Difference between pages "Install/Partitioning" and "Subarches"

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<noinclude>
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{{:Install/Header}}
{{InstallPart|the process of partitioning and filesystem creation}}
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= Funtoo Linux Sub-Architectures =
</noinclude>
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__NOTITLE__
=== Prepare Hard Disk ===
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This page provides an overview of Funtoo Linux sub-architectures (also called ''subarches'',) designed for quick and easy reference. While this information is available in other places, such as Wikipedia, it often takes some time to study and cross-reference the various articles to get a good understanding of each type of sub-architecture, and this information generally isn't all collected neatly in one place. That is the purpose of this page. When possible, links to more detailed Wikipedia pages are provided. You are encouraged to help maintain this page as well as the Wikipedia articles referenced here.
  
==== Introduction ====
+
== 64-bit Suport (Generic) ==
 
+
In earlier times, there was only one way to boot a PC-compatible computer. All of our desktops and servers had a standard BIOS, all our hard drives used Master Boot Records, and were partitioned using the MBR partition scheme. And we liked it that way!
+
 
+
Then, along came EFI and UEFI, which are new-style firmware designed to boot systems, along with GPT partition tables to support disks larger than 2.2TB. All of the sudden, we had a variety of options to boot Linux systems, turning what once was a one-method-fits-all approach into something a lot more complex.
+
 
+
Let's take a moment to review the boot options available to you. This Install Guide uses, and recommends, the old-school method of BIOS booting and using an MBR. It works. There's nothing wrong with it. If your system disk is 2TB or smaller in size, it won't prevent you from using all of your disk's capacity, either.
+
 
+
But, there are some situations where the old-school method isn't optimal. If you have a system disk >2TB in size, then MBR partitions won't allow you to access all your storage. So that's one reason. Another reason is that there are some so-called "PC" systems out there that don't support BIOS booting anymore, and force you to use UEFI to boot.
+
 
+
Our recommendation is still to go old-school unless you have reason not to. We call this method the '''BIOS + GRUB (MBR)''' method. It's the traditional method of setting up a PC-compatible system to boot Linux.
+
 
+
If you need to use UEFI to boot, we recommend not using the MBR at all for booting, as some systems support this, but others don't. Instead, we recommend using UEFI to boot GRUB, which in turn will load Linux. We refer to this method as the '''UEFI + GRUB (GPT)''' method.
+
 
+
And yes, there are even more methods, some of which are documented on the [[Boot Methods]] page. We used to recommend a '''BIOS + GRUB (GPT)''' method but it is not consistently supported across a wide variety of hardware.
+
 
+
'''The big question is -- which boot method should you use?''' Here's how to tell.
+
 
+
;Principle 1 - Old School: If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial light blue menu, you are booting the CD using the BIOS, and it's likely that you can thus boot Funtoo Linux using the BIOS. So, go old-school and use BIOS booting, ''unless'' you have some reason to use UEFI, such as having a >2.2TB system disk. In that case, see Principle 2, as your system may also support UEFI booting.
+
 
+
;Principle 2 - New School: If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial black and white menu -- congratulations, your system is configured to support UEFI booting. This means that you are ready to install Funtoo Linux to boot via UEFI. Your system may still support BIOS booting, but just be trying UEFI first. You can poke around in your BIOS boot configuration and play with this.
+
 
+
;What's the Big Difference between Old School and New School?: Here's the deal. If you go with old-school MBR partitions, your <code>/boot</code> partition will be an ext2 filesystem, and you'll use <code>fdisk</code> to create your MBR partitions. If you go with new-school GPT partitions and UEFI booting, your <code>/boot</code> partition will be a vfat filesystem, because this is what UEFI is able to read, and you will use <code>gdisk</code> to create your GPT partitions. And you'll install GRUB a bit differently. That's about all it comes down to, in case you were curious.
+
 
+
==== Old-School (MBR) Method ====
+
 
+
{{Note|Use this method if you are booting using your BIOS, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was light blue. If you're going to use the new-school method, [[#New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method|click here to jump down to UEFI/GPT.]]}}
+
 
+
====== Preparation ======
+
 
+
First, it's a good idea to make sure that you've found the correct hard disk to partition. Try this command and verify that <code>/dev/sda</code> is the disk that you want to partition:
+
  
 +
=== generic_64 ===
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##fdisk -l /dev/sda
+
CFLAGS: -mtune=generic -O2 -pipe
 
+
CHOST: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
Disk /dev/sda: 640.1 GB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
+
USE: mmx sse sse2
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
+
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
+
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
+
Disk label type: gpt
+
 
+
 
+
#        Start          End    Size  Type            Name
+
1        2048  1250263694  596.2G  Linux filesyste Linux filesystem
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Now, it's recommended that you erase any existing MBR or GPT partition tables on the disk, which could confuse the system's BIOS at boot time. We do this using <code>sgdisk</code>:
+
The '''generic_64''' subarch is designed to support 64-bit PC-compatible CPUs, such as the [[Wikipedia:AMD_K8|AMD K8-series processors]], which were introduced in late 2003. They were notable as the first processors that supported the [[Wikipedia:X86-64|AMD64 (also called X86-64) 64-bit instruction set]] for PC-compatible systems, which was introduced as a backwards-compatible 64-bit alternative to Intel's IA-64 architecture. Intel followed suit and also began supporting this 64-bit instruction set, which they called "[[Wikipedia:X86-64#Intel_64|Intel 64]]", by releasing X86-64 64-bit compatible CPUs from mid-2004 onwards (See [[Wikipedia:X86-64#Intel_64_implementations|Intel 64 implementations]].)
{{fancywarning|This will make any existing partitions inaccessible! You are '''strongly''' cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.}}
+
  
<console>
+
AMD desktop 64-bit CPUs include the Athlon 64, Athlon 64 FX, Athlon 64 X2, Athlon X2, Turion 64, Turion 64 X2 and Sempron series processors. AMD server processors were released under the Opteron brand and have codenames SledgeHammer, Venus, Troy, Athens, Denmark, Italy, Egypt, Santa Ana and Santa Rosa. All Opterons released through late 2006 were based on the K8 microarchitecture with original X86-64 instructions.
# ##i##sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda
+
 
+
Creating new GPT entries.
+
GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or
+
other utilities.
+
</console>
+
  
This output is also nothing to worry about, as the command still succeded:
+
== 64-bit AMD Processors ==
  
 +
=== amd64-k10 ===
 
<console>
 
<console>
***************************************************************
+
CFLAGS: -march=amdfam10 -O2 -pipe
Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format
+
CHOST: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
in memory.
+
USE: mmx sse sse2 sse3 3dnow 3dnowext
***************************************************************
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
====== Partitioning ======
+
The '''amd64-k10''' subarch provides support for the [[Wikipedia:AMD_10h|AMD Family 10h processors]], which were released in late 2007 as a successor to the AMD K8 series processors.
  
Now we will use <code>fdisk</code> to create the MBR partition table and partitions:
+
Desktop amd64-k10 CPUs include [[Wikipedia:AMD Phenom|AMD Phenom]], [[Wikipedia:AMD_10h#Phenom_II_Models|AMD Phenom II]] and [[Wikipedia:AMD_10h#Athlon_II_Models|AMD Athlon II]]. Server CPUs include Opterons with codenames Budapest, Barcelona, Suzuka, Shanghai, Istanbul, Lisbon, and Magny-Cours. A full listing of amd64-k10 Opteron models [[Wikipedia:List_of_AMD_Opteron_microprocessors#K10_based_Opterons|can be found here]].
  
 +
=== amd64-bulldozer ===
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##fdisk /dev/sda
+
CFLAGS: -march=bdver1 -O2 -pipe
 +
CHOST: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
 +
USE: mmx sse sse2 sse3 sse4 3dnow 3dnowext
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Within <code>fdisk</code>, follow these steps:
+
The '''amd64-bulldozer''' subarch supports the [[Wikipedia:Bulldozer (microarchitecture)|AMD bulldozer microarchitecture]] CPUs, which were released from late 2011 through the first quarter of 2012 as a replacement for the [[Wikipedia:AMD_10h|K10 microarchitecture]] CPUs.
 +
Bulldozer desktop CPUs use the [[Wikipedia:Socket_AM3+|AM3+ socket]] and server CPUs use the  [[Wikipedia:Socket_G34|G34 socket]].
  
'''Empty the partition table''':
+
Desktop bulldozer CPUs include the [[Wikipedia:List_of_AMD_FX_microprocessors#.22Zambezi.22_.2832_nm_SOI.29|Zambezi FX-series CPUs]]. Server bulldozer CPUs include Opterons with codenames Zurich (Opteron 3200-series), Valencia (Opteron 4200-series) and Interlagos (Opteron 6200 series). A complete list of Opteron models [[Wikipedia:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opteron#Opteron_.2832_nm_SOI.29-_First_Generation_Bulldozer_Microarchitecture|can be found here.]].
  
 +
=== amd64-piledriver ===
 
<console>
 
<console>
Command (m for help): ##i##o ↵
+
CFLAGS: -march=bdver2 -O2 -pipe
 +
CHOST: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
 +
USE: mmx sse sse2 sse3 sse4 3dnow 3dnowext
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
+
The '''amd64-piledriver''' subarch supports the [[Wikipedia:Piledriver (microarchitecture)|AMD Piledriver microarchitecture]] produced by AMD from mid-2012 through 2015, which is the successor to the [[Wikipedia:Bulldozer (microarchitecture)|AMD bulldozer microarchitecture]].
 +
Piledriver CPUs and APUs are available that use the [[Wikipedia:FM2 Socket|FM2 socket]]. Desktop Piledriver CPUs use the [[Wikipedia:Socket_AM3+|AM3+ socket]]. Server Piledriver CPUs use a variety of sockets, including [[Wikipedia:Socket_AM3+|AM3+]], [[Wikipedia:Socket_C32|C32]] and [[Wikipedia:Socket_G34|G34]].
  
<console>
+
Desktop piledriver CPU and APUs include FX-series with codename Vishera (FX-8350, FX-8370),  [[Wikipedia:List_of_AMD_accelerated_processing_unit_microprocessors#Virgo:_.22Trinity.22_.282012.2C_32_nm.29|A-series with codename Trinity]] (A6-5400K, A10-5800K) and [[Wikipedia:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_AMD_accelerated_processing_unit_microprocessors#.22Richland.22_.282013.2C_32_nm.29_2|A-series with codename Richland]].
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
+
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
+
Partition number (1-4, default 1): ##i##↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+128M ↵
+
</console>
+
  
'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
+
Server piledriver CPUs include Opterons with codenames Delhi (Opteron 3300-series, [[Wikipedia:Socket_AM3+|AM3+]]), Seoul (Opteron 4300-series, [[Wikipedia:Socket_C32|C32]]) and Abu Dhabi (Opteron 6300-series, [[Wikipedia:Socket_G34|G34]]). A full listing of Opteron models [[Wikipedia:Opteron#Opteron_.2832_nm_SOI.29_-_Piledriver_Microarchitecture|is available here]].
 
+
<console>
+
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
+
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
+
Partition number (2-4, default 2): ##i##↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+2G ↵
+
Command (m for help): ##i##t ↵
+
Partition number (1,2, default 2): ##i## ↵
+
Hex code (type L to list all codes): ##i##82 ↵
+
</console>
+
  
'''Create the root partition:'''
+
Piledriver adds several new instructions over bulldozer, so AMD bulldozer systems cannot run amd64-piledriver-optimized stages. However, this subarch is  instruction-compatible with its successor, the, so amd64-piledriver stages can run on amd64-steamroller systems, and vice versa.
  
 +
=== amd64-steamroller ===
 
<console>
 
<console>
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
+
CFLAGS: -march=bdver3 -O2 -pipe
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
+
CHOST: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
Partition number (3,4, default 3): ##i##↵
+
USE: mmx sse sse2 sse3 sse4 3dnow 3dnowext
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##↵
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
'''Verify the partition table:'''
+
The '''amd64-steamroller''' subarch supports the  [[Wikipedia:Steamroller (microarchitecture)|AMD steamroller microarchitecture]], produced from early 2014. It is the successor to the [[Wikipedia:Piledriver (microarchitecture)|AMD Piledriver microarchitecture]].
 +
Steamroller APUs are available that use the [[Wikipedia:FM2+ Socket|FM2+ socket]] and  [[Wikipedia:Socket_FP3|FP3 socket]] (mobile.)
  
<console>
+
Desktop steamroller APUs include the [[Wikipedia:AMD_Accelerated_Processing_Unit#Steamroller_architecture_.282014.29:_Kaveri|A-Series with codename Kaveri]], such as the quad-core AMD A10-7850K APU. Steamroller APUs are also available in mobile versions. Server steamroller APUs will include the Berlin APUs, which are expected to be released some time in 2015.
Command (m for help): ##i##p
+
 
+
Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
+
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
+
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
+
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
+
Disklabel type: dos
+
Disk identifier: 0x82abc9a6
+
 
+
Device    Boot    Start      End    Blocks  Id System
+
/dev/sda1          2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
+
/dev/sda2        264192  4458495  2097152  82 Linux swap / Solaris
+
/dev/sda3        4458496 625142447 310341976  83 Linux
+
</console>
+
  
'''Write the parition table to disk:'''
+
Amd64-steamroller subarches are instruction-compatible with amd64-piledriver, but add new instructions over amd64-bulldozer.
  
 +
=== amd64-jaguar ===
 
<console>
 
<console>
Command (m for help): ##i##w
+
CFLAGS: -march=btver2 -O2 -pipe
 +
CHOST: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
 +
USE: mmx sse sse2 sse3 sse4 3dnow 3dnowext
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Your new MBR partition table will now be written to your system disk.
+
The '''amd64-jaguar''' (also called AMD Family 16h) subarch supports the  [[Wikipedia:Jaguar (microarchitecture)|AMD jaguar microarchitecture]], which is targeted at low-power devices, including notebooks, tablets and small form-factor desktops and servers. It is perhaps most well-known for being the microarchitecture used for the [[Wikipedia:Playstation 4|Playstation 4]] and [[Wikipedia:Xbox One|Xbox One]], which each use custom 8-core Jaguar APUs.
 +
Socketed Jaguar APUs use the [[Wikipedia:AM1 Socket|AM1 socket]], and  [[Wikipedia:Socket_FT3|FT3 socket]] for mobile devices. G-series [[Wikipedia:System_on_a_chip|"system on a chip" (SoC)]] APUs are available for non-socketed devices such as tablets and embedded system boards.
  
==== New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method ====
+
Desktop Jaguar APUs include the [[Wikipedia:List_of_AMD_accelerated_processing_unit_microprocessors#.22Kabini.22.2C_.22Temash.22_.282013.2C_28_nm.29|Kabini A-series APUs and Temash E-series APUs]], such as the Athlon 5150 and 5350 APUs, and Sempron 2650 and 3850.
  
{{Note|Use this method if you are booting using UEFI, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was black and white. If it was light blue, this method will not work. You need to boot the LiveCD using UEFI to configure your system to boot UEFI.}}
+
Amd64-jaguar subarches use the MOVBE instruction which is not available on amd64-bulldozer, amd64-piledriver or amd64-steamroller. They are thus not instruction-compatible with any of these subarches.
 
+
The <tt>gdisk</tt> commands to create a GPT partition table are as follows. Adapt sizes as necessary, although these defaults will work for most users. Start <code>gdisk</code>:
+
  
 +
== 64-bit Intel Processors ==
 +
=== core2_64 ===
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##gdisk
+
CFLAGS: -march=core2 -O2 -pipe
 +
CHOST: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
 +
USE: mmx sse sse2 sse3 ssse3
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Within <tt>gdisk</tt>, follow these steps:
+
The '''core2_64''' subarch supports 64-bit-capable [[Wikipedia:Intel_Core_2|Intel Core 2 Processors]], which includes ''some'' processors of the [[Wikipedia:Intel Core (microarchitecture)|Core]] and all processors of the [[Wikipedia:Penryn_(microarchitecture)|Penryn]] microarchitecture. All "Core 2" branded processors are 64-bit-capable. These processors were introduced in July of 2006 and were phased out in July of 2011, in favor of  [[Wikipedia:Nehalem_(microarchitecture)|Nehalem-based]] processors.
  
'''Create a new empty partition table''' (This ''will'' erase all data on the disk when saved):
+
For a full list of 64-bit capable Core 2 processors, [http://ark.intel.com/search/advanced?s=t&FamilyText=Legacy%20Intel%C2%AE%20Core%E2%84%A22%20Processor&InstructionSet=64-bit see this link].
  
<console>
+
The 64-bit capable ''Core 2''-branded CPUs include: "Conroe"/"Allendale" (dual-core for desktops), "Merom" (dual-core for laptops), "Merom-L" (single-core for laptops), "Kentsfield" (quad-core for desktops), and the updated variants named "Wolfdale" (dual-core for desktops), "Penryn" (dual-core for laptops),  and "Yorkfield" (quad-core for desktops). (Note: ''For the server and workstation "Woodcrest", "Tigerton", "Harpertown" and "Dunnington" CPUs see the [[Wikipedia:Xeon|Xeon]] brand''.)
Command: ##i##o ↵
+
This option deletes all partitions and creates a new protective MBR.
+
Proceed? (Y/N): ##i##y ↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
+
  
 +
=== corei7 ===
 
<console>
 
<console>
Command: ##i##n ↵
+
CFLAGS: -march=corei7 -O2 -pipe
Partition Number: ##i##1 ↵
+
CHOST: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
First sector: ##i##↵
+
USE: mmx sse sse2 sse3 ssse3 sse4
Last sector: ##i##+500M ↵
+
Hex Code: ##i##↵
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
+
Beginning in November 2008, Intel launched the first Core i7 processor, codenamed [[Wikipedia:Bloomfield_(microprocessor)|Bloomfield]], based on the [[Wikipedia:Nehalem_(microarchitecture)|Nehalem]] microarchitecture. With this launch, they also added to and modified the conventions of the [[Wikipedia:Intel_Core|Intel Core]] branding scheme. '''(Not to be confused with the [[Wikipedia:Intel Core (microarchitecture)|Intel Core microarchitecture]], which has only been supported by the processors sold under the Core2 brand. See [[Subarches#core2_64|core2_64]].)'''. This new naming scheme distinguishes between grades of processors rather than microarchitectures or design. Therefore, the '''corei7''' subarch supports the [[Wikipedia:Nehalem_(microarchitecture)|Nehalem]], [[Wikipedia:Westmere_(microarchitecture)|Westmere]], [[Wikipedia:Sandy_Bridge_(microarchitecture)|Sandy Bridge]],  [[Wikipedia:Ivy_Bridge_(microarchitecture)|Ivy Bridge]], and [[Wikipedia:Haswell_(microarchitecture)|Haswell]] microarchitectures under the follow brand names:
  
<console>
+
* Intel Core i3 (entry-level consumer)
Command: ##i##n ↵
+
* Intel Core i5 (mainstream consumer)
Partition Number: ##i##2 ↵
+
* Intel Corei7 (high-end consumer/business)
First sector: ##i##↵
+
* Intel Xeon (business server/workstation)
Last sector: ##i##+4G ↵
+
Hex Code: ##i##8200 ↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Create Partition 3''' (root):
+
  
 +
=== atom_64 ===
 
<console>
 
<console>
Command: ##i##n ↵
+
CFLAGS: -O2 -fomit-frame-pointer -march=atom -pipe -mno-movbe
Partition Number: ##i##3 ↵
+
CHOST: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
First sector: ##i##↵
+
USE: mmx sse sse2 sse3
Last sector: ##i##↵##!i## (for rest of disk)
+
Hex Code: ##i##↵
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Along the way, you can type "<tt>p</tt>" and hit Enter to view your current partition table. If you make a mistake, you can type "<tt>d</tt>" to delete an existing partition that you created. When you are satisfied with your partition setup, type "<tt>w</tt>" to write your configuration to disk:
+
The Intel Atom Processor is the common name for Intel's  [[Wikipedia:Bonnell_(microarchitecture)|Bonnell microarchitecture]], which represents a partial revival of the principles used in earlier Intel designs such as P5 and the i486, with the sole purpose of enhancing the performance per watt ratio.  Successor to the [[Wikipedia:Stealey_(microprocessor)|Intel A100 series (Stealey)]], which was derived from the [[Wikipedia:Pentium_M|Pentium M]], the Intel Atom has been produced since 2008. Targeted at low-power devices, Atom processors can be found in a wide range of notebooks, tablets and small form-factor desktops and servers.
  
'''Write Partition Table To Disk''':
+
The '''atom_64''' sub-architecture supports 64-bit capable Intel Atom CPUs.  The first 64-bit capable Intel Atom CPUs were the Intel Atom 230 and 330, released in late 2008. However, Intel also continued to produce new 32-bit Atom Processors after this date. For example, the Atom N2xx series Atom Diamondville models cannot support 64-bit operation, while the 2xx and 3xx Diamondville, Pineview, Cedarview and Centerton can. A full list of 64-bit capable Intel Atom Processors [http://ark.intel.com/search/advanced?s=t&FamilyText=Intel%C2%AE%20Atom%E2%84%A2%20Processor&InstructionSet=64-bit can be seen here.]
  
<console>
+
{{Important|For 64-bit support to be functional, a 64-bit capable Atom Processor must be paired ''with a processor, chipset, and BIOS'' that all support [[Wikipedia:X86-64#Intel_64|Intel 64]]. If not all hardware supports 64-bit, then you must use the '''atom_32''' subarch instead.}}
Command: ##i##w ↵
+
Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): ##i##Y ↵
+
</console>
+
  
The partition table will now be written to disk and <tt>gdisk</tt> will close.
+
{{:Install/Footer}}
 
+
Now, your GPT/GUID partitions have been created, and will show up as the following ''block devices'' under Linux:
+
 
+
* <tt>/dev/sda1</tt>, which will be used to hold the <tt>/boot</tt> filesystem,
+
* <tt>/dev/sda2</tt>, which will be used for swap space, and
+
* <tt>/dev/sda3</tt>, which will hold your root filesystem.
+
 
+
==== Creating filesystems ====
+
 
+
Before your newly-created partitions can be used, the block devices need to be initialized with filesystem ''metadata''. This process is known as ''creating a filesystem'' on the block devices. After filesystems are created on the block devices, they can be mounted and used to store files.
+
 
+
Let's keep this simple. Are you using old-school MBR partitions? If so, let's create an ext2 filesystem on /dev/sda1:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
+
</console>
+
 
+
If you're using new-school GPT partitions for UEFI, you'll want to create a vfat filesystem on /dev/sda1, because this is what UEFI is able to read:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now, let's create a swap partition. This partition will be used as disk-based virtual memory for your Funtoo Linux system.
+
 
+
You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, but will initialize it using the <code>mkswap</code> command. Then we'll run the <code>swapon</code> command to make your newly-initialized swap space active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkswap /dev/sda2
+
# ##i##swapon /dev/sda2
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now, we need to create a root filesystem. This is where Funtoo Linux will live. '''We generally recommend ext4 or XFS root filesystems. If you're not sure, choose ext4. Here's how to create a root ext4 filesystem:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3
+
</console>
+
 
+
...and here's how to create an XFS root filesystem, if you choose to use XFS:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkfs.xfs /dev/sda3
+
</console>
+
 
+
Your filesystems (and swap) have all now been initialized, so that that can be mounted (attached to your existing directory heirarchy) and used to store files. We are ready to begin installing Funtoo Linux on these brand-new filesystems.
+
 
+
{{fancywarning|1=
+
When deploying an OpenVZ host, please use ext4 exclusively. The Parallels development team tests extensively with ext4, and modern versions of <code>openvz-rhel6-stable</code> are '''not''' compatible with XFS, and you may experience kernel bugs.
+
}}
+
 
+
==== Mounting filesystems ====
+
 
+
Mount the newly-created filesystems as follows, creating <code>/mnt/funtoo</code> as the installation mount point:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/funtoo
+
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot
+
</console>
+
 
+
Optionally, if you have a separate filesystem for <code>/home</code> or anything else:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/home
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/funtoo/home
+
</console>
+
 
+
If you have <code>/tmp</code> or <code>/var/tmp</code> on a separate filesystem, be sure to change the permissions of the mount point to be globally-writeable after mounting, as follows:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##chmod 1777 /mnt/funtoo/tmp
+
</console>
+

Revision as of 19:33, November 19, 2014

Funtoo Linux Sub-Architectures

This page provides an overview of Funtoo Linux sub-architectures (also called subarches,) designed for quick and easy reference. While this information is available in other places, such as Wikipedia, it often takes some time to study and cross-reference the various articles to get a good understanding of each type of sub-architecture, and this information generally isn't all collected neatly in one place. That is the purpose of this page. When possible, links to more detailed Wikipedia pages are provided. You are encouraged to help maintain this page as well as the Wikipedia articles referenced here.

64-bit Suport (Generic)

generic_64

CFLAGS: -mtune=generic -O2 -pipe
CHOST: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
USE: mmx sse sse2

The generic_64 subarch is designed to support 64-bit PC-compatible CPUs, such as the AMD K8-series processors, which were introduced in late 2003. They were notable as the first processors that supported the AMD64 (also called X86-64) 64-bit instruction set for PC-compatible systems, which was introduced as a backwards-compatible 64-bit alternative to Intel's IA-64 architecture. Intel followed suit and also began supporting this 64-bit instruction set, which they called "Intel 64", by releasing X86-64 64-bit compatible CPUs from mid-2004 onwards (See Intel 64 implementations.)

AMD desktop 64-bit CPUs include the Athlon 64, Athlon 64 FX, Athlon 64 X2, Athlon X2, Turion 64, Turion 64 X2 and Sempron series processors. AMD server processors were released under the Opteron brand and have codenames SledgeHammer, Venus, Troy, Athens, Denmark, Italy, Egypt, Santa Ana and Santa Rosa. All Opterons released through late 2006 were based on the K8 microarchitecture with original X86-64 instructions.

64-bit AMD Processors

amd64-k10

CFLAGS: -march=amdfam10 -O2 -pipe
CHOST: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
USE: mmx sse sse2 sse3 3dnow 3dnowext

The amd64-k10 subarch provides support for the AMD Family 10h processors, which were released in late 2007 as a successor to the AMD K8 series processors.

Desktop amd64-k10 CPUs include AMD Phenom, AMD Phenom II and AMD Athlon II. Server CPUs include Opterons with codenames Budapest, Barcelona, Suzuka, Shanghai, Istanbul, Lisbon, and Magny-Cours. A full listing of amd64-k10 Opteron models can be found here.

amd64-bulldozer

CFLAGS: -march=bdver1 -O2 -pipe
CHOST: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
USE: mmx sse sse2 sse3 sse4 3dnow 3dnowext

The amd64-bulldozer subarch supports the AMD bulldozer microarchitecture CPUs, which were released from late 2011 through the first quarter of 2012 as a replacement for the K10 microarchitecture CPUs. Bulldozer desktop CPUs use the AM3+ socket and server CPUs use the G34 socket.

Desktop bulldozer CPUs include the Zambezi FX-series CPUs. Server bulldozer CPUs include Opterons with codenames Zurich (Opteron 3200-series), Valencia (Opteron 4200-series) and Interlagos (Opteron 6200 series). A complete list of Opteron models can be found here..

amd64-piledriver

CFLAGS: -march=bdver2 -O2 -pipe
CHOST: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
USE: mmx sse sse2 sse3 sse4 3dnow 3dnowext

The amd64-piledriver subarch supports the AMD Piledriver microarchitecture produced by AMD from mid-2012 through 2015, which is the successor to the AMD bulldozer microarchitecture. Piledriver CPUs and APUs are available that use the FM2 socket. Desktop Piledriver CPUs use the AM3+ socket. Server Piledriver CPUs use a variety of sockets, including AM3+, C32 and G34.

Desktop piledriver CPU and APUs include FX-series with codename Vishera (FX-8350, FX-8370), A-series with codename Trinity (A6-5400K, A10-5800K) and A-series with codename Richland.

Server piledriver CPUs include Opterons with codenames Delhi (Opteron 3300-series, AM3+), Seoul (Opteron 4300-series, C32) and Abu Dhabi (Opteron 6300-series, G34). A full listing of Opteron models is available here.

Piledriver adds several new instructions over bulldozer, so AMD bulldozer systems cannot run amd64-piledriver-optimized stages. However, this subarch is instruction-compatible with its successor, the, so amd64-piledriver stages can run on amd64-steamroller systems, and vice versa.

amd64-steamroller

CFLAGS: -march=bdver3 -O2 -pipe
CHOST: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
USE: mmx sse sse2 sse3 sse4 3dnow 3dnowext

The amd64-steamroller subarch supports the AMD steamroller microarchitecture, produced from early 2014. It is the successor to the AMD Piledriver microarchitecture. Steamroller APUs are available that use the FM2+ socket and FP3 socket (mobile.)

Desktop steamroller APUs include the A-Series with codename Kaveri, such as the quad-core AMD A10-7850K APU. Steamroller APUs are also available in mobile versions. Server steamroller APUs will include the Berlin APUs, which are expected to be released some time in 2015.

Amd64-steamroller subarches are instruction-compatible with amd64-piledriver, but add new instructions over amd64-bulldozer.

amd64-jaguar

CFLAGS: -march=btver2 -O2 -pipe
CHOST: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
USE: mmx sse sse2 sse3 sse4 3dnow 3dnowext

The amd64-jaguar (also called AMD Family 16h) subarch supports the AMD jaguar microarchitecture, which is targeted at low-power devices, including notebooks, tablets and small form-factor desktops and servers. It is perhaps most well-known for being the microarchitecture used for the Playstation 4 and Xbox One, which each use custom 8-core Jaguar APUs. Socketed Jaguar APUs use the AM1 socket, and FT3 socket for mobile devices. G-series "system on a chip" (SoC) APUs are available for non-socketed devices such as tablets and embedded system boards.

Desktop Jaguar APUs include the Kabini A-series APUs and Temash E-series APUs, such as the Athlon 5150 and 5350 APUs, and Sempron 2650 and 3850.

Amd64-jaguar subarches use the MOVBE instruction which is not available on amd64-bulldozer, amd64-piledriver or amd64-steamroller. They are thus not instruction-compatible with any of these subarches.

64-bit Intel Processors

core2_64

CFLAGS: -march=core2 -O2 -pipe
CHOST: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
USE: mmx sse sse2 sse3 ssse3

The core2_64 subarch supports 64-bit-capable Intel Core 2 Processors, which includes some processors of the Core and all processors of the Penryn microarchitecture. All "Core 2" branded processors are 64-bit-capable. These processors were introduced in July of 2006 and were phased out in July of 2011, in favor of Nehalem-based processors.

For a full list of 64-bit capable Core 2 processors, see this link.

The 64-bit capable Core 2-branded CPUs include: "Conroe"/"Allendale" (dual-core for desktops), "Merom" (dual-core for laptops), "Merom-L" (single-core for laptops), "Kentsfield" (quad-core for desktops), and the updated variants named "Wolfdale" (dual-core for desktops), "Penryn" (dual-core for laptops), and "Yorkfield" (quad-core for desktops). (Note: For the server and workstation "Woodcrest", "Tigerton", "Harpertown" and "Dunnington" CPUs see the Xeon brand.)

corei7

CFLAGS: -march=corei7 -O2 -pipe
CHOST: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
USE: mmx sse sse2 sse3 ssse3 sse4

Beginning in November 2008, Intel launched the first Core i7 processor, codenamed Bloomfield, based on the Nehalem microarchitecture. With this launch, they also added to and modified the conventions of the Intel Core branding scheme. (Not to be confused with the Intel Core microarchitecture, which has only been supported by the processors sold under the Core2 brand. See core2_64.). This new naming scheme distinguishes between grades of processors rather than microarchitectures or design. Therefore, the corei7 subarch supports the Nehalem, Westmere, Sandy Bridge, Ivy Bridge, and Haswell microarchitectures under the follow brand names:

  • Intel Core i3 (entry-level consumer)
  • Intel Core i5 (mainstream consumer)
  • Intel Corei7 (high-end consumer/business)
  • Intel Xeon (business server/workstation)

atom_64

CFLAGS: -O2 -fomit-frame-pointer -march=atom -pipe -mno-movbe
CHOST: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
USE: mmx sse sse2 sse3

The Intel Atom Processor is the common name for Intel's Bonnell microarchitecture, which represents a partial revival of the principles used in earlier Intel designs such as P5 and the i486, with the sole purpose of enhancing the performance per watt ratio. Successor to the Intel A100 series (Stealey), which was derived from the Pentium M, the Intel Atom has been produced since 2008. Targeted at low-power devices, Atom processors can be found in a wide range of notebooks, tablets and small form-factor desktops and servers.

The atom_64 sub-architecture supports 64-bit capable Intel Atom CPUs. The first 64-bit capable Intel Atom CPUs were the Intel Atom 230 and 330, released in late 2008. However, Intel also continued to produce new 32-bit Atom Processors after this date. For example, the Atom N2xx series Atom Diamondville models cannot support 64-bit operation, while the 2xx and 3xx Diamondville, Pineview, Cedarview and Centerton can. A full list of 64-bit capable Intel Atom Processors can be seen here.

Important

For 64-bit support to be functional, a 64-bit capable Atom Processor must be paired with a processor, chipset, and BIOS that all support Intel 64. If not all hardware supports 64-bit, then you must use the atom_32 subarch instead.