WARNING: Work in progress. Do not edit this article unless you are the original author.
Refresh on OSI model
When the ARPANet (a packet oriented network) was born in those good old seventies, engineers had to solve the problem of making computers being able to exchange packets of information over the network and they invented in 1974 something you are now using to view this page: TCP/IP! TCP/IP is a collection of various network protocols, being organized as a stack. Just like your boss does not do everything in the company and delegates at lower levels which in turn delegates at an even more lower level, no protocol in the TCP/IP suite takes all responsibilities, they are working together in a hierarchical and cooperative manner. A level of the TCP/IP stack knows what its immediate lower subordinate can do for it and whatever it will do will be done the right way and will not worry about the manner the job will be done. Also the only problem for a given level of the stack is to fulfill its own duties and deliver the service requested by the upper layer, it does not have to worry about the ultimate goal of what upper levels do.
<illustration goes here TCP/IP model>
The above illustration sounds horribly familiar : yes, it is sounds like this good old OSI model indeed it is a tailored view of the original OSI model, and it works the exact same way.
Classful and classless networks
Who would ever need millions of addresses afterall? So in theory with those 32 bits we can have around 4 billions of computers within that network and arbitrarily retain that the very first connected computer must be given the number "0", the second one "1", the third one "2" and so on until we exhaust the address pool at number 4294967295 giving no more than 4294967296 (2^32) computers on that network because no number can be a duplicate.
Those addresses follows the thereafter logic:
|32 bits (fixed length)|
|Network part (variable length of N bits )||Host part (length : 32 - N bits)|
- The network address : this part is uniquely assigned amongst all of the organizations in the world (i.e. No one in the world can hold the same network part)
- The host address : unique within a given network part
So in theory we can have something like this (remember the network nature is not to be unique, it hs to be be a collection of networks :
- Network 1 Host 1
Just like your birthday cake is divided in more or less smaller parts depending on how guests' appetite, the IPv4 address space has also been divided into more or less smaller parts just because organizations needs more or less computers on their networks. How to make this possible? Simply by dedicating a variable number of bits to the network part! Do you see the consequence? An IPv4 address being always 32 bits wide, the more bits you dedicate to the network part the lesser you have for the host part and vice-versa, this is a tradeoff, always. Basically, having more bits in :
- the network part : means more networks possible at the cost of having less hosts per network
- the host part : means less networks but more hosts per network
It might sounds a bit abstract but let's take an example : imagine we dedicate only 8 bits for the network part and the remaining 24 for the hosts part. What happens? First if we only
Is the network part assigned by each organization to itself? Of course not! Assignment are coordinated at the worldwide level by what we call Regional Internet Registries or RIRs which, in turn, can delegate assignments to third-parties located within their geographic jurisdiction. Those latter are called Local Internet Registries or LIRs (the system is detailed in RFC 7020). All of those RIRs are themselves put under the responsibility of now now well-known Internet Assigned Numbers Authority or IANA. As of 2014 five RIR exists :
- ARIN (American Registry for Internet Numbers) : covers North America
- LACNIC (Latin America and Caribbean Network Information Centre): covers South America and the Caribbean
- RIPE-NCC (Réseaux IP Européens / or RIPE Network Coordination Centre): covers Europe, Russia and middle east
- Afrinic (Africa Network Information Center) : covers the whole Africa
- APNIC (Asian and Pacific Network Information Centre) : covers oceania and far east.