Difference between revisions of "Install/BootLoader"

(New School (UEFI))
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<noinclude>
 
<noinclude>
 
{{InstallPart|boot loader configuration}}
 
{{InstallPart|boot loader configuration}}
</noinclude>
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</noinclude>=== Installing a Bootloader ===
=== Installing a Bootloader ===
+
  
These install instructions show you how to use GRUB to boot using BIOS (old-school) or UEFI (new-school).
+
These install instructions show you how to use GRUB to boot using BIOS (old-school) or UEFI (new-school). As of boot-update-1.7.2, now in Portage, the steps are very similar.
  
==== Old School (BIOS) ====
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First, emerge <code>boot-update</code>. This will also cause <code>grub-2</code> and {{c|efibootmgr}} to be merged, since they are dependencies:
 
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If you're using the BIOS to boot, setting up GRUB, the bootloader, is pretty easy.
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To use this recommended boot method, first emerge <code>boot-update</code>. This will also cause <code>grub-2</code> to be merged, since it is a dependency of <code>boot-update</code>.
+
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
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</console>
 
</console>
  
Then, edit <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> and specify "<code>Funtoo Linux genkernel</code>" as the <code>default</code> setting at the top of the file, replacing <code>"Funtoo Linux"</code>.  
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Then, edit <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> using {{c|nano}} and specify "<code>Funtoo Linux genkernel</code>" as the <code>default</code> setting at the top of the file, replacing <code>"Funtoo Linux"</code>.  
  
 
<code>/etc/boot.conf</code> should now look like this:
 
<code>/etc/boot.conf</code> should now look like this:
  
<pre>
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{{file|name=/etc/boot.conf|body=
 
boot {
 
boot {
 
generate grub
 
generate grub
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initrd /initramfs.cpio.gz
 
initrd /initramfs.cpio.gz
 
}
 
}
</pre>
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}}
  
Please read <code>man boot.conf</code> for further details.
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If you are booting a custom or non-default kernel, please read <code>man boot.conf</code> for information on the various options available to you.
  
===== Running grub-install and boot-update =====
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==== Old School (BIOS) MBR ====
  
Finally, we will need to actually install the GRUB boot loader to your disk, and also run <code>boot-update</code> which will generate your boot loader configuration file:
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When using "old school" BIOS booting, run the following command to install GRUB to your MBR, and generate the {{c|/boot/grub/grub.cfg}} configuration file that GRUB will use for booting:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --no-floppy /dev/sda
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(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --target=i386-pc --no-floppy /dev/sda
 
(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
 
(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Now you need to update your boot loader configuration file:
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==== New School (UEFI) Boot Entry ====
<console>
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(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
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</console>
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You only need to run <code>grub-install</code> when you first install Funtoo Linux, but you need to re-run <code>boot-update</code> every time you modify your <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> file, so your changes are applied on next boot.
+
  
==== New School (UEFI) ====
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If you're using "new school" UEFI booting, run of the following sets of commands, depending on whether you are installing a 64-bit or 32-bit system. This will add GRUB as a UEFI boot entry.
  
If you're using UEFI to boot, setting up the boot loader is a bit more complicated for now, but this process will be improving soon. Perform the following steps.
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For x86-64bit systems:
 
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===== Emerging GRUB =====
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You will still use GRUB as a boot loader, but before emerging grub, you will need to enable EFI booting. To do this,
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add the following line to <code>/etc/make.conf</code>:
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<pre>
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For 64-bit systems:
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GRUB_PLATFORMS="efi-64"
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For 32-bit systems, i.e. Intel Atom devices:
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GRUB_PLATFORMS="efi-32"
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</pre>
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Then, <code>emerge boot-update</code>. You will notice <code>grub</code> and <code>efibootmgr</code> getting pulled in as dependencies. This is expected and good:
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<console>
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(chroot) # ##i##emerge boot-update
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</console>
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===== Installing GRUB =====
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Now, for the magic of getting everything in place for booting. You should copy your kernel and initramfs (if you have one -- you will if you are following the default install) to <tt>/boot</tt>. GRUB will boot those. But how do we get UEFI to boot GRUB? Well, we need to run the following command (for 32bit simply set it as efi-32):
+
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
 
(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda
 
(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda
 +
(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
 
</console>
 
</console>
This command will simply install all the stuff to <tt>/boot/EFI</tt> and <tt>/boot/grub</tt> that your system needs to boot. In particular, the <tt>/boot/EFI/grub/grubx64.efi</tt> file will be created. This is the GRUB boot image that UEFI will load and start.
 
  
A more detailed explanation of the flags used in the above command:
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For x86-32bit systems:
* <code>--target=x86_64-efi</code>: Tells GRUB that we want to install it in a way that allows it to boot in UEFI
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* <code>--efi-directory=/boot</code>: All GRUB UEFI files will be installed in ''/boot''
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* <code>--bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]"</code>: This flag is not necessary for GRUB to boot. However, it allows you to change the text of the boot option in the UEFI BIOS. The stuff in the quotes can be set to anything that you would like.
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* <code>--recheck</code>: If a device map already exists on the disk or partition that GRUB is being installed on, it will be removed.
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* <code>/dev/sda</code>:The device that we are installing GRUB on.
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===== Configuring GRUB =====
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OK, now UEFI has the GRUB image it needs to boot. But we still need to configure GRUB itself so it finds and boots your kernel and initramfs. This is done by performing the following steps. Since boot-update doesn't yet support UEFI, we will use boot-update, but then edit our <code>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</code> to support UEFI booting.
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First, you will need to edit <code>/etc/boot.conf</code>. Format this as you would if you were booting without UEFI. If you are not sure how this should look, below is an example of what it could look like if you are booting from an unencrypted ext4 partition:
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{{file|name=/etc/boot.conf|desc=|body=
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boot {
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        generate grub
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        default "Funtoo Linux"
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        timeout 3
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}
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"Funtoo Linux" {
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        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
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        params += rootfstype=ext4 root=/dev/sda2
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}
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}}
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After you have edited your <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> file, run <code>boot-update</code>. You should now have a <code>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</code> file, which you can edit using the following command:
+
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##nano /boot/grub/grub.cfg
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(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --target=i386-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda
 +
(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
 +
==== First Boot, and in the future... ====
  
To get your <code>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</code> to support booting with UEFI, make the following changes. Below the existing insmod lines, add the following lines.  Both of these involve adding support for the UEFI framebuffer to GRUB.:
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OK -- you are ready to boot!
 
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<pre>
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  insmod efi_gop
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  insmod efi_uga
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</pre>
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Then, change the <code>set gfxpayload</code> line to read as follows. UEFI does not support text mode, so we will keep video initialized to the current resolution.:
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<pre>
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  set gfxpayload=keep
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</pre>
+
  
You can now save your changes by pressing <code>Control-X</code> and answering <code>y</code> when asked if you want to save the modified buffer. When prompted for a filename, hit Enter to use the existing filename.
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You only need to run <code>grub-install</code> when you first install Funtoo Linux, but you need to re-run <code>boot-update</code> every time you modify your <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> file or add new kernels to your system. This will regenerate {{c|/boot/grub/grub.cfg}} so that you will have new kernels available in your GRUB boot menu, the next time you reboot.

Latest revision as of 20:33, July 16, 2015


Note

This is a template that is used as part of the Installation instructions which covers: boot loader configuration. Templates are being used to allow multiple variant install guides that use most of the same re-usable parts.

Installing a Bootloader

These install instructions show you how to use GRUB to boot using BIOS (old-school) or UEFI (new-school). As of boot-update-1.7.2, now in Portage, the steps are very similar.

First, emerge boot-update. This will also cause grub-2 and efibootmgr to be merged, since they are dependencies:

(chroot) # emerge boot-update

Then, edit /etc/boot.conf using nano and specify "Funtoo Linux genkernel" as the default setting at the top of the file, replacing "Funtoo Linux".

/etc/boot.conf should now look like this:

/etc/boot.conf
boot {
	generate grub
	default "Funtoo Linux genkernel" 
	timeout 3 
}

"Funtoo Linux" {
	kernel bzImage[-v]
}

"Funtoo Linux genkernel" {
	kernel kernel[-v]
	initrd initramfs[-v]
	params += real_root=auto 
} 

"Funtoo Linux better-initramfs" {
	kernel vmlinuz[-v]
	initrd /initramfs.cpio.gz
}

If you are booting a custom or non-default kernel, please read man boot.conf for information on the various options available to you.

Old School (BIOS) MBR

When using "old school" BIOS booting, run the following command to install GRUB to your MBR, and generate the /boot/grub/grub.cfg configuration file that GRUB will use for booting:

(chroot) # grub-install --target=i386-pc --no-floppy /dev/sda
(chroot) # boot-update

New School (UEFI) Boot Entry

If you're using "new school" UEFI booting, run of the following sets of commands, depending on whether you are installing a 64-bit or 32-bit system. This will add GRUB as a UEFI boot entry.

For x86-64bit systems:

(chroot) # grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda
(chroot) # boot-update

For x86-32bit systems:

(chroot) # grub-install --target=i386-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda
(chroot) # boot-update

First Boot, and in the future...

OK -- you are ready to boot!

You only need to run grub-install when you first install Funtoo Linux, but you need to re-run boot-update every time you modify your /etc/boot.conf file or add new kernels to your system. This will regenerate /boot/grub/grub.cfg so that you will have new kernels available in your GRUB boot menu, the next time you reboot.