Difference between pages "ZFS Install Guide" and "Install/fr"

(Difference between pages)
(Create your swap zvol)
 
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== Introduction ==
+
<includeonly>
 +
Le guide d'installation utilise maintenant un ensemble de modules. Chaque module constitue une section du guide d'installation.
  
This tutorial will show you how to install Funtoo on ZFS (rootfs). This tutorial is meant to be an "overlay" over the [[Funtoo_Linux_Installation|Regular Funtoo Installation]]. Follow the normal installation and only use this guide for steps 2, 3, and 8.
+
Quand vous cliquez sur l'un des boutons 'Edit' en consultant le guide d'installation, MediaWiki affichera pour édition la section concernée.
  
=== Introduction to ZFS ===
+
Vous pouvez également voir le contenu du guide d'installation et l'éditer en allant à :
  
Since ZFS is a new technology for Linux, it can be helpful to understand some of its benefits, particularly in comparison to BTRFS, another popular next-generation Linux filesystem:
+
http://www.funtoo.org/Install/fr/partname.
  
* On Linux, the ZFS code can be updated independently of the kernel to obtain the latest fixes. btrfs is exclusive to Linux and you need to build the latest kernel sources to get the latest fixes.
+
Veuillez noter que ce texte est inséré entre les balises includeonly afin qu'il soit visible qu'au moment où la page est éditée.
 
+
</includeonly>
* ZFS is supported on multiple platforms. The platforms with the best support are Solaris, FreeBSD and Linux. Other platforms with varying degrees of support are NetBSD, Mac OS X and Windows. btrfs is exclusive to Linux.
+
{{:Install/Header}}
 
+
{{:Install/Intro}}
* ZFS has the Adaptive Replacement Cache replacement algorithm while btrfs uses the Linux kernel's Last Recently Used replacement algorithm. The former often has an overwhelmingly superior hit rate, which means fewer disk accesses.
+
{{:Install/Overview}}
 
+
{{:Install/Partitioning}}
* ZFS has the ZFS Intent Log and SLOG devices, which accelerates small synchronous write performance.
+
{{:Install/Stage3}}
 
+
{{:Install/Chroot}}
* ZFS handles internal fragmentation gracefully, such that you can fill it until 100%. Internal fragmentation in btrfs can make btrfs think it is full at 10%. Btrfs has no automatic rebalancing code, so it requires a manual rebalance to correct it.
+
{{:Install/PortageTree}}
 
+
{{:Install/Configuring}}
* ZFS has raidz, which is like RAID 5/6 (or a hypothetical RAID 7 that supports 3 parity disks), except it does not suffer from the RAID write hole issue thanks to its use of CoW and a variable stripe size. btrfs gained integrated RAID 5/6 functionality in Linux 3.9. However, its implementation uses a stripe cache that can only partially mitigate the effect of the RAID write hole.
+
{{:Install/Portage}}
 
+
{{:Install/Kernel}}
* ZFS send/receive implementation supports incremental update when doing backups. btrfs' send/receive implementation requires sending the entire snapshot.
+
{{:Install/BootLoader}}
 
+
{{:Install/Network}}
* ZFS supports data deduplication, which is a memory hog and only works well for specialized workloads. btrfs has no equivalent.
+
{{:Install/Finish}}
 
+
{{:Install/Profiles}}
* ZFS datasets have a hierarchical namespace while btrfs subvolumes have a flat namespace.
+
{{:Install/NextSteps}}
 
+
{{:Install/Footer}}
* ZFS has the ability to create virtual block devices called zvols in its namespace. btrfs has no equivalent and must rely on the loop device for this functionality, which is cumbersome.
+
 
+
The only area where btrfs is ahead of ZFS is in the area of small file
+
efficiency. btrfs supports a feature called block suballocation, which
+
enables it to store small files far more efficiently than ZFS. It is
+
possible to use another filesystem (e.g. reiserfs) on top of a ZFS zvol
+
to obtain similar benefits (with arguably better data integrity) when
+
dealing with many small files (e.g. the portage tree).
+
 
+
For a quick tour of ZFS and have a big picture of its common operations you can consult the page [[ZFS Fun]].
+
 
+
=== Disclaimers ===
+
 
+
{{fancywarning|This guide is a work in progress. Expect some quirks.}}
+
{{fancyimportant|'''Since ZFS was really designed for 64 bit systems, we are only recommending and supporting 64 bit platforms and installations. We will not be supporting 32 bit platforms'''!}}
+
== Downloading the ISO (With ZFS) ==
+
In order for us to install Funtoo on ZFS, you will need an environment that already provides the ZFS tools. Therefore we will download a customized version of System Rescue CD with ZFS included.
+
 
+
<pre>
+
Name: sysresccd-4.2.0_zfs_0.6.2.iso  (545 MB)
+
Release Date: 2014-02-25
+
md5sum 01f4e6929247d54db77ab7be4d156d85
+
</pre>
+
 
+
 
+
'''[http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/funtoo/distfiles/sysresccd/ Download System Rescue CD with ZFS]'''<br />
+
 
+
== Creating a bootable USB from ISO (From a Linux Environment) ==
+
After you download the iso, you can do the following steps to create a bootable USB:
+
 
+
<console>
+
Make a temporary directory
+
# ##i##mkdir /tmp/loop
+
 
+
Mount the iso
+
# ##i##mount -o ro,loop /root/sysresccd-4.2.0_zfs_0.6.2.iso /tmp/loop
+
 
+
Run the usb installer
+
# ##i##/tmp/loop/usb_inst.sh
+
</console>
+
 
+
That should be all you need to do to get your flash drive working.
+
 
+
== Booting the ISO ==
+
 
+
{{fancywarning|'''When booting into the ISO, Make sure that you select the "Alternate 64 bit kernel (altker64)". The ZFS modules have been built specifically for this kernel rather than the standard kernel. If you select a different kernel, you will get a fail to load module stack error message.'''}}
+
 
+
== Creating partitions ==
+
There are two ways to partition your disk: You can use your entire drive and let ZFS automatically partition it for you, or you can do it manually.
+
 
+
We will be showing you how to partition it '''manually''' because if you partition it manually you get to create your own layout, you get to have your own separate /boot partition (Which is nice since not every bootloader supports booting from ZFS pools), and you get to boot into RAID10, RAID5 (RAIDZ) pools and any other layouts due to you having a separate /boot partition.
+
 
+
==== gdisk (GPT Style) ====
+
 
+
'''A Fresh Start''':
+
 
+
First lets make sure that the disk is completely wiped from any previous disk labels and partitions.
+
We will also assume that <tt>/dev/sda</tt> is the target drive.<br />
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##sgdisk -Z /dev/sda
+
</console>
+
 
+
{{fancywarning|This is a destructive operation and the program will not ask you for confirmation! Make sure you really don't want anything on this disk.}}
+
 
+
Now that we have a clean drive, we will create the new layout.
+
 
+
First open up the application:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##gdisk /dev/sda
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
+
<console>
+
Command: ##i##n ↵
+
Partition Number: ##i##↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+250M ↵
+
Hex Code: ##i##↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Create Partition 2''' (BIOS Boot Partition):
+
<console>Command: ##i##n ↵
+
Partition Number: ##i##↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+32M ↵
+
Hex Code: ##i##EF02 ↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Create Partition 3''' (ZFS):
+
<console>Command: ##i##n ↵
+
Partition Number: ##i##↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##↵
+
Hex Code: ##i##bf00 ↵
+
 
+
Command: ##i##p ↵
+
 
+
Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size      Code  Name
+
  1            2048          514047  250.0 MiB  8300  Linux filesystem
+
  2          514048          579583  32.0 MiB    EF02  BIOS boot partition
+
  3          579584      1953525134  931.2 GiB  BF00  Solaris root
+
 
+
Command: ##i##w ↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
 
+
=== Format your /boot partition ===
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 -m 1 /dev/sda1
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== Create the zpool ===
+
We will first create the pool. The pool will be named `tank` and the disk will be aligned to 4096 (using ashift=12)
+
<console># ##i##zpool create -f -o ashift=12 -o cachefile= -O compression=on -m none -R /mnt/funtoo tank /dev/sda3</console>
+
 
+
=== Create the zfs datasets ===
+
We will now create some datasets. For this installation, we will create a small but future proof amount of datasets. We will have a dataset for the OS (/), and your swap. We will also show you how to create some optional datasets: <tt>/home</tt>, <tt>/var</tt>, <tt>/usr/src</tt>, and <tt>/usr/portage</tt>.
+
 
+
<console>
+
Create some empty containers for organization purposes, and make the dataset that will hold /
+
# ##i##zfs create -p tank/funtoo
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/ tank/funtoo/root
+
 
+
Optional, but recommended datasets: /home
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/home tank/funtoo/home
+
 
+
Optional datasets: /usr/src, /usr/portage/{distfiles,packages}
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/src tank/funtoo/src
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage -o compression=off tank/funtoo/portage
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/distfiles tank/funtoo/portage/distfiles
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/packages tank/funtoo/portage/packages
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== Create your swap zvol ===
+
For modern machines that have greater than 4 GB of RAM, A swap size of 2G should be enough. However if your machine doesn't have a lot of RAM, the rule of thumb is either 2x the RAM or RAM + 1 GB.
+
 
+
For this tutorial we will assume that it is a newer machine and make a 2 GB swap.
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##zfs create -o sync=always -o primarycache=metadata -o secondarycache=none -o volblocksize=4K -V 2G tank/swap
+
</console>
+
{{fancywarning|ZFS swap is not stable and should be used with precautions.}
+
 
+
=== Format your swap zvol ===
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkswap -f /dev/zvol/tank/swap
+
# ##i##swapon /dev/zvol/tank/swap
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now we will continue to install funtoo.
+
 
+
== Installing Funtoo ==
+
 
+
=== Pre-Chroot ===
+
 
+
<console>
+
Go into the directory that you will chroot into
+
# ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
+
 
+
Make a boot folder and mount your boot drive
+
# ##i##mkdir boot
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 boot
+
</console>
+
 
+
[[Funtoo_Linux_Installation|Now download and extract the Funtoo stage3 ...]]
+
 
+
Once you've extracted the stage3, do a few more preparations and chroot into your new funtoo environment:
+
 
+
<console>
+
Bind the kernel related directories
+
# ##i##mount -t proc none proc
+
# ##i##mount --rbind /dev dev
+
# ##i##mount --rbind /sys sys
+
 
+
Copy network settings
+
# ##i##cp -f /etc/resolv.conf etc
+
 
+
Make the zfs folder in 'etc' and copy your zpool.cache
+
# ##i##mkdir etc/zfs
+
# ##i##cp /etc/zfs/zpool.cache etc/zfs
+
 
+
Chroot into Funtoo
+
# ##i##env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== In Chroot ===
+
 
+
<console>
+
Create a symbolic link to your mountpoints
+
# ##i##ln -sf /proc/mounts /etc/mtab
+
 
+
Sync your tree
+
# ##i##emerge --sync
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== Add filesystems to /etc/fstab ===
+
 
+
Before we continue to compile and or install our kernel in the next step, we will edit the <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> file because if we decide to install our kernel through portage, portage will need to know where our <tt>/boot</tt> is, so that it can place the files in there.
+
 
+
Edit <tt>/etc/fstab</tt>:
+
 
+
<pre>
+
# <fs>                  <mountpoint>    <type>          <opts>          <dump/pass>
+
 
+
/dev/sda1              /boot          ext2            defaults        0 2
+
/dev/zvol/tank/swap    none            swap            sw              0 0
+
</pre>
+
 
+
== Kernel Configuration ==
+
To speed up this step, you can install a pre-configured/compiled kernel called '''bliss-kernel'''. This kernel already has the correct configurations for ZFS and a variety of other scenarios. It's a vanilla kernel from kernel.org without any external patches.
+
 
+
To install {{Package|sys-kernel/bliss-kernel}} type the following:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##emerge bliss-kernel
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now make sure that your <tt>/usr/src/linux symlink</tt> is pointing to this kernel by typing the following:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##eselect kernel list
+
Available kernel symlink targets:
+
[1]  linux-3.12.13-KS.02 *
+
</console>
+
 
+
You should see a star next to the version you installed. In this case it was 3.12.13-KS.02. If it's not set, you can type '''eselect kernel set #'''.
+
 
+
== Installing the ZFS userspace tools and kernel modules ==
+
Emerge {{Package|sys-fs/zfs}}. This package will bring in {{Package|sys-kernel/spl}}, and {{Package|sys-fs/zfs-kmod}} as its dependencies:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##emerge zfs
+
</console>
+
 
+
Check to make sure that the zfs tools are working. The <code>zpool.cache</code> file that you copied before should be displayed.
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##zpool status
+
# ##i##zfs list
+
</console>
+
 
+
If everything worked, continue.
+
 
+
== Create the initramfs ==
+
There are two ways to do this, you can use "genkernel" or "bliss-initramfs". Both will be shown.
+
 
+
=== genkernel ===
+
Install genkernel and run it:
+
<console>
+
# ##i##emerge genkernel
+
 
+
You only need to add --luks if you used encryption
+
# ##i##genkernel --zfs --luks initramfs
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== Bliss Initramfs Creator ===
+
If you are encrypting your drives, then add the "luks" use flag to your package.use before emerging:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##echo "sys-kernel/bliss-initramfs luks" >> /etc/portage/package.use
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now install the program and run it:
+
<console>
+
# ##i##emerge bliss-initramfs
+
 
+
You can either run it without any parameters to get an interactive menu
+
or you can pass the parameters directly. 1 = zfs, 6 = encrypted zfs, and the kernel name.
+
# ##i##bliss-initramfs 1 3.12.13-KS.02
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== Moving into the correct location ===
+
Place the file that was generated by the above applications into either your /boot folder (If you are using boot-update) or into your /boot/kernels/3.12.13-KS.02 folder (If you are using bliss-boot). For bliss-boot, the file needs to be called 'initrd' rather than 'initrd-3.12.13-KS.02'.
+
 
+
==== boot-update ====
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mv initrd-3.12.13-KS.02 /boot
+
</console>
+
 
+
==== bliss-boot ====
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mv initrd-3.12.13-KS.02 /boot/kernels/3.12.13-KS.02/initrd
+
</console>
+
 
+
== Installing & Configuring the Bootloader ==
+
 
+
=== GRUB 2 (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
+
<console>
+
# ##i##emerge grub
+
</console>
+
 
+
You can check that grub is version 2.00 by typing the following command:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##grub-install --version
+
grub-install (GRUB) 2.00
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now install grub to the drive itself (not a partition):
+
<console>
+
# ##i##grub-install /dev/sda
+
</console>
+
 
+
You should receive the following message:
+
 
+
<console>
+
Installation finished. No error reported.
+
</console>
+
 
+
You should now see some a grub directory with some files inside your /boot folder:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##ls -l /boot/grub
+
total 2520
+
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    1024 Jan  4 16:09 grubenv
+
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    8192 Jan 12 14:29 i386-pc
+
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    4096 Jan 12 14:28 locale
+
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2555597 Feb  4 11:50 unifont.pf2
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== Extlinux (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
+
To install extlinux, you can follow the guide here: [[Extlinux|Link to Extlinux Guide]].
+
 
+
=== LILO (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
+
To install lilo you can type the following:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##emerge lilo
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== boot-update ===
+
boot-update comes as a dependency of grub2, so if you already installed grub, it's already on your system!
+
 
+
==== Genkernel ====
+
If your using genkernel you must add 'real_root=ZFS=<root>' and 'dozfs' to your params.
+
Example entry for <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt>:
+
 
+
<pre>
+
"Funtoo ZFS" {
+
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
+
        initrd initramfs-genkernel-x86_64[-v]
+
        params real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root
+
        params += dozfs=force
+
        # Also add 'params += crypt_root=/dev/sda3' if you used encryption
+
        # Adjust the above setting to your system if needed
+
 
+
        # You should also add 'root=none' to your params (not 'params +=') if you plan to use it along with boot-update
+
        # If root variable will not be set, boot-update will fail to generate boot.conf
+
        # This is right for <=sys-boot/boot-update-1.6.11 on 16.08.2014 date
+
}
+
</pre>
+
 
+
==== Bliss Initramfs Creator ====
+
If you used Bliss Initramfs Creator then all you need to do is add 'root=<root>' to your params.
+
Example entry for <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt>:
+
 
+
<pre>
+
"Funtoo ZFS" {
+
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
+
        initrd initrd[-v]
+
        params root=tank/funtoo/root quiet
+
        # If you have an encrypted device with a regular passphrase,
+
        # you can add the following line
+
        params += enc_root=/dev/sda3 enc_type=pass
+
}
+
</pre>
+
 
+
After editing /etc/boot.conf, you just need to run boot-update to update grub.cfg
+
 
+
<console>
+
###i## boot-update
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== bliss-boot ===
+
This is a new program that is designed to generate a simple, human-readable/editable, configuration file for a variety of bootloaders. It currently supports grub2, extlinux, and lilo.
+
 
+
You can install it via the following command:
+
<console>
+
# ##i##emerge bliss-boot
+
</console>
+
 
+
==== Bootloader Configuration ====
+
In order to generate our bootloader configuration file, we will first configure bliss-boot so that it knows what we want. The 'bliss-boot' configuration file is located in '''/etc/bliss-boot/conf.py'''. Open that file and make sure that the following variables are set appropriately:
+
 
+
<pre>
+
# This should be set to the bootloader you installed earlier: (grub2, extlinux, and lilo are the available options)
+
bootloader = "grub2"
+
 
+
# This should be set to the kernel you installed earlier
+
default = "3.12.13-KS.02"
+
</pre>
+
 
+
Scroll all the way down until you find 'kernels'. You will need to add the kernels and the options
+
you want for these kernels here. Below are a few configuration options depending if you are using
+
'''bliss-initramfs''' or '''genkernel'''.
+
 
+
===== Genkernel =====
+
 
+
<pre>
+
kernel = {
+
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root dozfs=force quiet',
+
}
+
</pre>
+
 
+
'''If you are using encryption you can add the crypt_root option:'''
+
 
+
<pre>
+
kernel = {
+
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root dozfs=force crypt_root=/dev/sda3 quiet',
+
}
+
</pre>
+
 
+
===== Bliss Initramfs Creator =====
+
<pre>
+
kernel = {
+
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'root=tank/funtoo/root quiet',
+
}
+
</pre>
+
 
+
'''If you are using encryption then you would let the initramfs know:'''
+
 
+
#"What type of encryption authentication you want to use? ('''enc_type=''')
+
::* pass = will ask for passphrase directly
+
::* key = a plain unencrypted key file
+
::* key_gpg = an encrypted key file
+
#"Where is the encrypted drive?" ('''enc_root=''')
+
#"Where is the root pool after it has been decrypted?" ('''root=''')
+
 
+
<pre>
+
kernel = {
+
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'root=tank/funtoo/root enc_root=/dev/sda3 enc_type=pass quiet',
+
}
+
</pre>
+
 
+
==== Generate the configuration ====
+
Now that we have configure our '''/etc/bliss-boot/conf.py''' file, we can generate our config. Simply run the following command:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##bliss-boot
+
</console>
+
 
+
This will generate a configuration file for the bootloader you specified previously in your current directory. You can check your config file before hand to make sure it doesn't have any errors. Simply open either: grub.cfg, extlinux.conf, or lilo.conf.
+
 
+
Once you have checked it for errors, place this file in the correct directory:
+
 
+
* grub2 = /boot/grub/
+
* extlinux = /boot/extlinux/
+
* lilo = /etc/lilo.conf
+
 
+
=== LILO (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
+
Now that bliss-boot generated the lilo.conf file, move that config file to its appropriate location
+
and install lilo to the MBR:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mv lilo.conf /etc
+
# ##i##lilo
+
 
+
You should see the following:
+
 
+
Warning: LBA32 addressing assumed
+
Added Funtoo + *
+
One warning was issued
+
</console>
+
 
+
== Final configuration ==
+
=== Add the zfs tools to openrc ===
+
<console># ##i##rc-update add zfs boot</console>
+
 
+
=== Clean up and reboot ===
+
We are almost done, we are just going to clean up, '''set our root password''', and unmount whatever we mounted and get out.
+
 
+
<console>
+
Delete the stage3 tarball that you downloaded earlier so it doesn't take up space.
+
# ##i##cd /
+
# ##i##rm stage3-latest.tar.xz
+
 
+
Set your root password
+
# ##i##passwd
+
>> Enter your password, you won't see what you are writing (for security reasons), but it is there!
+
 
+
Get out of the chroot environment
+
# ##i##exit
+
 
+
Unmount all the kernel filesystem stuff and boot (if you have a separate /boot)
+
# ##i##umount -l proc dev sys boot
+
 
+
Turn off the swap
+
# ##i##swapoff /dev/zvol/tank/swap
+
 
+
Export the zpool
+
# ##i##cd /
+
# ##i##zpool export tank
+
 
+
Reboot
+
# ##i##reboot
+
</console>
+
 
+
{{fancyimportant|'''Don't forget to set your root password as stated above before exiting chroot and rebooting. If you don't set the root password, you won't be able to log into your new system.'''}}
+
 
+
and that should be enough to get your system to boot on ZFS.
+
 
+
== After reboot ==
+
 
+
=== Forgot to reset password? ===
+
==== System Rescue CD ====
+
If you aren't using bliss-initramfs, then you can reboot back into your sysresccd and reset through there by mounting your drive, chrooting, and then typing passwd.
+
 
+
Example:
+
<console>
+
# ##i##zpool import -f -R /mnt/funtoo tank
+
# ##i##chroot /mnt/funtoo bash -l
+
# ##i##passwd
+
# ##i##exit
+
# ##i##zpool export -f tank
+
# ##i##reboot
+
</console>
+
 
+
==== Using bliss-initramfs ====
+
If you forgot to reset your password and are using '''bliss-initramfs''', you can add the '''su''' option to your bootloader parameters and the initramfs will throw you into the rootfs of your drive. In there you can run 'passwd' and then type 'exit'. Once you type 'exit', the initramfs will continue to boot your system as normal.
+
 
+
=== Create initial ZFS Snapshot ===
+
Continue to set up anything you need in terms of /etc configurations. Once you have everything the way you like it, take a snapshot of your system. You will be using this snapshot to revert back to this state if anything ever happens to your system down the road. The snapshots are cheap, and almost instant.
+
 
+
To take the snapshot of your system, type the following:
+
<console># ##i##zfs snapshot -r tank@install</console>
+
 
+
To see if your snapshot was taken, type:
+
<console># ##i##zfs list -t snapshot</console>
+
 
+
If your machine ever fails and you need to get back to this state, just type (This will only revert your / dataset while keeping the rest of your data intact):
+
<console># ##i##zfs rollback tank/funtoo/root@install</console>
+
 
+
{{fancyimportant|'''For a detailed overview, presentation of ZFS' capabilities, as well as usage examples, please refer to the [[ZFS_Fun|ZFS Fun]] page.'''}}
+
 
+
== Troubleshooting ==
+
 
+
=== Starting from scratch ===
+
If your installation has gotten screwed up for whatever reason and you need a fresh restart, you can do the following from sysresccd to start fresh:
+
 
+
<console>
+
Destroy the pool and any snapshots and datasets it has
+
# ##i##zpool destroy -R -f tank
+
 
+
This deletes the files from /dev/sda1 so that even after we zap, recreating the drive in the exact sector
+
position and size will not give us access to the old files in this partition.
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
+
# ##i##sgdisk -Z /dev/sda
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now start the guide again :).
+
 
+
[[Category:HOWTO]]
+
[[Category:Filesystems]]
+
[[Category:Featured]]
+
[[Category:Install]]
+
 
+
__NOTITLE__
+

Revision as of 15:21, December 20, 2014

Funtoo Linux Download/Install

Introduction

This document was written to help you install Funtoo Linux on PC-compatible systems, while keeping distracting options regarding system configuration to a minimum.

If you've had previous experience installing Gentoo Linux then a lot of steps will be familiar, but you should still read through as there are a few differences.

Note

If you are installing Funtoo Linux on ARM architecture, please see Funtoo Linux Installation on ARM for notable differences regarding ARM support.

Installation Overview

This is a basic overview of the Funtoo installation process:

  1. Download and boot the live CD of your choice.
  2. Prepare your disk.
  3. Create and mount filesystems.
  4. Install the Funtoo stage tarball of your choice.
  5. Chroot into your new system.
  6. Download the Portage tree.
  7. Configure your system and network.
  8. Install a kernel.
  9. Install a bootloader.
  10. Complete final steps.
  11. Reboot and enjoy.

Live CD

Funtoo doesn't provide an "official" Funtoo Live CD. We recommend using the Gentoo-based System Rescue CD as it contains lots of tools and utilities and supports both 32-bit and 64-bit systems. Download it here:

http://www.sysresccd.org/Download

Note

If using an older version of System Rescue CD, be sure to select the rescue64 kernel at the boot menu if you are installing a 64-bit system. By default, System Rescue CD used to boot in 32-bit mode though the latest version attempts to automatically detect 64-bit processors.

Prepare Hard Disk

Introduction

In earlier times, there was only one way to boot a PC-compatible computer. All of our desktops and servers had a standard BIOS, all our hard drives used Master Boot Records, and were partitioned using the MBR partition scheme. And we liked it that way!

Then, along came EFI and UEFI, which are new-style firmware designed to boot systems, along with GPT partition tables to support disks larger than 2.2TB. All of the sudden, we had a variety of options to boot Linux systems, turning what once was a one-method-fits-all approach into something a lot more complex.

Let's take a moment to review the boot options available to you. This Install Guide uses, and recommends, the old-school method of BIOS booting and using an MBR. It works. There's nothing wrong with it. If your system disk is 2TB or smaller in size, it won't prevent you from using all of your disk's capacity, either.

But, there are some situations where the old-school method isn't optimal. If you have a system disk >2TB in size, then MBR partitions won't allow you to access all your storage. So that's one reason. Another reason is that there are some so-called "PC" systems out there that don't support BIOS booting anymore, and force you to use UEFI to boot. So, out of compassion for people who fall into this predicament, this Install Guide documents UEFI booting too.

Our recommendation is still to go old-school unless you have reason not to. We call this method the BIOS + GRUB (MBR) method. It's the traditional method of setting up a PC-compatible system to boot Linux.

If you need to use UEFI to boot, we recommend not using the MBR at all for booting, as some systems support this, but others don't. Instead, we recommend using UEFI to boot GRUB, which in turn will load Linux. We refer to this method as the UEFI + GRUB (GPT) method.

And yes, there are even more methods, some of which are documented on the Boot Methods page. We used to recommend a BIOS + GRUB (GPT) method but it is not consistently supported across a wide variety of hardware.

The big question is -- which boot method should you use? Here's how to tell.

Principle 1 - Old School
If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial light blue menu, you are booting the CD using the BIOS, and it's likely that you can thus boot Funtoo Linux using the BIOS. So, go old-school and use BIOS booting, unless you have some reason to use UEFI, such as having a >2.2TB system disk. In that case, see Principle 2, as your system may also support UEFI booting.
Principle 2 - New School
If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial black and white menu -- congratulations, your system is configured to support UEFI booting. This means that you are ready to install Funtoo Linux to boot via UEFI. Your system may still support BIOS booting, but just be trying UEFI first. You can poke around in your BIOS boot configuration and play with this.
What's the Big Difference between Old School and New School?
Here's the deal. If you go with old-school MBR partitions, your /boot partition will be an ext2 filesystem, and you'll use fdisk to create your MBR partitions. If you go with new-school GPT partitions and UEFI booting, your /boot partition will be a vfat filesystem, because this is what UEFI is able to read, and you will use gdisk to create your GPT partitions. And you'll install GRUB a bit differently. That's about all it comes down to, in case you were curious.

Note

Some motherboards may appear to support UEFI, but don't. Do your research. For example, the Award BIOS in my Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD7 rev 1.1 has an option to enable UEFI boot for CD/DVD. This is not sufficient for enabling UEFI boot for hard drives and installing Funtoo Linux. UEFI must be supported for both removable media (so you can boot System Rescue CD using UEFI) as well as fixed media (so you can boot your new Funtoo Linux installation.) It turns out that later revisions of this board (rev 3.0) have a new BIOS that fully supports UEFI boot. This may point to a third principle -- know thy hardware.

Old-School (BIOS/MBR) Method

Note

Use this method if you are booting using your BIOS, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was light blue. If you're going to use the new-school method, click here to jump down to UEFI/GPT.

Preparation

First, it's a good idea to make sure that you've found the correct hard disk to partition. Try this command and verify that /dev/sda is the disk that you want to partition:

# fdisk -l /dev/sda

Disk /dev/sda: 640.1 GB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: gpt


#         Start          End    Size  Type            Name
 1         2048   1250263694  596.2G  Linux filesyste Linux filesystem

Now, it's recommended that you erase any existing MBR or GPT partition tables on the disk, which could confuse the system's BIOS at boot time. We do this using sgdisk:

Warning

This will make any existing partitions inaccessible! You are strongly cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.

# sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda

Creating new GPT entries.
GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or
other utilities.

This output is also nothing to worry about, as the command still succeded:

***************************************************************
Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format
in memory. 
***************************************************************
Partitioning

Now we will use fdisk to create the MBR partition table and partitions:

# fdisk /dev/sda

Within fdisk, follow these steps:

Empty the partition table:

Command (m for help): o ↵

Create Partition 1 (boot):

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (1-4, default 1): 
First sector: 
Last sector: +128M ↵

Create Partition 2 (swap):

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (2-4, default 2): 
First sector: 
Last sector: +2G ↵
Command (m for help): t ↵ 
Partition number (1,2, default 2): 
Hex code (type L to list all codes): 82 ↵

Create the root partition:

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (3,4, default 3): 
First sector: 
Last sector: 

Verify the partition table:

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x82abc9a6

Device    Boot     Start       End    Blocks  Id System
/dev/sda1           2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
/dev/sda2         264192   4458495   2097152  82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda3        4458496 625142447 310341976  83 Linux

Write the parition table to disk:

Command (m for help): w

Your new MBR partition table will now be written to your system disk.

Note

You're done with partitioning! Now, jump over to Creating filesystems.

New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method

Note

Use this method if you are booting using UEFI, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was black and white. If it was light blue, this method will not work.

The gdisk commands to create a GPT partition table are as follows. Adapt sizes as necessary, although these defaults will work for most users. Start gdisk:

# gdisk

Within gdisk, follow these steps:

Create a new empty partition table (This will erase all data on the disk when saved):

Command: o ↵
This option deletes all partitions and creates a new protective MBR.
Proceed? (Y/N): y ↵

Create Partition 1 (boot):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 1 ↵
First sector: 
Last sector: +500M ↵
Hex Code: 

Create Partition 2 (swap):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 2 ↵
First sector: 
Last sector: +4G ↵
Hex Code: 8200 ↵

Create Partition 3 (root):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 3 ↵
First sector: 
Last sector:  (for rest of disk)
Hex Code: 

Along the way, you can type "p" and hit Enter to view your current partition table. If you make a mistake, you can type "d" to delete an existing partition that you created. When you are satisfied with your partition setup, type "w" to write your configuration to disk:

Write Partition Table To Disk:

Command: w ↵
Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): Y ↵

The partition table will now be written to disk and gdisk will close.

Now, your GPT/GUID partitions have been created, and will show up as the following block devices under Linux:

  • /dev/sda1, which will be used to hold the /boot filesystem,
  • /dev/sda2, which will be used for swap space, and
  • /dev/sda3, which will hold your root filesystem.

Creating filesystems

Note

This section covers both BIOS and UEFI installs. Don't skip it!

Before your newly-created partitions can be used, the block devices need to be initialized with filesystem metadata. This process is known as creating a filesystem on the block devices. After filesystems are created on the block devices, they can be mounted and used to store files.

Let's keep this simple. Are you using old-school MBR partitions? If so, let's create an ext2 filesystem on /dev/sda1:

# mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1

If you're using new-school GPT partitions for UEFI, you'll want to create a vfat filesystem on /dev/sda1, because this is what UEFI is able to read:

# mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1

Now, let's create a swap partition. This partition will be used as disk-based virtual memory for your Funtoo Linux system.

You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, since it is not used to store files. But it is necessary to initialize it using the mkswap command. Then we'll run the swapon command to make your newly-initialized swap space immediately active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process:

# mkswap /dev/sda2
# swapon /dev/sda2

Now, we need to create a root filesystem. This is where Funtoo Linux will live. We generally recommend ext4 or XFS root filesystems. If you're not sure, choose ext4. Here's how to create a root ext4 filesystem:

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3

...and here's how to create an XFS root filesystem, if you choose to use XFS:

# mkfs.xfs /dev/sda3

Your filesystems (and swap) have all now been initialized, so that that can be mounted (attached to your existing directory heirarchy) and used to store files. We are ready to begin installing Funtoo Linux on these brand-new filesystems.

Warning

When deploying an OpenVZ host, please use ext4 exclusively. The Parallels development team tests extensively with ext4, and modern versions of openvz-rhel6-stable are not compatible with XFS, and you may experience kernel bugs.

Mounting filesystems

Mount the newly-created filesystems as follows, creating /mnt/funtoo as the installation mount point:

# mkdir /mnt/funtoo
# mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/funtoo
# mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot

Optionally, if you have a separate filesystem for /home or anything else:

# mkdir /mnt/funtoo/home
# mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/funtoo/home

If you have /tmp or /var/tmp on a separate filesystem, be sure to change the permissions of the mount point to be globally-writeable after mounting, as follows:

# chmod 1777 /mnt/funtoo/tmp

Installing the Stage 3 tarball

After creating filesystems, the next step is downloading the initial Stage 3 tarball. The Stage 3 is a pre-compiled system used as a starting point to install Funtoo Linux. Load one of the following URLs in another browser window:

Now, let's navigate the directories on the mirrors to find the appropriate build of Funtoo Linux for you.

Which Build?

If you're not sure, pick funtoo-current.

Funtoo Linux has various different 'builds', or variants. Here is a list of the various builds that are available, and what their distinctive features are:

BuildDescription
funtoo-currentThe most commonly-selected build of Funtoo Linux. Receives rapid updates and preferred by desktop users.
funtoo-current-hardenedSame package set as funtoo-current, but with a hardened, exploit-resistant toolchain.
funtoo-stableEmphasizes less-frequent package updates and trusted, reliable versions of packages over the latest versions.

If you want to read more about this, have a look at Differences between stable, current and experimental.

What Architecture?

If you're not sure, pick x86-64bit, or possibly pure64 for server systems.

For PC-compatible systems, the following choices are available:

ArchitectureDescription
x86-64bitFor modern 64-bit processors. Uses new 64-bit instructions and address space. Maintains 32-bit compatibility with multilib.
pure64For modern 64-bit processors but with no support for 32-bit compatibility.
x86-32bitFor older 32-bit systems such as Athlon XP, Pentium 4, or earlier Atom.

Your SubArch

Inside /funtoo-current/x86-64bit/ on one of our mirrors, you'll see a bunch of directories for various subarches of Funtoo Linux. Subarches are builds of Funtoo Linux that are designed to run on a particular type of CPU, to offer the best possible performance. They also take advantage of the instruction sets available for each CPU.

If you are using an AMD-based CPU, download a stage3 from generic_64, amd64-k8, amd64-k10, amd64-bulldozer, amd64-piledriver, amd64-steamroller or amd64-jaguar. See our list of 64-bit AMD subarches for help figuring out which one is best for you.

If you are using an Intel-based CPU, download a stage3 from generic_64, atom_64, core2_64 or corei7. Note that corei7 is ideal for any modern Intel processor, including Core i3 and Core i5, and many Xeons. our list of 64-bit Intel subarches for help figuring out which one is best for you.

If you are using a 32-bit CPU, download a stage3 from generic_32, i686, core2_32, atom_32 or athlon-xp.

Setting the Date

Important

If your system's date and time are too far off (typically by months or years,) then it may prevent Portage from properly downloading source tarballs. This is because some of our sources are downloaded via HTTPS, which use SSL certificates and are marked with an activation and expiration date. However, if you system time is relatively close to correct, you can probably skip this step for now.

Now is a good time to verify the date and time are correctly set to UTC. Use the date command to verify the date and time:

# date
Fri Jul 15 19:47:18 UTC 2011

If the date and/or time need to be corrected, do so using date MMDDhhmmYYYY, keeping in mind hhmm are in 24-hour format. The example below changes the date and time to "July 16th, 2011 @ 8:00PM" UTC:

# date 071620002011
Fri Jul 16 20:00:00 UTC 2011

Once you have set the system clock, it's a very good idea to copy the time to the hardware clock, so it persists across reboots:

# hwclock --systohc

Download the Stage3

Once you are in your Funtoo Linux root filesystem, use wget to download the Stage 3 tarball you have chosen to use as the basis for your new Funtoo Linux system. It should be saved to the /mnt/funtoo directory as follows:

# cd /mnt/funtoo
# wget http://build.funtoo.org/funtoo-current/x86-64bit/generic_64/stage3-latest.tar.xz

Note that 64-bit systems can run 32-bit or 64-bit stages, but 32-bit systems can only run 32-bit stages. Make sure that you select a Stage 3 build that is appropriate for your CPU. If you are not certain, it is a safe bet to choose the generic_64 or generic_32 stage. Consult the Download page for more information.

Once the stage is downloaded, extract the contents with the following command, substituting in the actual name of your stage 3 tarball:

# tar xpf stage3-latest.tar.xz

Important

It is very important to use tar's "p" option when extracting the Stage 3 tarball - it tells tar to preserve any permissions and ownership that exist within the archive. Without this option, your Funtoo Linux filesystem permissions will be incorrect.

Chroot into Funtoo

Before chrooting into your new system, there's a few things that need to be done first. You will need to mount /proc and /dev inside your new system. Use the following commands:

# cd /mnt/funtoo
# mount -t proc none proc
# mount --rbind /sys sys
# mount --rbind /dev dev


You'll also want to copy over resolv.conf in order to have proper DNS name resolution from inside the chroot:

# cp /etc/resolv.conf etc

Now you can chroot into your new system. Use env before chroot to ensure that no environment variables from the installation media are used by your new system:

# env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l

Note

Users of live CDs with 64-bit kernels installing 32-bit systems: Some software may use uname -r to check whether the system is 32 or 64-bit. You may want append linux32 to the chroot command as a workaround, but it's generally not needed.

Important

If you receive the error "chroot: failed to run command `/bin/bash': Exec format error", it is probably because you are running a 32-bit kernel and trying to execute 64-bit code. SystemRescueCd boots with a 32-bit kernel by default.

It's also a good idea to change the default command prompt while inside the chroot. This will avoid confusion if you have to change terminals. Use this command:

# export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"

Congratulations! You are now chrooted inside a Funtoo Linux system. Now it's time to get Funtoo Linux properly configured so that Funtoo Linux will boot successfully when your system is restarted.

Downloading the Portage tree

Note

For an alternative way to do this, see Installing Portage From Snapshot.

Now it's time to install a copy of the Portage repository, which contains package scripts (ebuilds) that tell portage how to build and install thousands of different software packages. To create the Portage repository, simply run emerge --sync from within the chroot. This will automatically clone the portage tree from GitHub:

(chroot) # emerge --sync

Important

If you receive the error with initial emerge --sync due to git protocol restrictions, change SYNC variable in /etc/make.conf:

SYNC="https://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012.git"

Configuring your system

As is expected from a Linux distribution, Funtoo Linux has its share of configuration files. The one file you are absolutely required to edit in order to ensure that Funtoo Linux boots successfully is /etc/fstab. The others are optional.

Using Nano

The default editor included in the chroot environment is called nano. To edit one of the files below, call nano as follows:

(chroot) # nano /etc/fstab

When in the editor, you can use arrow keys to move the cursor, and common keys like backspace and delete will work as expected. To save the file, press Control-X, and answer y when prompted to save the modified buffer if you would like to save your changes.

Configuration Files

Here are a full list of files that you may want to edit, depending on your needs:

File Do I need to change it? Description
/etc/fstab YES - required Mount points for all filesystems to be used at boot time. This file must reflect your disk partition setup. We'll guide you through modifying this file below.
/etc/localtime Maybe - recommended Your timezone, which will default to UTC if not set. This should be a symbolic link to something located under /usr/share/zoneinfo (e.g. /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/Montreal)
/etc/make.conf (symlink) - also known as:
/etc/portage/make.conf
Maybe - recommended Parameters used by gcc (compiler), portage, and make. It's a good idea to set MAKEOPTS. This is covered later in this document.
/etc/conf.d/hostname Maybe - recommended Used to set system hostname. Set the hostname variable to the fully-qualified (with dots, ie. foo.funtoo.org) name if you have one. Otherwise, set to the local system hostname (without dots, ie. foo). Defaults to localhost if not set.
/etc/hosts No You no longer need to manually set the hostname in this file. This file is automatically generated by /etc/init.d/hostname.
/etc/conf.d/keymaps Optional Keyboard mapping configuration file (for console pseudo-terminals). Set if you have a non-US keyboard. See Funtoo Linux Localization.
/etc/conf.d/hwclock Optional How the time of the battery-backed hardware clock of the system is interpreted (UTC or local time). Linux uses the battery-backed hardware clock to initialize the system clock when the system is booted.
/etc/conf.d/modules Optional Kernel modules to load automatically at system startup. Typically not required. See Additional Kernel Resources for more info.
/etc/conf.d/consolefont Optional Allows you to specify the default console font. To apply this font, enable the consolefont service by running rc-update add consolefont.
profiles Optional Some useful portage settings that may help speed up intial configuration.

If you're installing an English version of Funtoo Linux, you're in luck as most of the configuration files can be used as-is. If you're installing for another locale, don't worry. We will walk you through the necessary configuration steps on the Funtoo Linux Localization page, and if needed, there's always plenty of friendly, helpful support. (See Community)

Let's go ahead and see what we have to do. Use nano -w <name_of_file> to edit files -- the "-w" disables word-wrapping, which is handy when editing configuration files. You can copy and paste from the examples.

Warning

It's important to edit your /etc/fstab file before you reboot! You will need to modify both the "fs" and "type" columns to match the settings for your partitions and filesystems that you created with gdisk or fdisk. Skipping this step may prevent Funtoo Linux from booting successfully.

/etc/fstab

/etc/fstab is used by the mount command which is ran when your system boots. Statements of this file inform mount about partitions to be mounted and how they are mounted. In order for the system to boot properly, you must edit /etc/fstab and ensure that it reflects the partition configuration you used earlier:

(chroot) # nano -w /etc/fstab
# The root filesystem should have a pass number of either 0 or 1.
# All other filesystems should have a pass number of 0 or greater than 1.
#
# NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
#
# See the manpage fstab(5) for more information.
#
# <fs>	     <mountpoint>  <type>  <opts>         <dump/pass>

/dev/sda1    /boot         ext2    noauto,noatime 1 2
/dev/sda2    none          swap    sw             0 0
/dev/sda3    /             ext4    noatime        0 1
#/dev/cdrom  /mnt/cdrom    auto    noauto,ro      0 0

Note

Currently, our default /etc/fstab has the root filesystem as /dev/sda4 and the swap partition as /dev/sda3. These will need to be changed to /dev/sda3 and /dev/sda2, respectively.

Note

If you're using UEFI to boot, change the /dev/sda1 line so it says vfat instead of ext2. Similarly, make sure that the /dev/sda3 line specifies either xfs or ext4, depending on which filesystem you chose at filesystem-creation time.

/etc/localtime

/etc/localtime is used to specify the timezone that your machine is in, and defaults to UTC. If you would like your Funtoo Linux system to use local time, you should replace /etc/localtime with a symbolic link to the timezone that you wish to use.

(chroot) # ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/MST7MDT /etc/localtime

The above sets the timezone to Mountain Standard Time (with daylight savings). Type ls /usr/share/zoneinfo to see what timezones are available. There are also sub-directories containing timezones described by location.

/etc/make.conf

MAKEOPTS can be used to define how many parallel compilations should occur when you compile a package, which can speed up compilation significantly. A rule of thumb is the number of CPUs (or CPU threads) in your system plus one. If for example you have a dual core processor without hyper-threading, then you would set MAKEOPTS to 3:

MAKEOPTS="-j3" 

If you are unsure about how many processors/threads you have then use nproc to help you.

(chroot) # nproc
16

Set MAKEOPTS to this number plus one:

MAKEOPTS="-j17"

USE flags define what functionality is enabled when packages are built. It is not recommended to add a lot of them during installation; you should wait until you have a working, bootable system before changing your USE flags. A USE flag prefixed with a minus ("-") sign tells Portage not to use the flag when compiling. A Funtoo guide to USE flags will be available in the future. For now, you can find out more information about USE flags in the Gentoo Handbook.

LINGUAS tells Portage which local language to compile the system and applications in (those who use LINGUAS variable like OpenOffice). It is not usually necessary to set this if you use English. If you want another language such as French (fr) or German (de), set LINGUAS appropriately:

LINGUAS="fr"

/etc/conf.d/hwclock

If you dual-boot with Windows, you'll need to edit this file and change the value of clock from UTC to local, because Windows will set your hardware clock to local time every time you boot Windows. Otherwise you normally wouldn't need to edit this file.

(chroot) # nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock

Localization

By default, Funtoo Linux is configured with Unicode (UTF-8) enabled, and for the US English locale and keyboard. If you would like to configure your system to use a non-English locale or keyboard, see Funtoo Linux Localization.

Introducing Portage

Portage, the Funtoo Linux package manager has a command called emerge which is used to build and install packages from source. It also takes care of installing all of the package's dependencies. You call emerge like this:

(chroot) # emerge packagename

When you install a package by specifying its name in the command-line, Portage records its name in the /var/lib/portage/world file. It does so because it assumes that, since you have installed it by name, you want to consider it part of your system and want to keep the package updated in the future. This is a handy feature, since when packages are being added to the world set, we can update our entire system by typing:

(chroot) # emerge --sync
(chroot) # emerge -auDN @world

This is the "official" way to update your Funtoo Linux system. Above, we first update our Portage tree using git to grab the latest ebuilds (scripts), and then run an emerge command to update the world set of packages. The options specified tell emerge to:

  • a - show us what will be emerged, and ask us if we want to proceed
  • u - update the packages we specify -- don't emerge them again if they are already emerged.
  • D - Consider the entire dependency tree of packages when looking for updates. In other words, do a deep update.
  • N - Update any packages that have changed (new) USE settings.

You should also consider passing --with-bdeps=y when emerging @world, at least once in a while. This will update build dependencies as well.

Of course, sometimes we want to install a package but not add it to the world file. This is often done because you only want the package installed temproarily or because you know the package in question is a dependnecy of another package. If this behavior is desired, you call emerge like this:

(chroot) # emerge -1 packagename

Advanced users may be interested in the Emerge wiki page.

Updating World

Now is actually a very good time to update the entire system and it can be a good idea to do so prior to first boot.

(chroot) # emerge --sync
(chroot) # emerge -auDN @world

Important

Make sure you read any post emerge messages and follow their instructions. This is especially true if you have upgraded perl or python.

Configuring and installing the Linux kernel

Now it's time to build and install a Linux kernel, which is the heart of any Funtoo Linux system. The kernel is loaded by the boot loader, and interfaces directly with your system's hardware, and allows regular (userspace) programs to run.

A kernel must be configured properly for your system's hardware, so that it supports your hard drives, file systems, network cards, and so on. More experienced Linux users can choose to install kernel sources and configure and install their own kernel. If you don't know how to do this, we provide ebuilds that will automatically build a "univeral" kernel, modules and initramfs for booting your system that supports all hardware. This is an extremely simple way of building a kernel that will get your system booted.

What is our goal? To build a kernel that will recognize all the hardware in your system necessary for booting, so that you will be greeted by a friendly login prompt after installation is complete. These instructions will guide you through the process of installing a kernel the "easy" way -- without requiring user configuration, by using a "universal" kernel.

Package Sets

Before we install a kernel, we're going to cover a feature of Portage called package sets. Portage, the package manager/ports system for Funtoo Linux, will keep track of system packages as well as packages you have installed by calling emerge directly. These packages that are part of the base system are considered part of the "system" package set, while packages that you have installed by typing them on the command line (such as "gnome" in emerge gnome) will be added to the "world" package set. This provides an easy way to update your entire system.

However, sometimes it's nice to be able to update the kernel all by itself, or leave a kernel update out of your regular whole system update. To do this, we will create a new package set called "kernel".

Kernel Package Set

To create the kernel package set, perform the following steps:

(chroot) # mkdir /etc/portage/sets
(chroot) # echo sys-kernel/debian-sources > /etc/portage/sets/kernel

Now, we'll want to set a USE variable to tell debian-sources to build a "universal" kernel and initramfs for us, to take the guess-work out of getting Funtoo Linux booted. To do this, we're going to set the binary USE variable for debian-sources, as follows:

(chroot) # echo "sys-kernel/debian-sources binary" >> /etc/portage/package.use

If USE variables are new to you, you'll be getting a lot more familiar with them as you use Funtoo Linux. At their essence, they are "switches" that you can set to configure options that can be built in to various packages. They're used to customize your Funtoo Linux system to meet your exact needs. We added support for a binary USE flag to the debian-sources ebuilds, as well as a few other of our kernel ebuilds, to make it easier for new users to get Funtoo Linux up and running.

Now, when we just want to update our system's packages, we'll type emerge -auDN @world, and it will update our world set, leaving out the kernel. Likewise, when we just want to update our kernel, we'll type emerge -au @kernel, and it will update our kernel, leaving out the world set.

Building the Kernel

Note

See Funtoo Linux Kernels for a full list of kernels supported in Funtoo Linux. We recommend debian-sources for new users.

Important

debian-sources with binary USE flag requires at least 14GB free in /var/tmp and takes around 1 hour to build on a Intel Core i7 Processor.

Let's emerge our kernel:

(chroot) # emerge -1 @kernel

Important

Right now, the -1 option is required to not add our @kernel set to world-sets. This allows you to emerge it independently from @world. If you forget to use this option, edit /var/lib/portage/world-sets and remove the @kernel line. This will prevent kernel updates from being included in @world updates.

Note that while use of the binary USE flag makes installing a working kernel extremely simple, it is one part of Funtoo Linux that takes a very long time to build from source, because it is building a kernel that supports all hardware that Linux supports! So, get the build started, and then let your machine compile. Slower machines can take up to several hours to build the kernel, and you'll want to make sure that you've set MAKEOPTS in /etc/make.conf to the number of processing cores/threads (plus one) in your system before starting to build it as quickly as possible -- see the /etc/make.conf section if you forgot to do this.

Note

NVIDIA card users: the binary USE flag installs the Nouveau drivers which cannot be loaded at the same time as the proprietary drivers, and cannot be unloaded at runtime because of KMS. You need to blacklist it under /etc/modprobe.d/.

Note

For an overview of other kernel options for Funtoo Linux, see Funtoo Linux Kernels. There may be modules that the Debian kernel doesn't include, a situation where genkernel would be useful. Also be sure to see hardware compatibility information.

Once emerge completes, you'll have a brand new kernel and initramfs installed to /boot, plus kernel headers installed in /usr/src/linux, and you'll be ready to configure the boot loader to load these to boot your Funtoo Linux system.

Installing a Bootloader

These install instructions show you how to use GRUB to boot using BIOS (old-school) or UEFI (new-school).

Old School (BIOS)

If you're using the BIOS to boot, setting up GRUB, the bootloader, is pretty easy.

To use this recommended boot method, first emerge boot-update. This will also cause grub-2 to be merged, since it is a dependency of boot-update.

(chroot) # emerge boot-update

Then, edit /etc/boot.conf and specify "Funtoo Linux genkernel" as the default setting at the top of the file, replacing "Funtoo Linux".

/etc/boot.conf should now look like this:

boot {
	generate grub
	default "Funtoo Linux genkernel" 
	timeout 3 
}

"Funtoo Linux" {
	kernel bzImage[-v]
}

"Funtoo Linux genkernel" {
	kernel kernel[-v]
	initrd initramfs[-v]
	params += real_root=auto 
} 

"Funtoo Linux better-initramfs" {
	kernel vmlinuz[-v]
	initrd /initramfs.cpio.gz
}

Please read man boot.conf for further details.

Running grub-install and boot-update

Finally, we will need to actually install the GRUB boot loader to your disk, and also run boot-update which will generate your boot loader configuration file:

(chroot) # grub-install --no-floppy /dev/sda
(chroot) # boot-update

Now you need to update your boot loader configuration file:

(chroot) # boot-update

You only need to run grub-install when you first install Funtoo Linux, but you need to re-run boot-update every time you modify your /etc/boot.conf file, so your changes are applied on next boot.

New School (UEFI)

If you're using UEFI to boot, setting up the boot loader is a bit more complicated for now, but this process will be improving soon. Perform the following steps.

Emerging GRUB

You will still use GRUB as a boot loader, but before emerging grub, you will need to enable EFI booting. To do this, add the following line to /etc/make.conf:

GRUB_PLATFORMS="efi-64"

Then, emerge boot-update. You will notice grub and efibootmgr getting pulled in as dependencies. This is expected and good:

(chroot) # emerge boot-update
Installing GRUB

Now, for the magic of getting everything in place for booting. You should copy your kernel and initramfs (if you have one -- you will if you are following the default install) to /boot. GRUB will boot those. But how do we get UEFI to boot GRUB? Well, we need to run the following command:

(chroot) # grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda

This command will simply install all the stuff to /boot/EFI and /boot/grub that your system needs to boot. In particular, the /boot/EFI/grub/grubx64.efi file will be created. This is the GRUB boot image that UEFI will load and start.

A more detailed explanation of the flags used in the above command:

  • --target=x86_64-efi: Tells GRUB that we want to install it in a way that allows it to boot in UEFI
  • --efi-directory=/boot: All GRUB UEFI files will be installed in /boot
  • --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]": This flag is not necessary for GRUB to boot. However, it allows you to change the text of the boot option in the UEFI BIOS. The stuff in the quotes can be set to anything that you would like.
  • --recheck: If a device map already exists on the disk or partition that GRUB is being installed on, it will be removed.
  • /dev/sda:The device that we are installing GRUB on.
Configuring GRUB

OK, now UEFI has the GRUB image it needs to boot. But we still need to configure GRUB itself so it finds and boots your kernel and initramfs. This is done by performing the following steps. Since boot-update doesn't yet support UEFI, we will use boot-update, but then edit our /boot/grub/grub.cfg to support UEFI booting.

First, you will need to edit /etc/boot.conf. Format this as you would if you were booting without UEFI. If you are not sure how this should look, below is an example of what it could look like if you are booting from an unencrypted ext4 partition:

/etc/boot.conf
boot {
        generate grub
        default "Funtoo Linux"
        timeout 3
}

"Funtoo Linux" {
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
        params += rootfstype=ext4 root=/dev/sda2
}

After you have edited your /etc/boot.conf file, run boot-update. You should now have a /boot/grub/grub.cfg file, which you can edit using the following command:

# nano /boot/grub/grub.cfg


To get your /boot/grub/grub.cfg to support booting with UEFI, make the following changes. Below the existing insmod lines, add the following lines. Both of these involve adding support for the UEFI framebuffer to GRUB.:

  insmod efi_gop
  insmod efi_uga

Then, change the set gfxpayload line to read as follows. UEFI does not support text mode, so we will keep video initialized to the current resolution.:

  set gfxpayload=keep

You can now save your changes by pressing Control-X and answering y when asked if you want to save the modified buffer. When prompted for a filename, hit Enter to use the existing filename.

Configuring your network

It's important to ensure that you will be able to connect to your local-area network after you reboot into Funtoo Linux. There are three approaches you can use for configuring your network: NetworkManager, dhcpcd, and the Funtoo Linux Networking scripts. Here's how to choose which one to use based on the type of network you want to set up.

Wi-Fi

Using NetworkManager

For laptop/mobile systems where you will be using Wi-Fi and connecting to various networks, NetworkManager is strongly recommended. The Funtoo version of NetworkManager is fully functional even from the command-line, so you can use it even without X or without the Network Manager applet. Here are the steps involved in setting up NetworkManager:

(chroot) # emerge linux-firmware
(chroot) # emerge networkmanager
(chroot) # rc-update add NetworkManager default

Above, we installed linux-firmware which contains a complete collection of available firmware for many hardware devices including Wi-Fi adapters, plus NetworkManager to manage our network connection. Then we added NetworkManager to the default runlevel so it will start when Funtoo Linux boots.

After you reboot into Funtoo Linux, you will be able to add a Wi-Fi connection this way:

# addwifi -S wpa -K 'wifipassword' mywifinetwork

The addwifi command is used to configure and connect to a WPA/WPA2 Wi-Fi network named mywifinetwork with the password wifipassword. This network configuration entry is stored in /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections so that it will be remembered in the future. You should only need to enter this command once for each Wi-Fi network you connect to.

Using wpa_supplicant

If for some reason you don't want to use a tool such as NetworkManager or wicd, you can use wpa_supplicant for wireless network connections.

First, emerge wpa_supplicant:

(chroot) # emerge -a wpa_supplicant

Now, edit the wpa_supplicant configuration file, located at /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf. The syntax is very easy:

network={
ssid="MyWifiName"
psk="lol42-wifi"
}

network={
ssid="Other Network"
psk="6d96270004515a0486bb7f76196a72b40c55a47f"
}

You will need to add both wpa_supplicant and dhcpcd to the default runlevel. wpa_supplicant will connect to your access point, and dhcpcd will acquire an IP address via DHCP:

(chroot) # rc-update add dhcpcd default
(chroot) # rc-update add wpa_supplicant default

Desktop (Wired Ethernet)

For a home desktop or workstation with wired Ethernet that will use DHCP, the simplest and most effective option to enable network connectivity is to simply add dhcpcd to the default runlevel:

(chroot) # rc-update add dhcpcd default

When you reboot, dhcpcd will run in the background and manage all network interfaces and use DHCP to acquire network addresses from a DHCP server.

Server (Static IP)

For servers, the Funtoo Linux Networking scripts are recommended. They are optimized for static configurations and things like virtual ethernet bridging for virtualization setups. See Funtoo Linux Networking for information on how to use Funtoo Linux's template-based network configuration system.

Finishing Steps

Set your root password

It's imperative that you set your root password before rebooting so that you can log in.

(chroot) # passwd

Restart your system

Now is the time to leave chroot, to unmount Funtoo Linux partitions and files and to restart your computer. When you restart, the GRUB boot loader will start, load the Linux kernel and initramfs, and your system will begin booting.

Leave the chroot, change directory to /mnt, unmount your Funtoo partitions, and reboot.

(chroot) # exit
# cd /mnt
# umount -l funtoo
# reboot

Note

System Rescue CD will gracefully unmount your new Funtoo filesystems as part of its normal shutdown sequence.

You should now see your system reboot, the GRUB boot loader appear for a few seconds, and then see the Linux kernel and initramfs loading. After this, you should see Funtoo Linux itself start to boot, and you should be greeted with a login: prompt. Funtoo Linux has been successfully installed!

Profiles

Once you have rebooted into Funtoo Linux, you can further customize your system to your needs by using Funtoo Profiles.

Funtoo profiles are used to define defaults for Portage specific to your needs. There are 4 basic profile types: arch, build, flavor, and mix-ins:

arch
typically x86-32bit or x86-64bit, this defines the processor type and support of your system. This is defined when your stage was built and should not be changed.
build
defines whether your system is a current, stable or experimental build. current systems will have newer packages unmasked than stable systems.
flavor
defines the general type of system, such as server or desktop, and will set default USE flags appropriate for your needs.
mix-ins
define various optional settings that you may be interested in enabling.

One arch, build and flavor must be set for each Funtoo Linux system, while mix-ins are optional and you can enable more than one if desired.

Remember that profiles can often be inherited. For example, the desktop flavor inherits the workstation flavor settings, which in turn inherits the X and audio mix-ins. You can view this by using eselect:

(chroot) # eselect profile show
Currently set profiles:
    arch: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit
   build: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current
  flavor: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/desktop
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/kde

Automatically enabled profiles:
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/print
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/X
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/audio
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/console-extras

To view installed profiles:

(chroot) # eselect profile list

To change the profile flavor:

(chroot) # eselect profile set-flavor 7

To add a mix-in:

(chroot) # eselect profile add 10


Next Steps

If you are brand new to Funtoo Linux and Gentoo Linux, please check out Funtoo Linux First Steps, which will help get you acquainted with your new system. We also have a category for our official documentation, which includes all docs that we officially maintain for installation and operation of Funtoo Linux.

We also have a number of pages dedicated to setting up your system, which you can find below. If you are interested in adding a page to this list, add it to the "First Steps" MediaWiki category.


If your system did not boot correctly, see Installation Troubleshooting for steps you can take to resolve the problem.