] Device 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75 Paired: yes
 +
Pairing successful
 +
[##y##CHG##!y##] Device 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75 Connected: no
 +
##bl##[bluetooth]##!bl### ##i##connect 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75
 +
Attempting to connect to 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75
 +
[##y##CHG##!y##] Device 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75 Connected: yes
 +
Connection successful
 +
##bl##[bluetooth]##!bl### ##i##quit
 +
[##r##DEL##!r##] Controller 00:02:72:C9:62:65 antec [default]
 +
#
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Now, we'll want to set a USE variable to tell <tt>debian-sources</tt> to build a "universal" kernel and initramfs for us, to take the guess-work out of getting Funtoo Linux booted. To do this, we're going to set the <tt>binary</tt> USE variable for <tt>debian-sources</tt>, as follows:
+
== Fancy Notes ==
 +
notes, warnings, tips, and important templates will help bring emphasis to articles drawn up.
 +
<pre>{{fancynote|this is a fancy note}}</pre><br />
 +
{{fancynote|this is a fancy note}}<br />
  
<console>
+
<pre>{{fancyimportant|this is a fancy important}}</pre><br />
(chroot) # ##i##echo "sys-kernel/debian-sources binary" >> /etc/portage/package.use
+
{{fancyimportant|this is a fancy important}}<br />
</console>
+
  
If USE variables are new to you, you'll be getting a lot more familiar with them as you use Funtoo Linux. At their essence, they are "switches" that you can set to configure options that can be built in to various packages. They're used to customize your Funtoo Linux system to meet your exact needs. We added support for a <tt>binary</tt> USE flag to the <tt>debian-sources</tt> ebuilds, as well as a few other of our kernel ebuilds, to make it easier for new users to get Funtoo Linux up and running.
+
<pre>{{fancywarning|this is a fancy warning}}</pre><br />
 +
{{fancywarning|this is a fancy warning}}<br />
  
Now, when we just want to update our system's packages, we'll type <tt>emerge -auDN @world</tt>, and it will update our world set, leaving out the kernel. Likewise, when we just want to update our kernel, we'll type <tt>emerge -au @kernel</tt>, and it will update our kernel, leaving out the world set.
+
<pre>{{fancytip|this is a fancy tip}}</pre><br />
 +
{{fancytip|this is a fancy tip}}<br />
  
==== Building the Kernel ====
+
== Kernelop ==
 +
To display kernel configuration options, we encourage you to use the <tt>kernelop</tt> template. To use the <tt>kernelop</tt> template, create an entry similar to the following example:
 +
<pre>
 +
{{kernelop|title=foo,bar|desc=
 +
kernel options pasted from "make menuconfig"
 +
}}
 +
</pre>
  
Let's emerge our kernel:
+
{{fancynote|Kernelop is colored blue to slightly resemble the blueish background from <tt>make menuconfig</tt>.}}
  
<console>
+
Adding this entry will give you the following output:
(chroot) # ##i##emerge @kernel
+
{{kernelop|title=foo,bar|desc=
</console>
+
kernel options
 +
}}
  
Note that while use of the <tt>binary</tt> USE flag makes installing a working kernel extremely simple, it is one part of Funtoo Linux that takes a ''very'' long time to build from source, because it is building a kernel that supports ''all'' hardware that Linux supports! So, get the build started, and then let your machine compile. Slower machines can take up to several hours to build the kernel, and you'll want to make sure that you've set <tt>MAKEOPTS</tt> in <tt>/etc/make.conf</tt> to the number of processing cores/threads (plus one) in your system before starting to build it as quickly as possible -- see the [[#/etc/make.conf|/etc/make.conf section]] if you forgot to do this.
+
Here's a more concrete example:
 +
{{kernelop|title=File systems|desc=
 +
<M> Second extended fs support         
 +
[ ]  Ext2 extended attributes         
 +
[ ]  Ext2 execute in place support   
 +
<M> Ext3 journalling file system support
 +
}}
  
{{fancynote|NVIDIA card users: the <tt>binary</tt> USE flag installs the Nouveau drivers which cannot be loaded at the same time as the proprietary drivers, and cannot be unloaded at runtime because of KMS. You need to blacklist it under <tt>/etc/modprobe.d/</tt>.}}
+
Examples of usage:
 +
* [[Package:AMD Catalyst Video Drivers]]
 +
* [[Package:ACPI Daemon]]
 +
* [[Microcode]]
  
{{fancynote|For an overview of other kernel options for Funtoo Linux, see [[Funtoo Linux Kernels]]. There may be modules that the Debian kernel doesn't include, a situation where [http://www.funtoo.org/wiki/Funtoo_Linux_Kernels#Using_Debian-Sources_with_Genkernel genkernel] would be useful. Also be sure to see [[:Category:Hardware Compatibility|hardware compatibility]] information.}}
 
 
Once <tt>emerge</tt> completes, you'll have a brand new kernel and initramfs installed to <tt>/boot</tt>, plus kernel headers installed in <tt>/usr/src/linux</tt>, and you'll be ready to configure the boot loader to load these to boot your Funtoo Linux system.
 
 
=== Installing a Bootloader ===
 
 
==== Installing Grub ====
 
 
The boot loader is responsible for loading the kernel from disk when your computer boots. For new installations, GRUB 2 and Funtoo's boot-update tool should be used as a boot loader. GRUB supports both GPT/GUID and legacy MBR partitioning schemes.
 
 
To use this recommended boot method, first emerge <tt>boot-update</tt>. This will also cause <tt>grub-2</tt> to be merged, since it is a dependency of <tt>boot-update</tt>. (You may need to adjust <tt>GRUB_PLATFORMS</tt> if you are on a UEFI system. See [[UEFI Install Guide]]).
 
 
<console>
 
(chroot) # ##i##emerge boot-update
 
</console>
 
  
Then, edit <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt> and specify "<tt>Funtoo Linux genkernel</tt>" as the <tt>default</tt> setting at the top of the file, replacing <tt>"Funtoo Linux"</tt>.
+
== Marking Pages as Needing Updates ==
  
<tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt> should now look like this:
+
If you find outdated wiki content, but you don't have the time or ability to update it, add one of the following templates to the wikitext of the page. This will add the page to the [[:Category:Needs Updates|Needs Updates Category]] so we can identify pages that need updating:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
boot {
+
{{PageNeedsUpdates}}
        generate grub
+
{{SectionNeedsUpdates}}
        default "Funtoo Linux genkernel"
+
        timeout 3
+
}
+
 
+
"Funtoo Linux" {
+
        kernel bzImage[-v]
+
        # params += nomodeset
+
}
+
 
+
"Funtoo Linux genkernel" {
+
# if you use bliss-kernel package
+
# you should change string
+
# kernel kernel[-v]
+
# to
+
# kernel kernel/[-v]/kernel[-v]
+
        kernel kernel[-v]
+
        initrd initramfs[-v]
+
        params += real_root=auto
+
        # params += nomodeset
+
}  
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
If you use bliss-kernel, your <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt> should look like:
 
  
<pre>
+
Examples of usage:
boot {
+
* [[UEFI Install Guide]]
        generate grub
+
* [[Package:MediaWiki]]
        default "Funtoo Linux genkernel"
+
* [[Clang]]
        timeout 3
+
}
+
  
"Funtoo Linux" {
+
== Inline Code ==
        kernel bzImage[-v]
+
        # params += nomodeset
+
}
+
  
"Funtoo Linux genkernel" {
+
To emphasize filenames, commands, and other technical jargon when they appear inline in a paragraph, use the <tt>&#60;code&#62;</tt> element. Follow the example below:
        kernel kernels/[-v]/kernel[-v]
+
        initrd initramfs[-v]
+
        params += real_root=auto
+
        # params += nomodeset
+
}
+
</pre>
+
  
Please read <tt>man boot.conf</tt> for further details.
 
 
===== Running grub-install and boot-update =====
 
 
Finally, we will need to actually install the GRUB boot loader to your disk, and also run <tt>boot-update</tt> which will generate your boot loader configuration file:
 
 
<console>
 
(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --no-floppy /dev/sda
 
(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
 
</console>
 
 
if you boot system in efi/uefi mode to run installation process and want to install new system with grub for booting via classic/legacy mode - you will need to add <tt>GRUB_PLATFORMS="pc"</tt> to <tt>/etc/make.conf</tt> configuration file and install grub with this command instad of one that you see above:
 
<console>
 
(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --loader=i386-pc --no-floppy /dev/sda
 
</console>
 
if you get:
 
<console>mkdir: cannot create directory '/boot/grub': Read-only file system</console>
 
or
 
<console>grub2-install: error: failed to get canonical path of `/boot/grub'</console>
 
then run:
 
<console>(chroot) # ##i##mount -o rw,remount /dev/sda1</console>
 
replacing /dev/sda1 with whatever your boot partition is (/dev/sdc1, etc.) and run the grub-install command again.
 
 
Now you need to update your boot loader configuration file:
 
<console>
 
(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
 
</console>
 
You only need to run <tt>grub-install</tt> when you first install Funtoo Linux, but you need to re-run <tt>boot-update</tt> every time you modify your <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt> file, so your changes are applied on next boot.
 
 
OK - your system should be ready to boot! Well, there are a few more loose ends...
 
 
==== Installing Syslinux/Extlinux ====
 
 
An alternate boot loader called extlinux can be used instead of GRUB if you desire. See the [[Extlinux|extlinux Guide]] for information on how to do this.
 
 
=== Configuring your network ===
 
 
It's important to ensure that you will be able to connect to your local-area network after you reboot into Funtoo Linux. There are three approaches you can use for configuring your network: NetworkManager, dhcpcd, and the [[Funtoo Linux Networking]] scripts. Here's how to choose which one to use based on the type of network you want to set up.
 
 
==== Wi-Fi ====
 
===== Using NetworkManager =====
 
For laptop/mobile systems where you will be using Wi-Fi and connecting to various networks, NetworkManager is strongly recommended. The Funtoo version of NetworkManager is fully functional even from the command-line, so you can use it even without X or without the Network Manager applet. Here are the steps involved in setting up NetworkManager:
 
 
<console>
 
(chroot) # ##i##emerge linux-firmware
 
(chroot) # ##i##emerge networkmanager
 
(chroot) # ##i##rc-update add NetworkManager default
 
</console>
 
 
Above, we installed linux-firmware which contains a complete collection of available firmware for many hardware devices including Wi-Fi adapters, plus NetworkManager to manage our network connection. Then we added NetworkManager to the <tt>default</tt> runlevel so it will start when Funtoo Linux boots.
 
 
After you reboot into Funtoo Linux, you will be able to add a Wi-Fi connection this way:
 
 
<console>
 
# ##i##addwifi -S wpa -K 'wifipassword' mywifinetwork
 
</console>
 
 
The <tt>addwifi</tt> command is used to configure and connect to a WPA/WPA2 Wi-Fi network named <tt>mywifinetwork</tt> with the password <tt>wifipassword</tt>. This network configuration entry is stored in <tt>/etc/NetworkManager/system-connections</tt> so that it will be remembered in the future. You should only need to enter this command once for each Wi-Fi network you connect to.
 
 
===== Using wpa_supplicant =====
 
If for some reason you don't want to use a tool such as NetworkManager or <tt>wicd</tt>, you can use wpa_supplicant for wireless network connections.
 
 
First, emerge wpa_supplicant:
 
 
<console>
 
(chroot) ###i## emerge -a wpa_supplicant
 
</console>
 
 
Now, edit the wpa_supplicant configuration file, located at /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf.
 
The syntax is very easy:
 
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
network={
+
The <code>/etc/fstab</code> file is an important one. Another important file is <code>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</code>.
ssid="MyWifiName"
+
psk="lol42-wifi"
+
}
+
 
+
network={
+
ssid="Other Network"
+
psk="6d96270004515a0486bb7f76196a72b40c55a47f"
+
}
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
You will need to add both <tt>wpa_supplicant</tt> and <tt>dhcpcd</tt> to the default runlevel. <tt>wpa_supplicant</tt> will connect to your access point, and <tt>dhcpcd</tt> will acquire an IP address via DHCP:
+
This example produces the following output:
  
<console>
+
The <code>/etc/fstab</code> file is an important one. Another important file is <code>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</code>.
(chroot) # ##i##rc-update add dhcpcd default
+
(chroot) # ##i##rc-update add wpa_supplicant default
+
</console>
+
  
==== Desktop (Wired Ethernet) ====
+
{{fancyimportant|1=
 
+
The &#60;tt&#62; tag has been deprecated for the purpose of tagging inline code, to conform with HTML5.}}
For a home desktop or workstation with wired Ethernet that will use DHCP, the simplest and most effective option to enable network connectivity is to simply add <tt>dhcpcd</tt> to the default runlevel:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##rc-update add dhcpcd default
+
</console>
+
 
+
When you reboot, <tt>dhcpcd</tt> will run in the background and manage all network interfaces and use DHCP to acquire network addresses from a DHCP server.
+
 
+
==== Server (Static IP) ====
+
 
+
For servers, the [[Funtoo Linux Networking]] scripts are recommended. They are optimized for static configurations and things like virtual ethernet bridging for virtualization setups. See [[Funtoo Linux Networking]] for information on how to use Funtoo Linux's template-based network configuration system.
+
 
+
=== Finishing Steps ===
+
 
+
==== Set your root password ====
+
It's imperative that you set your root password before rebooting so that you can log in.
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##passwd
+
</console>
+
 
+
===Restart your system ===
+
 
+
Now is the time to leave chroot, to unmount Funtoo Linux partitions and files and to restart your computer. When you restart, the GRUB boot loader will start, load the Linux kernel and initramfs, and your system will begin booting.
+
 
+
Leave the chroot, change directory to /mnt, unmount your Funtoo partitions, and reboot.
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##exit
+
# ##i##cd /mnt
+
# ##i##umount -l funtoo
+
# ##i##reboot
+
</console>
+
 
+
{{fancynote|System Rescue CD will gracefully unmount your new Funtoo filesystems as part of its normal shutdown sequence.}}
+
 
+
You should now see your system reboot, the GRUB boot loader appear for a few seconds, and then see the Linux kernel and initramfs loading. After this, you should see Funtoo Linux itself start to boot, and you should be greeted with a <tt>login:</tt> prompt. Funtoo Linux has been successfully installed!
+
 
+
===Next Steps===
+
 
+
If you are brand new to Funtoo Linux and Gentoo Linux, please check out [[Funtoo Linux First Steps]], which will help get you acquainted with your new system. We also have a category for our [[:Category:Official Documentation|official documentation]], which includes all docs that we officially maintain for installation and operation of Funtoo Linux.
+
 
+
We also have a number of pages dedicated to setting up your system, which you can find below. If you are interested in adding a page to this list, add it to the "First Steps" MediaWiki category.
+
 
+
{{#ask: [[Category:First Steps]] | format=category }}
+
  
If your system did not boot correctly, see [[Installation Troubleshooting]] for steps you can take to resolve the problem.
+
== Screencasting ==
 +
screencasting is an easy method to explain complex tasks.  take for instance youtu.be/5KDei5mBfSg we chop off the id and insert it into the following syntax to produce a video example.<br />
 +
tiny:
 +
<pre>{{#widget:YouTube|id=5KDei5mBfSg|width=320|height=180}}</pre>
 +
standard:
 +
<pre>{{#widget:YouTube|id=5KDei5mBfSg|width=700|height=420}}</pre>
 +
{{#widget:YouTube|id=5KDei5mBfSg|width=700|height=420}}
  
[[Category:HOWTO]]
+
[[Category:Wiki Development]]
[[Category:Install]]
+
[[Category:Official Documentation]]
+

Revision as of 01:02, September 21, 2014

This guide is meant to serve as a reference for those who are interested in helping improve the Funtoo Wiki.

First, to perform edits on the wiki, you must Create a Funtoo account and log in.

Note

A new wiki capability has been added, called annotations, which allows you to make in-line comments to wiki text. To create or view annotations, click the View annotations tab. Hover over any yellow highlighted text to view an annotation (there is one for the first sentence of this page), or select text with your mouse and use the widget that appears to add your own annotation. Note that annotations are wiped when the page is edited.

You can create a new page by navigating to http://www.funtoo.org/New_Page_Name. Underscores are the equivalent of spaces. Then click the "Create" button in the upper right.

Whether creating a new page or editing an existing page by clicking "Edit", you will be presented with Web-based text editor that allows you to modify the wikitext of the page. The wikitext is rendered to produce the document you see when you view the page normally.

This wiki uses the ApprovedRevs Extension, which means that any changes you make to a page will need to be approved by an Editor before they are displayed. Editors can visit the Special:ApprovedRevs page to approve edits made on pages (click "Pages whose approved revision is not their latest" or "Unapproved pages".)

Until your edits are approved, you can continue to edit the page and your changes will be displayed in the page's History -- click "View History" in the upper right to view the page's history. You will see that the approved version of a page has a star next to it.

Another fun thing you can do is click on your name in the upper right once you have logged in. This will bring you to your "User" page. Then click "Create with Form" and enter your geographic and other information. This will allow you to be displayed on our Usermap and will also allow your full name to be displayed on Ebuild pages for which you are an author. It's generally a good idea to do this.

Tip

The following sections document how to use wikitext and Funtoo templates on the Funtoo wiki.

Paragraphs

To create a new paragraph, insert a blank line between two lines of text. If a blank line doesn't exist between two lines of wikitext, they will be combined into a single flowing paragraph.

If you leave leading whitespace at the beginning of a line, MediaWiki will render it as pre-formatted text. Beware of this. Here's an example:

foobar

Page and Section Capitalization

In general, capitalize all words in page names and section heading except:

  • Articles: a, an, the
  • Coordinating Conjunctions: and, but, or, for, nor, etc.
  • Prepositions (fewer than five letters): on, at, to, from, by, etc.

Document Heirarchy

Use section headings to create a document heirarchy for your page. These will define the table of contents that appears at the top of the wiki page. Create chapters, sections and sub-sections as follows:

= Page Title =

== Chapter Title ==

=== Section Title ===

==== SubSection Title ====

Links

Internal links to other wiki pages can be specified as [[pagename]]. To specify an alternate name for the link, use [[pagename|my link name]].

For external links, use [http://funtoo.org my link] to specify a URL. If you want the URL to appear in the wikitext, you can specify it without brackets: http://forums.funtoo.org.

Lists

MediaWiki supports a number of list formats:

  • Unordered List
  • Unordered Item 2
    • Unordered sub-item
  1. Ordered List
  2. Ordered Item 2
    1. Ordered sub-item
Term
This is called a "definition list". It is used when defining various terms.

If you need to quote a portion of text from another site, use <blockquote> as follows:

Wikipedia (ˌwɪkɨˈpiːdiə/ or wɪkiˈpiːdiə/ wik-i-pee-dee-ə) is a collaboratively edited, multilingual, free-access, free content Internet encyclopedia that is supported and hosted by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Volunteers worldwide collaboratively write Wikipedia's 30 million articles in 287 languages, including over 4.5 million in the English Wikipedia. Anyone who can access the site can edit almost any of its articles, which on the Internet comprise[4] the largest and most popular general reference work.[5][6][7][8][9] In February 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia is ranked fifth globally among all websites stating, "With 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month..., Wikipedia trails just Yahoo, Facebook, Microsoft and Google, the largest with 1.2 billion unique visitors."[10]

Literal Text and HTML Symbols

Here is wikitext for the section above, which I am displaying by placing the literal wikitext between a <pre> and </pre> tag. If you want to disable wikitext processing for an inline span of text, use <nowiki> and </nowiki>. If you want to print out a tag literally, use &#60; and &#62; (In the wikitext, I used &amp;#60; and &amp;#62 to display these!)

* Unordered List
* Unordered Item 2
** Unordered sub-item

# Ordered List
# Ordered Item 2
## Ordered sub-item

;Term: This is called a "definition list". It is used when defining various terms.

If you need to quote a portion of text from another site, use <tt><blockquote></tt> as follows:

<blockquote>
Wikipedia (ˌwɪkɨˈpiːdiə/ or wɪkiˈpiːdiə/ wik-i-pee-dee-ə) is a collaboratively edited, multilingual, free-access, 
free content Internet encyclopedia that is supported and hosted by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Volunteers
worldwide collaboratively write Wikipedia's 30 million articles in 287 languages, including over 4.5 million in the 
English Wikipedia. Anyone who can access the site can edit almost any of its articles, which on the Internet 
comprise[4] the largest and most popular general reference work.[5][6][7][8][9] In February 2014, The New York 
Times reported that Wikipedia is ranked fifth globally among all websites stating, "With 18 billion page views 
and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month..., Wikipedia trails just Yahoo, Facebook, Microsoft and Google, 
the largest with 1.2 billion unique visitors."[10]
</blockquote>

Displaying Source Code

To display source code, use the <syntaxhighlight> tag, which has the ability to perform syntax highlighting on the source code for easier reading:

<syntaxhighlight lang="python">
import system
</syntaxhighlight>

This will produce the following output:

import system

Alternatively, if you need a caption, use can use the file template, specifying a lang= parameter:

{{file|name=foobar|lang=python|desc=foobarosity|body=
import system
}}

This will produce:

foobar: foobarosity (python source code)
import system

Important

If you need to display the pipe ("|") character within the body of a file template, replace each "|" with {{!}} -- otherwise your file contents will not display properly. This is necessary because {{file}} is a template and the "|" character is used as a delimiter for arguments to the template.

Note that the language should be specified in the lang attribute. For a list of supported languages, see this list.

Displaying Text File Contents

For displaying the contents of non-programming language text files (like config files), you have two options. You can enclose your lines within <pre> tags, or use the new file template. The file template is used like so:

{{file|name=/etc/foo.conf|desc=My foo.conf file|body=
# /etc/host.conf:
# $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/src/patchsets/glibc/extra/etc/host.conf,v 1.1 2006/09/29
}}

This will produce:

/etc/foo.conf: My foo.conf file
# /etc/host.conf:
# $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/src/patchsets/glibc/extra/etc/host.conf,v 1.1 2006/09/29

Console

To display console output, use the <console> tag:

For a root console:

<console>
###i## run a command as root
</console>

Produces:

# run a command as root

For a non-root console:

<console>
$ ##i##run a command as user
</console>

Produces:

$ run a command as user

Important

Note that we use a # prompt for root and a $ prompt to denote a non-root user.

Important

The ##i## text tags the rest of the line as being user input ("i" is for "input"). It is then highlighted in a noticeable color so it stands out from text that is not typed in by the user.

If you need to end highlighting of user input prior to the end of a line, use ##!i## to mark the end of the highlighted area.

The following special character sequences are also available:

  • ##g## - Green
  • ##y## - Yellow
  • ##bl## - Blue
  • ##r## - Red
  • ##b## - Bold

Please use the above coloring options sparingly. It is sometimes nice to use them to get wiki console output to match the colors that are displayed on a Linux console. Also note that for every color above, there is a matching ##!(colorcode)## option to turn color off prior to end of line.

Here is an example of its use:
# bluetoothctl 
[NEW] Controller 00:02:72:C9:62:65 antec [default]
[bluetooth]#power on
Changing power on succeeded
[bluetooth]# agent on
Agent registered
[bluetooth]# scan on
Discovery started
[bluetooth]# devices
Device 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75 Logitech K760
[bluetooth]# pair 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75
Attempting to pair with 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75
[CHG] Device 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75 Connected: yes
[agent] Passkey: 454358
[agent] Passkey: 454358
[agent] Passkey: 454358
[agent] Passkey: 454358
[agent] Passkey: 454358
[agent] Passkey: 454358
[agent] Passkey: 454358
[CHG] Device 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75 Paired: yes
Pairing successful
[CHG] Device 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75 Connected: no
[bluetooth]# connect 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75
Attempting to connect to 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75
[CHG] Device 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75 Connected: yes
Connection successful
[bluetooth]# quit
[DEL] Controller 00:02:72:C9:62:65 antec [default]
#

Fancy Notes

notes, warnings, tips, and important templates will help bring emphasis to articles drawn up.

{{fancynote|this is a fancy note}}

Note

this is a fancy note


{{fancyimportant|this is a fancy important}}

Important

this is a fancy important


{{fancywarning|this is a fancy warning}}

Warning

this is a fancy warning


{{fancytip|this is a fancy tip}}

Tip

this is a fancy tip


Kernelop

To display kernel configuration options, we encourage you to use the kernelop template. To use the kernelop template, create an entry similar to the following example:

{{kernelop|title=foo,bar|desc=
kernel options pasted from "make menuconfig"
}} 

Note

Kernelop is colored blue to slightly resemble the blueish background from make menuconfig.

Adding this entry will give you the following output: Under foo-->bar:

kernel options

Here's a more concrete example: Under File systems:

<M> Second extended fs support          
[ ]   Ext2 extended attributes          
[ ]   Ext2 execute in place support     
<M> Ext3 journalling file system support

Examples of usage:


Marking Pages as Needing Updates

If you find outdated wiki content, but you don't have the time or ability to update it, add one of the following templates to the wikitext of the page. This will add the page to the Needs Updates Category so we can identify pages that need updating:

{{PageNeedsUpdates}}
{{SectionNeedsUpdates}}


Examples of usage:

Inline Code

To emphasize filenames, commands, and other technical jargon when they appear inline in a paragraph, use the <code> element. Follow the example below:

The <code>/etc/fstab</code> file is an important one. Another important file is <code>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</code>.

This example produces the following output:

The /etc/fstab file is an important one. Another important file is /boot/grub/grub.cfg.

Important

The <tt> tag has been deprecated for the purpose of tagging inline code, to conform with HTML5.

Screencasting

screencasting is an easy method to explain complex tasks. take for instance youtu.be/5KDei5mBfSg we chop off the id and insert it into the following syntax to produce a video example.
tiny:

{{#widget:YouTube|id=5KDei5mBfSg|width=320|height=180}}

standard:

{{#widget:YouTube|id=5KDei5mBfSg|width=700|height=420}}