Difference between pages "Funtoo:About/pt-br" and "Xfce"

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= Visão do Projeto =
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== About Xfce ==
  
Daniel Robbins originalmente escreveu a [[ Gentoo Linux Philosophy|Filosofia Gentoo Linux]], e nisso definiu o conceito de uma ferramenta ideal assim sendo algo que "simplesmente funciona", não fica no caminho do usuário, e responde a vontade do usuário ao invés de forçar o usuário a trabalhar de um jeito particular.
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Xfce is a lightweight desktop environment for UNIX-like operating systems. It aims to be fast and low on system resources, while still being visually appealing and user friendly.
  
Funtoo Linux é um projeto de pessoas que concordam filosofia da ferramenta ideal, e que são ''apaixonados'' pelo nosso desejo de melhorar a tecnologia de ser tão próximo desse ideial quanto possível. O foco de nossos esforços é o melhoramento contínuo da distribuição Gentoo Linux.  
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Xfce embodies the traditional UNIX philosophy of modularity and re-usability. It consists of a number of components that provide the full functionality one can expect of a modern desktop environment. They are packaged separately and you can pick among the available packages to create the optimal personal working environment.
  
O foco do desenvolvimento do Funtoo Linux é atualmente direcionado ao sistema central (core system), significando qualquer coisa em um stage3, portage, core languages, kernels, aplicações de servidor, e em cima do X11 e gerenciadores de janelas simples, e incluindo ambientes desktop como o GNOME e o KDE.
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Another priority of Xfce is adhereance to standards, specifically those defined at [http://freedesktop.org/ freedesktop.org]. [http://www.xfce.org/about/ About XFCE]
  
== Foco, Foco, Foco ==
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== Installation ==
  
Desenvolvedores deveriam utilizar esses princípios gerais para determinar em quais prioridades focar primeiro. -Essas areas abaixo estão listadas em ordem de prioridade, então o próximo parágrafo é a principal prioridade (top priority), seguido pela próxima prioridade, etc. Só por que algo é prioridade mais baixa não significa que é "menos importante" - somente significa tratar as coisas de prioridades mais altas (higher-priority) antes.
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Before emerging Xfce you need to:
  
=== Ele controe (Does it Build)? ===
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* Check that you have enabled the USE flags necessary for a XFCE desktop environment. [[Funtoo_Linux_First_Steps#Changing_profile|Set your profile to "xfce" via mix-ins]], as follows:
  
* '''Ele constrói confiavelmente?'''
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{{console|body=###i## eselect profile add funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/xfce}}
  
O primeiro teste - o software constrói a partir do código fonte corretamente? Isso não se trata somente de emergir ebuilds no seu sistema -- O builds do stage funciona sem problemas utilizando o Metro? Se não, isso precisa ser corrigido primeiro. O Funtoo Linux continuamente constrói lançamentos de do sistema operacional atualizados, e essa devem ser construídas confiavelmente em todos os momentos. O fóco aqui é para builds 100% corretos e eficientes utilizando o Metro, e depois emergindo aplicações iniciais em um sistema Funtoo Linux.
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* Verify that you have [[Funtoo_Linux_First_Steps#X.Org|X.Org Server]] configured properly.
  
=== Ele executa (Does It Run)? ===
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We are now ready to install Xfce. Install the meta-package, which pulls in all of the components you need for a minimal Xfce installation:
  
* '''Ele executa bem?'''
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{{console|body=###i## emerge xfce4-meta}}
  
OK, ele constrói. Ele executa corretamente? Ele funciona? Isso é bem vago, então vamos colocar algumas especificações aqui. Quando instalar o Funtoo Linux a partir do stage3, tudo funciona? Quais complicações ou falhas foram  encontradas na instalação inicial? Essas devem ser corrigidas, ou soluções devem ser colocadas no lugar, e correções a longo prazo devem ser trabalhadas para melhorar a experiência do usuário. Lembre-se de que o foco do Funtoo Linux é no sistema central - Essa é a coisa que você toca quando você instala o Funtoo Linux pela primeira vez. Você deve reinstalar o Funtoo Linux regularmente para verificar por quaisquer questões e priorizar as questões de instalação do usuário e a experiência inicial do usuário.
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== Running Xfce ==
  
=== Posso Usá-lo (Can I Use It)? ===
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There are several different ways to start Xfce:
  
* '''Facilmente (Easily)?'''
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* Editing the {{c|.xinitrc}} file in your user's home directory and using {{c|startx}} from a text console.
* '''Para Trabalho de Verdade (For Real Work)?'''
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* Using a display manager (e.g. SLiM, GDM, and KDM).
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* Configuring your shell profile to automatically start Xfce upon a successful login.
  
OK, ele constrói, e executa. Mas eu posso realizar tarefas de verdade com a ferramenta? Qual é a facilidade ou dificuldade  de realizar essas tarefas? A tecnologia (e documentação) devem ser projetadas oferecer suporte ao usuário na questão de realizar estas tarefas, ao invés de forçar o usuário a saltar por arcos obter algo configurado corretamente. As coisas devem ser automatizadas o tanto o quanto possível sem assumir controle distante do usuário. Razoável, padrões seguros que são adequados para a cargas produtivas devem ser utilizadas por todas as aplicações. As coisas devem emergir sem bloqueadores ou ausência de recursos que devem ser habilitadas manualmente pelo usuário. E uma implicância - se o emerge parar de dizer ao usuário que eles devem definir uma variável USE para que continue, isso é algo que deve ser corrigido de um jeito ou de outro. Então, quando tudo é dito e feito, ele deve funcionar.
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=== .xinitrc ===
  
=== Is It Documented? ===
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The most common way to start the environment is to configure {{c|~/.xinitrc}} to launch an Xfce session. The proper way to launch Xfce from the terminal is by using {{c|startxfce4}} combined with {{c|ck-launch-session}}.
  
* '''For free software projects, documentation is key.'''
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{{console|body=$##i## echo "exec startxfce4 --with-ck-launch" > ~/.xinitrc}}
  
If software builds, runs and works, others still may not be able to use it until proper documentation is available. Upstream documentation isn't always complete or easy to understand, so often additional user documentation is required. If manual steps are required, they should be documented clearly and correctly. The documentation option of choice is the Funtoo wiki as well as man pages.
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Note that {{c|--with-ck-launch}} (from ConsoleKit) is required by Xfce for important tasks such as shutting down, suspending, and automatically mounting removable storage media. Some applications will not work properly without it. Therefore we need to add ConsoleKit to the {{c|default}} runlevel, executing the following command as root:
  
For source code, verbose comments should be used. You may be working on the code now, but someone else might be working on it six months from now. Developers are expected to write clear comments that are sufficiently non-technical and provide the necessary context to allow less experienced developers to understand critical parts of code, and ideally '''all''' parts of the code. Please see [[Coding Standards]].
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{{console|body=
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###i## rc-update add consolekit default
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###i## rc
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}}
  
=== Is It Well-Designed? ===
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Finally, to start the graphical environment, run {{c|startx}} from a login shell:
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{{console|body=$##i## startx}}
  
* '''Optimized?'''
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== Display Manager ==
* '''Maintainable?'''
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It builds and runs, and I can use it to perform real work. But is the system well-designed? Does it work reliably? Are all available patches and fixes in place to ensure a reliable computing experience? Is Funtoo Linux providing the best technology possible to users? And is this technology easy to maintain? Remember, all things being equal, less code is better than more code because it is easier to maintain. Are there verbose comments in code where necessary?
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A display manager is a program that manages sessions and acts as a login screen. Here's a short list of a few of the display managers available in Funtoo:
  
=== Are We Getting Better? ===
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* XDM ({{c|x11-apps/xdm}}): X.Org's standard display manager.
  
OK, we're doing all of the above steps. Here is the next test - are we getting better? Is the quality, security, usability and maintainability of the distribution improving over time, or is it going up, and then going down, and we're not really making any forward progress? The ultimate goal at the end of the day is to make forward progress in the quality of the distribution. This requires better automation, better tools, better processes, and investment in research and development and new ways of doing things. It also requires the right attitude. If we are doing a lot of work and the overall quality of the distribution is not improving, then our efforts are not making a long-term difference, even though they may be addressing immediate bugs and issues. We must ensure that our efforts are worthwhile, and they are making a positive long-term difference in the quality of the distribution.
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* LightDM ({{c|x11-misc/lightdm}}): A lightweight, but highly configurable display manager.
  
=== What is The Real Problem? ===
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* SLiM ({{c|x11-misc/slim}}): Simple Login Manager -- a lightweight display manager. Not very configurable.
  
Building on this theme - when a bug is encountered, what is the ''real'' problem, or ''root cause''? Strategic thinking as well as in-depth troubleshooting is required to identify the root cause of a problem. Should we just fix root causes? No, this is impractical, because doing this takes a lot of time. Instead, workarounds are often used to quickly restore quality to acceptable levels. However, just implementing workarounds is dangerous, because bugs tend to multiply while the underlying issue goes unresolved. The proper solution is to implement workarounds but to not lose focus on the need to address the underlying issues, or root causes, of the problem. In fact, much of the focus of Funtoo Linux is on this last step - aggressively fixing a bunch of immediate issues so we can start to address the deeper problems once and for all...
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Any of these would make a fine choice. After you've chosen which display manager to use, install it:
  
=== Architecture ===
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{{console|body=###i## emerge lightdm}}
  
...and addressing root causes of problems often requires a significant change in software architecture. Funtoo Linux is a project that is not afraid of making significant, even aggressive, architectural changes in order to fix problems. This is what our users expect us to do, and ''as long as these changes are properly tested, managed, planned, automated and communicated to users'', they will not get upset. As stated in the previous paragraph, the Funtoo Linux project is zealous about addressing these core architectural issues -- but we need to get a handle on the more fundamental challenges first. Once workarounds are in place, we'll take a stab at some core system change that will pay dividends well into the future.
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All that's left to do now is to add the name of the display manager to {{c|/etc/conf.d/xdm}}, add the {{c|xdm}} service to the {{c|default}} runlevel, and start the service:
  
== Examples ==
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<pre>
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DISPLAYMANAGER="lightdm"
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</pre>
  
Below, you will find examples of existing efforts that have aligned with these goals. This section will give you a feel for how real projects can be started that align with the Funtoo Linux vision defined above.
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{{console|body=
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###i## rc-update add xdm default
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###i## /etc/init.d/xdm start}}
  
=== Boot-Update ===
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==Power Group==
  
[[Boot-Update]] was designed by Daniel Robbins to provide a more elegant way to configure boot loaders under Funtoo Linux. This project was prioritized for several reasons. For one, it had to do with the initial installation experience (see [[#Does it Run?]]) Also, lack of GRUB2 support, as well as GPT/GUID support, was identified as a critical weakness in current Gentoo Linux functionality (see [[#Is it Well-Designed?]]) Because of this, a new unified configurator was written which uses <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt> as the global boot loader configuration file. This represented a change in boot loader architecture (see [[#Architecture]]) under Funtoo Linux, in order to improve usability and flexibilty over existing solutions, and to attempt to reduce or eliminate a class of problems related to boot loader configuration, which is especially troublesome with GRUB2.
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If you wish to be able to shutdown/reboot/suspend/hibernate using xfce4-logout-session then you will need to add yourself or the user to the power group by:
  
=== Metro ===
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{{console|body=
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###i## gpasswd -a <username> power
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}}
  
[[Metro]] was designed by Daniel Robbins and is used to address the "[[#Does It Build?]]" question. The existing solution, catalyst, was difficult to maintain (see [[#Is It Well-Designed?]]), so Metro was developed to provide a new mechanism for building OS releases.
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If the group does not exist then execute the following and try again:
  
=== Forked Ebuilds ===
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{{console|body=
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###i## groupadd power}}
  
Not all improvements involve large software development efforts. In fact, the majority of fixes involve relatively small fixes to ebuilds. These fixes are often made to fix a Metro build failure (see [[#Does it Build?]]) or address some quality issue (see [[#Is It Well-Designed?]]). The <tt>www-servers/nginx</tt> ebuild was improved to provide better default settings for production systems, with corresponding changes made to <tt>sys-libs/pam</tt> to allow this to work. <tt>dev-lang/python</tt> contains fixes to ensure that Metro builds complete properly and a valid <tt>/usr/bin/python</tt> symlink always exists.
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== Plugins for Thunar and XFCE ==
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There are a lot of plugins available for Thunar and XFCE. Here is a table that contains the name of the plugin and a description of what it does. To install one of the plugins, run
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{{console|body=###i## emerge [name of plugin]}}
  
=== OpenVZ ===
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{{TableStart}}
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<tr class="info"><th>Name</th><th>Description</th></tr>
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<tr><td>xfce-extra/thunar-volman</td><td>Daemon that enforces volume-related policies</td></tr>
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<tr><td>xfce-extra/thunar-vcs-plugin </td><td>Adds Subversion and GIT actions to the context menu of thunar </td></tr>
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<tr><td>xfce-extra/thunar-shares-plugin</td><td>Thunar plugin to share files using Samba </td></tr>
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<tr><td>xfce-extra/thunar-archive-plugin</td><td>Archive plug-in for the Thunar filemanager</td></tr>
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<tr><td>xfce-extra/xfce4-volumed</td><td>Daemon to control volume up/down and mute keys</td></tr>
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<tr><td>xfce-extra/xfce4-screenshooter</td><td>Xfce4 screenshooter application and panel plugin</td></tr>
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<tr><td>xfce-extra/xfce4-notifyd</td><td>Notification daemon for the Xfce desktop environment</td></tr>
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<tr><td>xfce-extra/xfce4-mixer</td><td>A volume control application (and panel plug-in) for the Xfce desktop environment</td></tr>
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<tr><td>xfce-extra/xfce4-mount-plugin</td><td>A mount plug-in for the Xfce panel</td></tr>
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<tr><td>xfce-extra/xfce4-clipman-plugin</td><td>A clipboard manager plug-in for the Xfce panel</td></tr>
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<tr><td>xfce-extra/xfce4-battery-plugin</td><td>A battery monitor panel plugin for the Xfce desktop environment</td></tr>
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{{TableEnd}}
  
OpenVZ support is a specific priority of Funtoo Linux. Funtoo Linux maintains a patched <tt>sys-cluster/vzctl</tt> with various patches to fix a variety of problems. In addition, <tt>openvz-rhel6-stable</tt> and <tt>openvz-rhel5-stable</tt> ebuilds have been created to ease installation of production-quality OpenVZ kernels (see [[#Can I Use It?]]) In addition, [[OpenVZ]] documentation exists on the wiki (see [[#Can I Use It?]])
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[[Category:Desktop]]
 
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[[Category:First Steps]]
[[Category:QA]]
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[[Category:Official Documentation]]

Revision as of 21:22, January 21, 2015

About Xfce

Xfce is a lightweight desktop environment for UNIX-like operating systems. It aims to be fast and low on system resources, while still being visually appealing and user friendly.

Xfce embodies the traditional UNIX philosophy of modularity and re-usability. It consists of a number of components that provide the full functionality one can expect of a modern desktop environment. They are packaged separately and you can pick among the available packages to create the optimal personal working environment.

Another priority of Xfce is adhereance to standards, specifically those defined at freedesktop.org. About XFCE

Installation

Before emerging Xfce you need to:

# eselect profile add funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/xfce


We are now ready to install Xfce. Install the meta-package, which pulls in all of the components you need for a minimal Xfce installation:

# emerge xfce4-meta


Running Xfce

There are several different ways to start Xfce:

  • Editing the .xinitrc file in your user's home directory and using startx from a text console.
  • Using a display manager (e.g. SLiM, GDM, and KDM).
  • Configuring your shell profile to automatically start Xfce upon a successful login.

.xinitrc

The most common way to start the environment is to configure ~/.xinitrc to launch an Xfce session. The proper way to launch Xfce from the terminal is by using startxfce4 combined with ck-launch-session.

$ echo "exec startxfce4 --with-ck-launch" > ~/.xinitrc


Note that --with-ck-launch (from ConsoleKit) is required by Xfce for important tasks such as shutting down, suspending, and automatically mounting removable storage media. Some applications will not work properly without it. Therefore we need to add ConsoleKit to the default runlevel, executing the following command as root:

# rc-update add consolekit default
# rc


Finally, to start the graphical environment, run startx from a login shell:

$ startx


Display Manager

A display manager is a program that manages sessions and acts as a login screen. Here's a short list of a few of the display managers available in Funtoo:

  • XDM (x11-apps/xdm): X.Org's standard display manager.
  • LightDM (x11-misc/lightdm): A lightweight, but highly configurable display manager.
  • SLiM (x11-misc/slim): Simple Login Manager -- a lightweight display manager. Not very configurable.

Any of these would make a fine choice. After you've chosen which display manager to use, install it:

# emerge lightdm


All that's left to do now is to add the name of the display manager to /etc/conf.d/xdm, add the xdm service to the default runlevel, and start the service:

DISPLAYMANAGER="lightdm"
# rc-update add xdm default
# /etc/init.d/xdm start


Power Group

If you wish to be able to shutdown/reboot/suspend/hibernate using xfce4-logout-session then you will need to add yourself or the user to the power group by:

# gpasswd -a <username> power


If the group does not exist then execute the following and try again:

# groupadd power


Plugins for Thunar and XFCE

There are a lot of plugins available for Thunar and XFCE. Here is a table that contains the name of the plugin and a description of what it does. To install one of the plugins, run

# emerge [name of plugin]


NameDescription
xfce-extra/thunar-volmanDaemon that enforces volume-related policies
xfce-extra/thunar-vcs-plugin Adds Subversion and GIT actions to the context menu of thunar
xfce-extra/thunar-shares-pluginThunar plugin to share files using Samba
xfce-extra/thunar-archive-pluginArchive plug-in for the Thunar filemanager
xfce-extra/xfce4-volumedDaemon to control volume up/down and mute keys
xfce-extra/xfce4-screenshooterXfce4 screenshooter application and panel plugin
xfce-extra/xfce4-notifydNotification daemon for the Xfce desktop environment
xfce-extra/xfce4-mixerA volume control application (and panel plug-in) for the Xfce desktop environment
xfce-extra/xfce4-mount-pluginA mount plug-in for the Xfce panel
xfce-extra/xfce4-clipman-pluginA clipboard manager plug-in for the Xfce panel
xfce-extra/xfce4-battery-pluginA battery monitor panel plugin for the Xfce desktop environment