Difference between pages "Install/Chroot" and "Install/BootLoader"

(Difference between pages)
(Chroot into Funtoo)
 
(Emerging GRUB)
 
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<noinclude>
 
<noinclude>
{{InstallPart|the chroot process}}
+
{{InstallPart|boot loader configuration}}
 
</noinclude>
 
</noinclude>
=== Chroot into Funtoo ===
+
=== Installing a Bootloader ===
Before chrooting into your new system, there's a few things that need to be done first. You will need to mount /proc and /dev inside your new system. Use the following commands:
+
 
 +
These install instructions show you how to use GRUB to boot using BIOS (old-school) or UEFI (new-school).
 +
 
 +
==== Old School (BIOS) ====
 +
 
 +
If you're using the BIOS to boot, setting up GRUB, the bootloader, is pretty easy.
 +
 
 +
To use this recommended boot method, first emerge <code>boot-update</code>. This will also cause <code>grub-2</code> to be merged, since it is a dependency of <code>boot-update</code>.
 +
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge boot-update
# ##i##mount -t proc none proc
+
# ##i##mount --rbind /sys sys
+
# ##i##mount --rbind /dev dev
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
<noinclude>
+
Then, edit <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> and specify "<code>Funtoo Linux genkernel</code>" as the <code>default</code> setting at the top of the file, replacing <code>"Funtoo Linux"</code>.  
{{Note|This is a template that is used as part of the Installation instructions, to describe the process of chrooting into the stage3. Templates are being used to allow multiple variant install guides that use most of the same re-usable parts.}}
+
 
</noinclude>
+
<code>/etc/boot.conf</code> should now look like this:
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
boot {
 +
        generate grub
 +
        default "Funtoo Linux genkernel"
 +
        timeout 3
 +
}
 +
 
 +
"Funtoo Linux" {
 +
        kernel bzImage[-v]
 +
        # params += nomodeset
 +
}
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Please read <code>man boot.conf</code> for further details.
 +
 
 +
===== Running grub-install and boot-update =====
 +
 
 +
Finally, we will need to actually install the GRUB boot loader to your disk, and also run <code>boot-update</code> which will generate your boot loader configuration file:
  
You'll also want to copy over <code>resolv.conf</code> in order to have proper DNS name resolution from inside the chroot:
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##cp /etc/resolv.conf etc
+
(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --no-floppy /dev/sda
 +
(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Now you can chroot into your new system. Use <code>env</code> before <code>chroot</code> to ensure that no environment variables from the installation media are used by your new system:
+
Now you need to update your boot loader configuration file:
 +
<console>
 +
(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
 +
</console>
 +
You only need to run <code>grub-install</code> when you first install Funtoo Linux, but you need to re-run <code>boot-update</code> every time you modify your <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> file, so your changes are applied on next boot.
 +
 
 +
==== New School (UEFI) ====
 +
 
 +
If you're using UEFI to boot, setting up the boot loader is a bit more complicated for now, but this process will be improving soon. Perform the following steps.
 +
 
 +
===== Unmask Grub 2.02_beta2 =====
 +
 
 +
Unmask the latest version of GRUB by placing this in your <code>/etc/portage/package.unmask</code>:
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
sys-boot/grub
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
The 2.00 version of GRUB has known issues with UEFI booting. Using 2.02 is essential for having this boot method work reliably.
 +
 
 +
===== Emerging GRUB =====
 +
 
 +
You will still use GRUB as a boot loader, but before emerging grub, you will need to enable EFI booting. To do this,
 +
add the following line to <code>/etc/make.conf</code>:
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
GRUB_PLATFORMS="efi-64"
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Then, <code>emerge boot-update</code>. You will notice <code>grub</code> and <code>efibootmgr</code> getting pulled in as dependencies. This is expected and good:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l
+
# ##i##emerge boot-update
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
{{fancynote|Users of live CDs with 64-bit kernels installing 32-bit systems: Some software may use <code>uname -r</code> to check whether the system is 32 or 64-bit. You may want append linux32 to the chroot command as a workaround, but it's generally not needed.}}
+
===== Installing GRUB =====
{{fancyimportant|If you receive the error "<code>chroot: failed to run command `/bin/bash': Exec format error</code>", it is probably because you are running a 32-bit kernel and trying to execute 64-bit code. SystemRescueCd boots with a 32-bit kernel by default.}}
+
 
 +
Now, for the magic of getting everything in place for booting. You should copy your kernel and initramfs (if you have one -- you will if you are following the default install) to <tt>/boot</tt>. GRUB will boot those. But how do we get UEFI to boot GRUB? Well, we need to run the following command:
  
It's also a good idea to change the default command prompt while inside the chroot. This will avoid confusion if you have to change terminals. Use this command:
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"
+
(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda
 
</console>
 
</console>
 +
This command will simply install all the stuff to <tt>/boot/EFI</tt> and <tt>/boot/grub</tt> that your system needs to boot. In particular, the <tt>/boot/EFI/grub/grubx64.efi</tt> file will be created. This is the GRUB boot image that UEFI will load and start.
 +
 +
A more detailed explanation of the flags used in the above command:
 +
* <code>--target=x86_64-efi</code>: Tells GRUB that we want to install it in a way that allows it to boot in UEFI
 +
* <code>--efi-directory=/boot</code>: All GRUB UEFI files will be installed in ''/boot''
 +
* <code>--bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]"</code>: This flag is not necessary for GRUB to boot. However, it allows you to change the text of the boot option in the UEFI BIOS. The stuff in the quotes can be set to anything that you would like.
 +
* <code>--recheck</code>: If a device map already exists on the disk or partition that GRUB is being installed on, it will be removed.
 +
* <code>/dev/sda</code>:The device that we are installing GRUB on.
 +
 +
===== Configuring GRUB =====
 +
 +
OK, now UEFI has the GRUB image it needs to boot. But we still need to configure GRUB itself so it finds and boots your kernel and initramfs. This is done by performing the following steps. Since boot-update doesn't yet support UEFI, we will use boot-update, but then edit our <code>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</code> to support UEFI booting.
 +
 +
First, you will need to edit <code>/etc/boot.conf</code>. Format this as you would if you were booting without UEFI. If you are not sure how this should look, below is an example of what it could look like if you are booting from an unencrypted ext4 partition:
 +
 +
{{file|name=/etc/boot.conf|desc=|body=
 +
boot {
 +
        generate grub
 +
        default "Funtoo Linux"
 +
        timeout 3
 +
}
 +
 +
"Funtoo Linux" {
 +
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
 +
        params += rootfstype=ext4 root=/dev/sda2
 +
}
 +
}}
 +
 +
After you have edited your <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> file, run <code>boot-update</code>. If you check your <code>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</code> now, you should see something like this:
 +
 +
{{file|name=/boot/grub/grub.cfg|desc=|body=
 +
set timeout=3
 +
 +
  insmod part_gpt
 +
  insmod fat
 +
  set root=(hostdisk//dev/sda,gpt1)
 +
  search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 3CFD-6884
 +
if loadfont /grub/unifont.pf2; then
 +
  set gfxmode=text
 +
  insmod gfxterm
 +
  insmod vbe
 +
  terminal_output gfxterm
 +
fi
 +
 +
set menu_color_normal=cyan/blue
 +
set menu_color_highlight=blue/cyan
 +
 +
menuentry "Funtoo Linux - vmlinuz-3.16.3" {
 +
  insmod part_gpt
 +
  insmod fat
 +
  set root=(hostdisk//dev/sda,gpt1)
 +
  search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 3CFD-6884
 +
  linux /vmlinuz-3.16.3 video=uvesafb:1920x1080-32,mtrr:3,ywrap rootfstype=ext4 root=/dev/sda2
 +
  set gfxpayload=text
 +
}
 +
set default=0
 +
}}
 +
 +
To get your <code>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</code> to support booting with UEFI, make your <code>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</code> look like this:
 +
{{file|name=/boot/grub/grub.cfg|desc=|body=
 +
set timeout=3
 +
 +
  insmod part_gpt
 +
  insmod fat
 +
  insmod efi_gop
 +
  insmod efi_uga
 +
  set root=(hostdisk//dev/sda,gpt1)
 +
  search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 3CFD-6884
 +
if loadfont /grub/unifont.pf2; then
 +
  set gfxmode=auto
 +
  insmod gfxterm
 +
  insmod vbe
 +
  terminal_output gfxterm
 +
fi
 +
 +
set menu_color_normal=cyan/blue
 +
set menu_color_highlight=blue/cyan
 +
 +
menuentry "Funtoo Linux - vmlinuz-3.16.3" {
 +
  insmod part_gpt
 +
  insmod fat
 +
  set root=(hostdisk//dev/sda,gpt1)
 +
  search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 3CFD-6884
 +
  linux /vmlinuz-3.16.3 video=uvesafb:1920x1080-32,mtrr:3,ywrap rootfstype=ext4 root=/dev/sda2
 +
  set gfxpayload=keep
 +
}
 +
set default=0
 +
}}
  
Congratulations! You are now chrooted inside a Funtoo Linux system. Now it's time to get Funtoo Linux properly configured so that Funtoo Linux will boot successfully when your system is restarted.
+
The lines that we have added and altered do the following:
 +
* <code>insmod efi_gop</code> and <code>insmod efi_uga</code>: Both of these involve adding support for the UEFI framebuffer to GRUB.
 +
* <code>set gfxmode=auto</code>: Instead of having the GRUB boot option screen being displayed at the smallest resolution possible, changing this to auto will make it fit the resolution of your display.

Revision as of 23:48, November 19, 2014


Note

This is a template that is used as part of the Installation instructions which covers: boot loader configuration. Templates are being used to allow multiple variant install guides that use most of the same re-usable parts.


Installing a Bootloader

These install instructions show you how to use GRUB to boot using BIOS (old-school) or UEFI (new-school).

Old School (BIOS)

If you're using the BIOS to boot, setting up GRUB, the bootloader, is pretty easy.

To use this recommended boot method, first emerge boot-update. This will also cause grub-2 to be merged, since it is a dependency of boot-update.

(chroot) # emerge boot-update

Then, edit /etc/boot.conf and specify "Funtoo Linux genkernel" as the default setting at the top of the file, replacing "Funtoo Linux".

/etc/boot.conf should now look like this:

boot {
        generate grub
        default "Funtoo Linux genkernel"
        timeout 3 
}

"Funtoo Linux" {
        kernel bzImage[-v]
        # params += nomodeset
}

Please read man boot.conf for further details.

Running grub-install and boot-update

Finally, we will need to actually install the GRUB boot loader to your disk, and also run boot-update which will generate your boot loader configuration file:

(chroot) # grub-install --no-floppy /dev/sda
(chroot) # boot-update

Now you need to update your boot loader configuration file:

(chroot) # boot-update

You only need to run grub-install when you first install Funtoo Linux, but you need to re-run boot-update every time you modify your /etc/boot.conf file, so your changes are applied on next boot.

New School (UEFI)

If you're using UEFI to boot, setting up the boot loader is a bit more complicated for now, but this process will be improving soon. Perform the following steps.

Unmask Grub 2.02_beta2

Unmask the latest version of GRUB by placing this in your /etc/portage/package.unmask:

sys-boot/grub

The 2.00 version of GRUB has known issues with UEFI booting. Using 2.02 is essential for having this boot method work reliably.

Emerging GRUB

You will still use GRUB as a boot loader, but before emerging grub, you will need to enable EFI booting. To do this, add the following line to /etc/make.conf:

GRUB_PLATFORMS="efi-64"

Then, emerge boot-update. You will notice grub and efibootmgr getting pulled in as dependencies. This is expected and good:

# emerge boot-update
Installing GRUB

Now, for the magic of getting everything in place for booting. You should copy your kernel and initramfs (if you have one -- you will if you are following the default install) to /boot. GRUB will boot those. But how do we get UEFI to boot GRUB? Well, we need to run the following command:

(chroot) # grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda

This command will simply install all the stuff to /boot/EFI and /boot/grub that your system needs to boot. In particular, the /boot/EFI/grub/grubx64.efi file will be created. This is the GRUB boot image that UEFI will load and start.

A more detailed explanation of the flags used in the above command:

  • --target=x86_64-efi: Tells GRUB that we want to install it in a way that allows it to boot in UEFI
  • --efi-directory=/boot: All GRUB UEFI files will be installed in /boot
  • --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]": This flag is not necessary for GRUB to boot. However, it allows you to change the text of the boot option in the UEFI BIOS. The stuff in the quotes can be set to anything that you would like.
  • --recheck: If a device map already exists on the disk or partition that GRUB is being installed on, it will be removed.
  • /dev/sda:The device that we are installing GRUB on.
Configuring GRUB

OK, now UEFI has the GRUB image it needs to boot. But we still need to configure GRUB itself so it finds and boots your kernel and initramfs. This is done by performing the following steps. Since boot-update doesn't yet support UEFI, we will use boot-update, but then edit our /boot/grub/grub.cfg to support UEFI booting.

First, you will need to edit /etc/boot.conf. Format this as you would if you were booting without UEFI. If you are not sure how this should look, below is an example of what it could look like if you are booting from an unencrypted ext4 partition:

/etc/boot.conf
boot {
        generate grub
        default "Funtoo Linux"
        timeout 3
}

"Funtoo Linux" {
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
        params += rootfstype=ext4 root=/dev/sda2
}

After you have edited your /etc/boot.conf file, run boot-update. If you check your /boot/grub/grub.cfg now, you should see something like this:

/boot/grub/grub.cfg
set timeout=3

  insmod part_gpt
  insmod fat
  set root=(hostdisk//dev/sda,gpt1)
  search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 3CFD-6884
if loadfont /grub/unifont.pf2; then
   set gfxmode=text
   insmod gfxterm
   insmod vbe
   terminal_output gfxterm
fi

set menu_color_normal=cyan/blue
set menu_color_highlight=blue/cyan

menuentry "Funtoo Linux - vmlinuz-3.16.3" {
  insmod part_gpt
  insmod fat
  set root=(hostdisk//dev/sda,gpt1)
  search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 3CFD-6884
  linux /vmlinuz-3.16.3 video=uvesafb:1920x1080-32,mtrr:3,ywrap rootfstype=ext4 root=/dev/sda2
  set gfxpayload=text
}
set default=0

To get your /boot/grub/grub.cfg to support booting with UEFI, make your /boot/grub/grub.cfg look like this:

/boot/grub/grub.cfg
set timeout=3

  insmod part_gpt
  insmod fat
  insmod efi_gop
  insmod efi_uga
  set root=(hostdisk//dev/sda,gpt1)
  search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 3CFD-6884
if loadfont /grub/unifont.pf2; then
   set gfxmode=auto
   insmod gfxterm
   insmod vbe
   terminal_output gfxterm
fi

set menu_color_normal=cyan/blue
set menu_color_highlight=blue/cyan

menuentry "Funtoo Linux - vmlinuz-3.16.3" {
  insmod part_gpt
  insmod fat
  set root=(hostdisk//dev/sda,gpt1)
  search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 3CFD-6884
  linux /vmlinuz-3.16.3 video=uvesafb:1920x1080-32,mtrr:3,ywrap rootfstype=ext4 root=/dev/sda2
  set gfxpayload=keep
}
set default=0

The lines that we have added and altered do the following:

  • insmod efi_gop and insmod efi_uga: Both of these involve adding support for the UEFI framebuffer to GRUB.
  • set gfxmode=auto: Instead of having the GRUB boot option screen being displayed at the smallest resolution possible, changing this to auto will make it fit the resolution of your display.