Difference between revisions of "System resurrection"

From Funtoo
Jump to: navigation, search
(Fixing broken portage)
 
(9 intermediate revisions by 2 users not shown)
Line 14: Line 14:
 
The binary package creation environment would typically be set up as follows:
 
The binary package creation environment would typically be set up as follows:
  
<pre>
+
<console>
# install -d /mnt/rescue
+
# ##i##install -d /mnt/rescue
# tar xpvf backup.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/rescue
+
# ##i##tar xpvf backup.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/rescue
# cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/rescue/etc
+
# ##i##cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/rescue/etc
# mount --bind /proc /mnt/rescue/proc
+
# ##i##mount --bind /proc /mnt/rescue/proc
# mount --bind /sys /mnt/rescue/sys
+
# ##i##mount --bind /sys /mnt/rescue/sys
# mount --bind /dev /mnt/rescue/dev
+
# ##i##mount --bind /dev /mnt/rescue/dev
# mount --bind /dev/pts /mnt/rescue/dev/pts
+
# ##i##mount --bind /dev/pts /mnt/rescue/dev/pts
# chroot /mnt/rescue
+
# ##i##chroot /mnt/rescue
# source /etc/profile
+
# ##i##source /etc/profile
# env-update
+
# ##i##env-update
</pre>
+
</console>
  
 
No matter of the way you jump in a functional Funtoo/Gentoo environment, the magic command to create a binary package archive once inside is to use the <tt>quickpkg</tt> command. <tt>quickpkg</tt> will capture the package in the exact form it is actually deployed on the environment and create an archive of it placed in <tt>/usr/portage/packages/<package-category>/<package-name>-<package-version>.tbz2</tt>.  
 
No matter of the way you jump in a functional Funtoo/Gentoo environment, the magic command to create a binary package archive once inside is to use the <tt>quickpkg</tt> command. <tt>quickpkg</tt> will capture the package in the exact form it is actually deployed on the environment and create an archive of it placed in <tt>/usr/portage/packages/<package-category>/<package-name>-<package-version>.tbz2</tt>.  
Line 31: Line 31:
 
In the following example capture everything installed within the "source environment" that is related <tt>sys-devel/gcc</tt> (4.4.5 is present on the system) is captured in a single archive named gcc-4.4.5.tbz2 located in <tt>/usr/portage/packages/sys-devel</tt>:
 
In the following example capture everything installed within the "source environment" that is related <tt>sys-devel/gcc</tt> (4.4.5 is present on the system) is captured in a single archive named gcc-4.4.5.tbz2 located in <tt>/usr/portage/packages/sys-devel</tt>:
  
<pre>
+
<console>
# quickpkg sys-devel/gcc
+
# ##i##quickpkg sys-devel/gcc
</pre>
+
</console>
  
 
If you need to recompile a package instead of archiving an already deployed version (and of course without installing it on your "source environment"), just do:
 
If you need to recompile a package instead of archiving an already deployed version (and of course without installing it on your "source environment"), just do:
  
<pre>
+
<console>
# emerge --buildpkgonly sys-devel/gcc
+
# ##i##emerge --buildpkgonly sys-devel/gcc
</pre>
+
</console>
  
 
== Restoring the binary packages on the broken system ==
 
== Restoring the binary packages on the broken system ==
Line 53: Line 53:
 
Once chrooted inside your system, you will be able to merge your packages using <tt>emerge</tt> as follows:
 
Once chrooted inside your system, you will be able to merge your packages using <tt>emerge</tt> as follows:
  
<pre>
+
<console>
# emerge -k  sys-devel/gcc
+
# ##i##emerge -k  sys-devel/gcc
</pre>
+
</console>
  
 
=== Tbz2 Extract Method ===
 
=== Tbz2 Extract Method ===
Line 61: Line 61:
 
This alternate method for installing binary packages is simpler and does not require the use of the <tt>chroot</tt> command. To prepare for using this approach, you just need to mount all key filesystems to <tt>/mnt/broken</tt> as follows -- and bind mounts are not necessary:
 
This alternate method for installing binary packages is simpler and does not require the use of the <tt>chroot</tt> command. To prepare for using this approach, you just need to mount all key filesystems to <tt>/mnt/broken</tt> as follows -- and bind mounts are not necessary:
  
<pre>
+
<console>
# install -d /mnt/broken
+
# ##i##install -d /mnt/broken
# mount /dev/sdaX /mnt/broken
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sdaX /mnt/broken
# mount /dev/sdaY /mnt/broken/usr
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sdaY /mnt/broken/usr
</pre>
+
</console>
  
 
Then, use the following commands to extract the .tbz2 archive to your broken filesystem that you mounted at <tt>/mnt/broken</tt>:
 
Then, use the following commands to extract the .tbz2 archive to your broken filesystem that you mounted at <tt>/mnt/broken</tt>:
  
<pre>
+
<console>
# tar xjpvf gcc-4.4.5.tbz2 -C /mnt/broken
+
# ##i##tar xjpvf gcc-4.4.5.tbz2 -C /mnt/broken
</pre>
+
</console>
  
 
You will see a note about the trailing garbage at the end of the file being ignored. This is normal -- tar is ignoring the Portage .tbz2 metadata that is tacked on to the end of the file.
 
You will see a note about the trailing garbage at the end of the file being ignored. This is normal -- tar is ignoring the Portage .tbz2 metadata that is tacked on to the end of the file.
Line 77: Line 77:
 
At this point, you can set up bind mounts (see <tt>/mnt/rescue</tt> example earlier in this document for those steps), <tt>chroot</tt> inside <tt>/mnt/broken</tt>, and perform a few tests to determine if your issue has been resolved.
 
At this point, you can set up bind mounts (see <tt>/mnt/rescue</tt> example earlier in this document for those steps), <tt>chroot</tt> inside <tt>/mnt/broken</tt>, and perform a few tests to determine if your issue has been resolved.
  
= Fixing broken portage =
+
== Fixing broken portage ==
sometimes <tt>sys-apps/portage</tt> may fail and the above <tt>binpkg</tt> mentioned way to ressurect system will not work because of portage being broken itself. To fix portage manually the following steps required:
+
Sometimes {{Package|sys-apps/portage}} may fail and the above <tt>binpkg</tt> mentioned way to ressurect system will not work because of portage being broken itself. To fix portage manually the following steps required:
 
<console>
 
<console>
# cd /tmp
+
# ##i##cd /tmp
tmp # wget https://www.github.com/funtoo/portage-funtoo/tarball/funtoo-2.3.3-r4
+
# ##i##wget https://www.github.com/funtoo/portage-funtoo/tarball/funtoo-2.3.6-r2
tmp # tar xf funtoo-2.3.3-r4
+
# ##i##tar xf funtoo-2.3.6-r2
tmp # cd funtoo-portage-funtoo-84fe4a7
+
# ##i##cd funtoo-portage-funtoo-e491673
funtoo-portage-funtoo-84fe4a7 # rm -rf /usr/lib/portage/*
+
# ##i##rm -rf /usr/lib/portage/*
funtoo-portage-funtoo-84fe4a7 # cp -a bin pym /usr/lib/portage/
+
# ##i##cp -a bin pym /usr/lib/portage/
funtoo-portage-funtoo-84fe4a7 # ln -s /usr/lib/portage/bin/emerge /usr/bin/emerge
+
# ##i##ln -s /usr/lib/portage/bin/emerge /usr/bin/emerge
 
</console>
 
</console>
 
This will back a working portage again. To ensure everything is consistent re-emerge portage itself immediately.
 
This will back a working portage again. To ensure everything is consistent re-emerge portage itself immediately.
 
<console>
 
<console>
# emerge portage </console>
+
# ##i##emerge portage </console>
 
File collision warning, if any, can be skipped at this point.
 
File collision warning, if any, can be skipped at this point.
 +
 
= Critical System Packages =
 
= Critical System Packages =
  
Line 104: Line 105:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|GNU Binutils
 
|GNU Binutils
|sys-devel/binutils
+
|{{Package|sys-devel/binutils}}
 
|Binutils are a set a tools (linker, assembler...) used behind the scene by the GNU Compiler Collection to produce executable files.
 
|Binutils are a set a tools (linker, assembler...) used behind the scene by the GNU Compiler Collection to produce executable files.
 
|-
 
|-
 
|GNU Compiler collection (GCC)
 
|GNU Compiler collection (GCC)
|sys-devel/gcc
+
|{{Package|sys-devel/gcc}}
 
|GCC is a collection of compilers for several languages (FORTRAN, Java, C and C++, plus some libraries like the Standard Template Library or ''STL''). A wide spectrum of software in a Funtoo system is written in C/C++.
 
|GCC is a collection of compilers for several languages (FORTRAN, Java, C and C++, plus some libraries like the Standard Template Library or ''STL''). A wide spectrum of software in a Funtoo system is written in C/C++.
 
|-
 
|-
 
|C Library
 
|C Library
|sys-libs/glibc
+
|{{Package|sys-libs/glibc}}
 
|The C library contains an implementation of a wide range of commonly needed functionalities like memory allocation, strings manipulation, I/O operations and so on. It is maybe one of the most critical system components as nearly everything on a Funtoo system depends on this component (including the Python interpreter which executes the vairous Python scripts at the heart of the Funtoo core utilities and package management system).
 
|The C library contains an implementation of a wide range of commonly needed functionalities like memory allocation, strings manipulation, I/O operations and so on. It is maybe one of the most critical system components as nearly everything on a Funtoo system depends on this component (including the Python interpreter which executes the vairous Python scripts at the heart of the Funtoo core utilities and package management system).
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Z library  
 
|Z library  
|sys-libs/zlib
+
|{{Package|sys-libs/zlib}}
 
|This library contain several lossless compression/decompression routines.It is used by many other components on a Funtoo system like the bzip2/bunzip2 commands (app-arch/bzip2) for example (xz archive utilities depends on another standalone set of libraries).  
 
|This library contain several lossless compression/decompression routines.It is used by many other components on a Funtoo system like the bzip2/bunzip2 commands (app-arch/bzip2) for example (xz archive utilities depends on another standalone set of libraries).  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|Python  
 
|Python  
|dev-lang/python
+
|{{Package|dev-lang/python}}
 
|The Python interpreter is the heart of Portage as is written in Python (the same is also true for various second line utilities).
 
|The Python interpreter is the heart of Portage as is written in Python (the same is also true for various second line utilities).
 
|}
 
|}

Latest revision as of 06:57, 1 February 2014

Although it is always possible to resurrect a machine back to life by reinstalling it, it is not always suitable to reinstall from scratch. Sometimes the best approach is to try to repair, or "resurrect," a broken system so that is it fully functional again. This document will show you how to resurrect a broken Funtoo system without reinstalling everything from scratch.

Building binary packages

The best approach for critical system repair is to boot on a SystemRescueCD or other similar LiveCD, and use this as working platform to resurrect your system.

For creating binary packages, you can use any of the following for a source environment:

  • Use the most recent Funtoo stage3 for your architecture
  • If available, use a recent system backup (tar or cpio archive) or snapshot

On a working Linux system, which can be either your broken system booted with a LiveCD, or any type of Linux system on your network with similar processor, you will want to build a chroot environment using the "source environment" you selected above, and use this as a platform for building binary packages to restore your system. Once these packages are created, they can be copied to your broken system and installed using the steps later in this document.

The binary package creation environment would typically be set up as follows:

# install -d /mnt/rescue
# tar xpvf backup.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/rescue
# cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/rescue/etc
# mount --bind /proc /mnt/rescue/proc
# mount --bind /sys /mnt/rescue/sys
# mount --bind /dev /mnt/rescue/dev
# mount --bind /dev/pts /mnt/rescue/dev/pts
# chroot /mnt/rescue
# source /etc/profile
# env-update

No matter of the way you jump in a functional Funtoo/Gentoo environment, the magic command to create a binary package archive once inside is to use the quickpkg command. quickpkg will capture the package in the exact form it is actually deployed on the environment and create an archive of it placed in /usr/portage/packages/<package-category>/<package-name>-<package-version>.tbz2.

In the following example capture everything installed within the "source environment" that is related sys-devel/gcc (4.4.5 is present on the system) is captured in a single archive named gcc-4.4.5.tbz2 located in /usr/portage/packages/sys-devel:

# quickpkg sys-devel/gcc

If you need to recompile a package instead of archiving an already deployed version (and of course without installing it on your "source environment"), just do:

# emerge --buildpkgonly sys-devel/gcc

Restoring the binary packages on the broken system

There are a couple of methods that can be used to restore binary packages to a broken system.

Chroot/Emerge Method

This first approach can be used for lightly damaged systems that still have a functional Portage and to which you can still chroot and perform all basic Linux commands. To use this method, you would mount your broken system to /mnt/broken using steps similar to the way we set up /mnt/rescue, above.

Before or after chrooting, copy the binary packages created in the step above in the exact same location on your broken system (e.g. in /usr/portage/packages/sys-devel in the case of sys-devel/gcc).

Once chrooted inside your system, you will be able to merge your packages using emerge as follows:

# emerge -k  sys-devel/gcc

Tbz2 Extract Method

This alternate method for installing binary packages is simpler and does not require the use of the chroot command. To prepare for using this approach, you just need to mount all key filesystems to /mnt/broken as follows -- and bind mounts are not necessary:

# install -d /mnt/broken
# mount /dev/sdaX /mnt/broken
# mount /dev/sdaY /mnt/broken/usr

Then, use the following commands to extract the .tbz2 archive to your broken filesystem that you mounted at /mnt/broken:

# tar xjpvf gcc-4.4.5.tbz2 -C /mnt/broken

You will see a note about the trailing garbage at the end of the file being ignored. This is normal -- tar is ignoring the Portage .tbz2 metadata that is tacked on to the end of the file.

At this point, you can set up bind mounts (see /mnt/rescue example earlier in this document for those steps), chroot inside /mnt/broken, and perform a few tests to determine if your issue has been resolved.

Fixing broken portage

Sometimes sys-apps/portage may fail and the above binpkg mentioned way to ressurect system will not work because of portage being broken itself. To fix portage manually the following steps required:

# cd /tmp
# wget https://www.github.com/funtoo/portage-funtoo/tarball/funtoo-2.3.6-r2
# tar xf funtoo-2.3.6-r2
# cd funtoo-portage-funtoo-e491673
# rm -rf /usr/lib/portage/*
# cp -a bin pym /usr/lib/portage/
# ln -s /usr/lib/portage/bin/emerge /usr/bin/emerge

This will back a working portage again. To ensure everything is consistent re-emerge portage itself immediately.

# emerge portage 

File collision warning, if any, can be skipped at this point.

Critical System Packages

Several packages at the heart of your Funtoo system, these mainly are:

Component Package Functional role
GNU Binutils sys-devel/binutils Binutils are a set a tools (linker, assembler...) used behind the scene by the GNU Compiler Collection to produce executable files.
GNU Compiler collection (GCC) sys-devel/gcc GCC is a collection of compilers for several languages (FORTRAN, Java, C and C++, plus some libraries like the Standard Template Library or STL). A wide spectrum of software in a Funtoo system is written in C/C++.
C Library sys-libs/glibc The C library contains an implementation of a wide range of commonly needed functionalities like memory allocation, strings manipulation, I/O operations and so on. It is maybe one of the most critical system components as nearly everything on a Funtoo system depends on this component (including the Python interpreter which executes the vairous Python scripts at the heart of the Funtoo core utilities and package management system).
Z library sys-libs/zlib This library contain several lossless compression/decompression routines.It is used by many other components on a Funtoo system like the bzip2/bunzip2 commands (app-arch/bzip2) for example (xz archive utilities depends on another standalone set of libraries).
Python dev-lang/python The Python interpreter is the heart of Portage as is written in Python (the same is also true for various second line utilities).

Various weird issues

P1: I have a local distfiles mirror and wget complains about not being able to resolve 'localhost'.
S1: libnss (which handles name resolution) is probably damaged or suffers of inconsistencies, in your /etc/make.conf, change 'localhost' in GENTOO_MIRRORS for 127.0.0.1 (IPv4) or ::1 (IPv6)

P2: Same problem as described in P1 but I use another machine on my network or a public mirror on the Internet
S2: See the solution given in S1 but with providing the IP of the machine you are downloading for.