Difference between pages "Package:Nginx" and "Linux Containers"

(Difference between pages)
m (add media playlist)
 
(/lxc/funtoo0/config to /etc/lxc/funtoo0.conf)
 
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{{Ebuild
+
Linux Containers, or LXC, is a Linux feature that allows Linux to run one or more isolated virtual systems (with their own network interfaces, process namespace, user namespace, and power state) using a single Linux kernel on a single server.  
|Summary=Robust, small and high performance HTTP and reverse proxy server
+
|CatPkg=www-servers/nginx
+
|Maintainer=Drobbins
+
|Repository=Funtoo Overlay
+
|Overlay=Funtoo
+
}}
+
[[Image:nginx.gif|frame]]
+
  
nginx (pronounced "engin-x") is a Web and reverse proxy server for HTTP, SMTP, POP3 and IMAP protocols. It focuses on high concurrency, performance and low memory usage. Nginx quickly delivers static content with efficient use of system resources, also dynamic content is delivered on a network using FastCGI, SCGI handlers for scripts, uWSGI application servers or Phusion Passenger module (atm broken in [http://funtoo.org funtoo]), further more it can serve a very capable software load balancer. It uses an asynchronos event-driven approach to handle requests which provides more predictable performance under load, in contrast to the Apache HTTP server model, that uses a threaded or process-oriented approach to handling request. Nginx is licensed under a BSD-like license and it runs on Unix, Linux, BSD variants, Mac OS X, Solaris, AIX and Microsoft Windows.
+
== Status ==
  
=== USE Expanded flags ===
+
As of Linux kernel 3.1.5, LXC is usable for isolating your own private workloads from one another. It is not yet ready to isolate potentially malicious users from one another or the host system. For a more mature containers solution that is appropriate for hosting environments, see [[OpenVZ]].
  
Furthermore, you can set the nginx modules you like to use in ''/etc/make.conf'' in the NGINX_MODULES_HTTP variable as NGINX_MODULES_HTTP="variables".
+
LXC containers don't yet have their own system uptime, and they see everything that's in the host's <tt>dmesg</tt> output, among other things. But in general, the technology works.
  
nginx USE flags go into ''/etc/portage/package.use'' or ''/etc/portage/package.use/nginx'', while the HTTP and MAIL modules go as NGINX_MODULES_HTTP or NGINX_MODULES_MAIL are stored in /etc/make.conf. And as you wouldn't server only static html files, but most commonly also php files/scripts you should also install php with fpm enabled and xcache for caching the content, what makes your nginx setup way faster. For xcache you need to set PHP_TARGETS="php5-3" in '/etc/make.conf'.
+
== Basic Info ==
  
Example:
+
 
 +
* Linux Containers are based on:
 +
** Kernel namespaces for resource isolation
 +
** CGroups for resource limitation and accounting
 +
 
 +
{{Package|app-emulation/lxc}} is the userspace tool for Linux containers
 +
 
 +
== Control groups ==
 +
 
 +
* Control groups (cgroups) in kernel since 2.6.24
 +
** Allows aggregation of tasks and their children
 +
** Subsystems (cpuset, memory, blkio,...)
 +
** accounting - to measure how much resources certain systems use
 +
** resource limiting - groups can be set to not exceed a set memory limit
 +
** prioritization - some groups may get a larger share of CPU
 +
** control - freezing/unfreezing of cgroups, checkpointing and restarting
 +
** No disk quota limitation ( -> image file, LVM, XFS, directory tree quota,...)
 +
 
 +
== Subsystems ==
 +
<br>
 
<console>
 
<console>
###i## echo "www-servers/nginx USE-FLAG-List" >> /etc/portage/package.use/nginx
+
###i## cat /proc/cgroups
 +
subsys_name hierarchy num_cgroups enabled
 +
cpuset
 +
cpu
 +
cpuacct
 +
memory
 +
devices
 +
freezer
 +
blkio
 +
perf_event
 +
hugetlb
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
=== Emerging nginx ===
+
#cpuset    -> limits tasks to specific CPU/CPUs
 +
#cpu        -> CPU shares
 +
#cpuacct    -> CPU accounting
 +
#memory    -> memory and swap limitation and accounting
 +
#devices    -> device allow deny list
 +
#freezer    -> suspend/resume tasks
 +
#blkio      -> I/O priorization (weight, throttle, ...)
 +
#perf_event -> support for per-cpu per-cgroup monitoring [http://lwn.net/Articles/421574/ perf_events]
 +
#hugetlb    -> cgroup resource controller for HugeTLB pages  [http://lwn.net/Articles/499255/ hugetlb]
  
Now you are ready to install nginx with php and xcache support:
+
== Configuring the Funtoo Host System ==
 +
 
 +
=== Install LXC kernel ===
 +
Any kernel beyond 3.1.5 will probably work. Personally I prefer {{Package|sys-kernel/gentoo-sources}} as these have support for all the namespaces without sacrificing the xfs, FUSE or NFS support for example. These checks were introduced later starting from kernel 3.5, this could also mean that the user namespace is not working optimally.
 +
 
 +
* User namespace (EXPERIMENTAL) depends on EXPERIMENTAL and on UIDGID_CONVERTED
 +
** config UIDGID_CONVERTED
 +
*** True if all of the selected software components are known to have uid_t and gid_t converted to kuid_t and kgid_t where appropriate and are otherwise safe to use with the user namespace.
 +
**** Networking - depends on NET_9P = n
 +
**** Filesystems - 9P_FS = n, AFS_FS = n, AUTOFS4_FS = n, CEPH_FS = n, CIFS = n, CODA_FS = n, FUSE_FS = n, GFS2_FS = n, NCP_FS = n, NFSD = n, NFS_FS = n, OCFS2_FS = n, XFS_FS = n
 +
**** Security options - Grsecurity - GRKERNSEC = n (if applicable)
 +
 
 +
** As of 3.10.xx kernel, all of the above options are safe to use with User namespaces, except for XFS_FS, therefore with kernel >=3.10.xx, you should answer XFS_FS = n, if you want User namespaces support.
 +
** in your kernel source directory, you should check init/Kconfig and find out what UIDGID_CONVERTED depends on
 +
 
 +
==== Kernel configuration ====
 +
These options should be enable in your kernel to be able to take full advantage of LXC.
 +
 
 +
* General setup
 +
** CONFIG_NAMESPACES
 +
*** CONFIG_UTS_NS
 +
*** CONFIG_IPC_NS
 +
*** CONFIG_PID_NS
 +
*** CONFIG_NET_NS
 +
*** CONFIG_USER_NS
 +
** CONFIG_CGROUPS
 +
*** CONFIG_CGROUP_DEVICE
 +
*** CONFIG_CGROUP_SCHED
 +
*** CONFIG_CGROUP_CPUACCT
 +
*** CONFIG_CGROUP_MEM_RES_CTLR (in 3.6+ kernels it's called CONFIG_MEMCG)
 +
*** CONFIG_CGROUP_MEM_RES_CTLR_SWAP (in 3.6+ kernels it's called CONFIG_MEMCG_SWAP)
 +
*** CONFIG_CPUSETS (on multiprocessor hosts)
 +
* Networking support
 +
** Networking options
 +
*** CONFIG_VLAN_8021Q
 +
* Device Drivers
 +
** Character devices
 +
*** Unix98 PTY support
 +
**** CONFIG_DEVPTS_MULTIPLE_INSTANCES
 +
** Network device support
 +
*** Network core driver support
 +
**** CONFIG_VETH
 +
**** CONFIG_MACVLAN
 +
 
 +
Once you have lxc installed, you can then check your kernel config with:
 
<console>
 
<console>
###i## emerge -avt nginx php xcache
+
# ##i##CONFIG=/path/to/config /usr/sbin/lxc-checkconfig
 
</console>
 
</console>
so now just check your useflags and press enter to start emerge.
 
  
== Configuring ==
+
=== Emerge lxc ===
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##emerge app-emulation/lxc
 +
</console>
  
All configuration is done in ''/etc/nginx'' with ''nginx.conf'' as the main configuration file and all virtual hosts in ''/etc/nginx/sites/available'' while you have to symlink ''/etc/nginx/sites-available/{VHOST}'' to ''/etc/nginx/sites-enabled/{VHOST}'' to activate them. An example config for such a {VHOST} looks like that:
+
=== Configure Networking For Container ===
  
 +
Typically, one uses a bridge to allow containers to connect to the network. This is how to do it under Funtoo Linux:
 +
 +
# create a bridge using the Funtoo network configuration scripts. Name the bridge something like <tt>brwan</tt> (using <tt>/etc/init.d/netif.brwan</tt>). Configure your bridge to have an IP address.
 +
# Make your physical interface, such as <tt>eth0</tt>, an interface with no IP address (use the Funtoo <tt>interface-noip</tt> template.)
 +
# Make <tt>netif.eth0</tt> a slave of <tt>netif.brwan</tt> in <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.brwan</tt>.
 +
# Enable your new bridged network and make sure it is functioning properly on the host.
 +
 +
You will now be able to configure LXC to automatically add your container's virtual ethernet interface to the bridge when it starts, which will connect it to your network.
 +
 +
== Setting up a Funtoo Linux LXC Container ==
 +
 +
Here are the steps required to get Funtoo Linux running <i>inside</i> a container. The steps below show you how to set up a container using an existing Funtoo Linux OpenVZ template. It is now also possible to use [[Metro]] to build an lxc container tarball directly, which will save you manual configuration steps and will provide an <tt>/etc/fstab.lxc</tt> file that you can use for your host container config. See [[Metro Recipes]] for info on how to use Metro to generate an lxc container.
 +
 +
=== Create and Configure Container Filesystem ===
 +
 +
# Start with a Funtoo LXC template, and unpack it to a directory such as <tt>/lxc/funtoo0/rootfs/</tt>
 +
# Create an empty <tt>/lxc/funtoo0/fstab</tt> file
 +
# Ensure <tt>c1</tt> line is uncommented (enabled) and <tt>c2</tt> through <tt>c6</tt> lines are disabled in <tt>/lxc/funtoo0/rootfs/etc/inittab</tt>
 +
 +
That's almost all you need to get the container filesystem ready to start.
 +
 +
=== Create Container Configuration Files ===
 +
 +
Create the following files:
 +
 +
==== <tt>/lxc/funtoo0/config</tt> ====
 +
 +
 +
and also create symlink from
 +
==== <tt> /lxc/funtoo0/config to /etc/lxc/funtoo0.conf </tt> ====
 +
<console>
 +
###i## mkdir /etc/lxc/funtoo0
 +
###i## ln -s /lxc/funtoo0/config /etc/lxc/funtoo0/config
 +
</console>
 +
 +
{{Fancynote| Daniel Robbins needs to update this config to be more in line with http://wiki.progress-linux.org/software/lxc/ -- this config appears to have nice, refined device node permissions and other goodies. // note by Havis to Daniel, this config is already superior.}}
 +
 +
 +
Read "man 5 lxc.conf" , to get more information about linux container configuration file.
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
server {
+
## Container
    listen          80;
+
lxc.utsname                            = funtoo0
    server_name    www.example.com;
+
lxc.rootfs                              = /lxc/funtoo0/rootfs/
 +
lxc.arch                                = x86_64
 +
#lxc.console                            = /var/log/lxc/funtoo0.console  # uncomment if you want to log containers console
 +
lxc.tty                                = 6  # if you plan to use container with physical terminals (eg F1..F6)
 +
#lxc.tty                                = 0  # set to 0 if you dont plan to use the container with physical terminal, also comment out in your containers /etc/inittab  c1 to c6 respawns (e.g. c1:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty 38400 tty1 linux)
 +
lxc.pts                                = 1024
 +
 
 +
 
 +
## Capabilities
 +
lxc.cap.drop                            = audit_control
 +
lxc.cap.drop                            = audit_write
 +
lxc.cap.drop                            = mac_admin
 +
lxc.cap.drop                            = mac_override
 +
lxc.cap.drop                            = mknod
 +
lxc.cap.drop                            = setfcap
 +
lxc.cap.drop                            = setpcap
 +
lxc.cap.drop                            = sys_admin
 +
#lxc.cap.drop                            = sys_boot # capability to reboot the container
 +
#lxc.cap.drop                            = sys_chroot # required by SSH
 +
lxc.cap.drop                            = sys_module
 +
#lxc.cap.drop                            = sys_nice
 +
lxc.cap.drop                            = sys_pacct
 +
lxc.cap.drop                            = sys_rawio
 +
lxc.cap.drop                            = sys_resource
 +
lxc.cap.drop                            = sys_time
 +
#lxc.cap.drop                            = sys_tty_config # required by getty
 +
 
 +
## Devices
 +
#lxc.cgroup.devices.allow              = a # Allow access to all devices
 +
lxc.cgroup.devices.deny                = a # Deny access to all devices
 +
 
 +
# Allow to mknod all devices (but not using them)
 +
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c *:* m
 +
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = b *:* m
 +
 
 +
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 1:3 rwm # /dev/null
 +
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 1:5 rwm # /dev/zero
 +
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 1:7 rwm # /dev/full
 +
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 1:8 rwm # /dev/random
 +
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 1:9 rwm # /dev/urandom
 +
#lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 4:0 rwm # /dev/tty0 ttys not required if you have lxc.tty = 0
 +
#lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 4:1 rwm # /dev/tty1 devices with major number 4 are "real" tty devices
 +
#lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 4:2 rwm # /dev/tty2
 +
#lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 4:3 rwm # /dev/tty3
 +
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 5:0 rwm # /dev/tty
 +
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 5:1 rwm # /dev/console
 +
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 5:2 rwm # /dev/ptmx
 +
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 10:229 rwm # /dev/fuse
 +
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 136:* rwm # /dev/pts/* devices with major number 136 are pts
 +
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 254:0 rwm # /dev/rtc0
 +
 
 +
## Limits#
 +
lxc.cgroup.cpu.shares                  = 1024
 +
lxc.cgroup.cpuset.cpus                = 0        # limits container to CPU0
 +
lxc.cgroup.memory.limit_in_bytes      = 512M
 +
lxc.cgroup.memory.memsw.limit_in_bytes = 1G
 +
#lxc.cgroup.blkio.weight                = 500      # requires cfq block scheduler
 +
 
 +
## Filesystem
 +
#containers fstab should be outside it's rootfs dir (e.g. /lxc/funtoo0/fstab is ok, but /lxc/funtoo0/rootfs/etc/fstab is wrong!!!)
 +
#lxc.mount                              = /lxc/funtoo0/fstab     
 +
 
 +
#lxc.mount.entry is prefered, because it supports relative paths
 +
lxc.mount.entry                        = proc proc proc nosuid,nodev,noexec  0 0
 +
lxc.mount.entry                        = sysfs sys sysfs nosuid,nodev,noexec,ro 0 0
 +
lxc.mount.entry                        = devpts dev/pts devpts nosuid,noexec,mode=0620,ptmxmode=000,newinstance 0 0
 +
lxc.mount.entry                        = tmpfs dev/shm tmpfs nosuid,nodev,mode=1777 0 0
 +
lxc.mount.entry                        = tmpfs run tmpfs nosuid,nodev,noexec,mode=0755,size=128m 0 0
 +
lxc.mount.entry                        = tmpfs tmp tmpfs nosuid,nodev,noexec,mode=1777,size=1g 0 0
 +
 
 +
##Example of having /var/tmp/portage as tmpfs in container
 +
#lxc.mount.entry                        = tmpfs var/tmp/portage tmpfs defaults,size=8g,uid=250,gid=250,mode=0775 0 0
 +
##Example of bind mount
 +
#lxc.mount.entry                        = /srv/funtoo0 /lxc/funtoo0/rootfs/srv/funtoo0 none defaults,bind 0 0
 +
 
 +
## Network
 +
lxc.network.type                        = veth
 +
lxc.network.flags                      = up
 +
lxc.network.hwaddr                      = #put your MAC address here, otherwise you will get a random one
 +
lxc.network.link                        = br0
 +
lxc.network.name                        = eth0
 +
#lxc.network.veth.pair                  = veth-example
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Read "man 7 capabilities" to get more information aboout Linux capabilities.
 +
 
 +
Above, use the following command to generate a random MAC for <tt>lxc.network.hwaddr</tt>:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
###i## openssl rand -hex 6 | sed 's/\(..\)/\1:/g; s/.$//'
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
It is a very good idea to assign a static MAC address to your container using <tt>lxc.network.hwaddr</tt>. If you don't, LXC will auto-generate a new random MAC every time your container starts, which may confuse network equipment that expects MAC addresses to remain constant.
 +
 
 +
It might happen from case to case that you aren't able to start your LXC Container with the above generated MAC address so for all these who run into that problem here is a little script that connects your IP for the container with the MAC address. Just save the following code as <tt>/etc/lxc/hwaddr.sh</tt>, make it executable and run it like <tt>/etc/lxc/hwaddr.sh xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx</tt> where xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx represents your Container IP. <br><tt>/etc/lxc/hwaddr.sh</tt>:
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
#!/bin/sh
 +
IP=$*
 +
HA=`printf "02:00:%x:%x:%x:%x" ${IP//./ }`
 +
echo $HA
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
==== <tt>/lxc/funtoo0/fstab</tt> ====
 +
{{fancynote| It is now preferable to have mount entries directly in config file instead of separate fstab:}}
 +
Edit the file <tt>/lxc/funtoo0/fstab</tt>:
 +
<pre>
 +
none /lxc/funtoo0/dev/pts devpts defaults 0 0
 +
none /lxc/funtoo0/proc proc defaults 0 0
 +
none /lxc/funtoo0/sys sysfs defaults 0 0
 +
none /lxc/funtoo0/dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec,mode=1777,rw 0 0
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
== LXC Networking ==
 +
*veth - Virtual Ethernet (bridge)
 +
*vlan - vlan interface (requires device able to do vlan tagging)
 +
*macvlan (mac-address based virtual lan tagging) has 3 modes:
 +
**private
 +
**vepa (Virtual Ethernet Port Aggregator)
 +
**bridge
 +
*phys - dedicated host NIC
 +
[https://blog.flameeyes.eu/2010/09/linux-containers-and-networking Linux Containers and Networking]
 +
 
 +
Enable routing on the host:
 +
By default Linux workstations and servers have IPv4 forwarding disabled.
 +
<console>
 +
###i## echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
 +
###i## cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
 +
# 1
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
== Initializing and Starting the Container ==
 +
 
 +
You will probably need to set the root password for the container before you can log in. You can use chroot to do this quickly:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
###i## chroot /lxc/funtoo0/rootfs
 +
(chroot) ###i## passwd
 +
New password: XXXXXXXX
 +
Retype new password: XXXXXXXX
 +
passwd: password updated successfully
 +
(chroot) ###i## exit
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Now that the root password is set, run:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
###i## lxc-start -n funtoo0 -d
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
The <tt>-d</tt> option will cause it to run in the background.
 +
 
 +
To attach to the console:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
###i## lxc-console -n funtoo0
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
You should now be able to log in and use the container. In addition, the container should now be accessible on the network.
 +
 
 +
To directly attach to container:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
###i## lxc-attach -n funtoo0
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
To stop the container:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
###i## lxc-stop -n funtoo0
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Ensure that networking is working from within the container while it is running, and you're good to go!
 +
 
 +
== Starting LXC container during host boot ==
 +
 
 +
# You need to create symlink in <tt>/etc/init.d/</tt> to <tt>/etc/init.d/lxc</tt> so that it reflects your container.
 +
# <tt>ln -s /etc/init.d/lxc /etc/init.d/lxc.funtoo0</tt>
 +
# now you can add <tt>lxc.funtoo0</tt> to default runlevel
 +
# <tt>rc-update add lxc.funtoo0 default</tt>
 +
<console>
 +
###i## rc
 +
* Starting funtoo0 ...                  [ ok ]
 +
</console>
  
    access_log      /var/log/nginx/www.example.com.access_log main;
+
== LXC Bugs/Missing Features ==
    error_log      /var/log/nginx/www.example.com.error_log info;
+
  
    root /var/www/www.example.com/htdocs;
+
This section is devoted to documenting issues with the current implementation of LXC and its associated tools. We will be gradually expanding this section with detailed descriptions of problems, their status, and proposed solutions.
}
+
</pre>
+
  
The ''nginx.conf'' and ''sites-available/localhost'' file is well commented. Customize it to your needs. Make sure you set the listen option correctly. By default, the listen option is set to listen on the loopback interface. If you leave this unchanged other computers on the network will not be able to connect to the server.
+
=== reboot ===
  
=== php-fpm ===
+
* By default, lxc does not support rebooting a container from within. It will simply stop and the host will not know to start it.
 +
* If you want your container to reboot gracefully, you need sys_boot capability (comment out lxc.cap.drop = sys_boot in your container config)
  
nginx does not natively support php, so we delegate that responsibility to [[Package:Php#Fpm | php-fpm]]
+
=== PID namespaces ===
  
{{file|name=/etc/nginx/sites-available/localhost|desc=fpm configuration|body=
+
Process ID namespaces are functional, but the container can still see the CPU utilization of the host via the system load (ie. in <tt>top</tt>).
server {
+
        ...
+
index index.php index.cgi index.htm index.html;
+
location ~ .php$ {
+
        fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
+
include fastcgi.conf;
+
        }
+
        ...
+
}
+
}}
+
  
==== php caching ====
+
=== /dev/pts newinstance ===
{{file|name=/etc/nginx/sites-available/localhost|desc=fpm cache configuration|body=
+
fastcgi_cache_path /etc/nginx/cache levels=1:2 keys_zone=MYAPP:100m inactive=60m;
+
fastcgi_cache_key "$scheme$request_method$host$request_uri";
+
server {
+
...
+
        location ~ \.php$ {
+
...
+
fastcgi_cache MYAPP;
+
fastcgi_cache_valid 200 60m;
+
...
+
}}
+
[https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-setup-fastcgi-caching-with-nginx-on-your-vps for more information on php caching]
+
  
=== proxy_pass===
+
* Some changes may be required to the host to properly implement "newinstance" <tt>/dev/pts</tt>. See [https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=501718 This Red Hat bug].
This configuration proxies to other webservers.  In this example we have webrick running on port 3000 behind nginx producing the live link http://localhost/rails
+
  
{{file|name=/etc/nginx/sites-available/localhost|desc=rails or python configurations|body=
+
=== lxc-create and lxc-destroy ===
server {
+
        ...
+
location /rails/ {
+
    proxy_set_header Host $host;
+
    proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
+
    proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:3000/; #for ruby on rails webrick
+
            #proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:8000/; #for python -m http.server
+
            #proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:8080/; #for other web servers like apache, lighttpd, tengine, cherokee, etc...
+
}
+
        ...
+
}
+
}}
+
  
== Location Processing Order ==
+
* LXC's shell scripts are badly designed and are sure way to destruction, avoid using lxc-create and lxc-destroy.
One often confusing aspect of nginx configuration is the order in which it processes location directives. This section is intended to clarify the confusion and help you to write secure nginx location directives.  
+
  
=== Two basic types of Location directives ===
+
=== network initialization and cleanup ===
There are two basic types of location directives. The first is called a "conventional string", and looks something like this:
+
location /foo { deny all; }
+
The second basic type of location directive is a regex, or regular expression block. In its most basic form, it looks like this, with a "~" and then a regular expression that is matched against the request path. "^" can be used to match the beginning of the request path, and "$" can be used to match the end of the request path. If you need to match a ".", you must escape it as "\." as per regular expression matching rules:
+
location ~ \.php$ { blah; }
+
  
=== The basic algorithm ===
+
* If used network.type = phys after lxc-stop the interface will be renamed to value from lxc.network.link. It supposed to be fixed in 0.7.4, happens still on 0.7.5 - http://www.mail-archive.com/lxc-users@lists.sourceforge.net/msg01760.html
Nginx uses a special algorithm to find the proper location string to match the incoming request. The basic concept to remember is that conventional string directives are placed in one "bucket", and then regular expression strings are placed in another "bucket". Nginx will use the first regular expression match that it finds, when scanning the file from top to bottom. If no matching regular expression is found, nginx will look in its "conventional string" bucket, and try to find a match. In the case of the conventional string matches, the most ''specific'' match will be used, in other words, the one will be used that matches the greatest number of characters in the request path.
+
  
This is the foundation for nginx location processing, so always use these rules as a starting point for understanding location matching order. Nginx then provides various sub-types of location directives which modify this default behavior in a number of ways. This will be covered in the next section.
+
* Re-starting a container can result in a failure as network resource are tied up from the already-defunct instance: [http://www.mail-archive.com/lxc-devel@lists.sourceforge.net/msg00824.html]
  
== Advanced Location Processing ==
+
=== graceful shutdown ===
Always use the location processing logic described in the previous section as the foundation for understanding how nginx finds a matching location directive, and then once you are comfortable with how this works, read about these more advanced directives and understand how they fit into nginx's overall logic.
+
  
=== = (equals) Location ===
+
* To gracefully shutdown a container, it's init system needs to properly handle kill -PWR signal
One advanced location directive is the "=" location, which can be considered a variant of a "conventional string" directive. "=" directives are searched before all other directives, and if a match found, then the corresponding location block is used. A "=" location must the requested path ''exactly'' and ''completely''. For example, the following location block will match only the request /foo/bar, but not /foo/bar/oni.html:
+
* For funtoo/gentoo make sure that you have:
location = /foo/bar { deny all; }
+
** pf:12345:powerwait:/sbin/halt
 +
** in your containers /etc/inittab
 +
* For debian/ubuntu make sure that you have:
 +
** pf::powerwait:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -h now
 +
** in your container /etc/inittab
 +
** and also comment out other line starting with pf:powerfail (such as pf::powerwait:/etc/init.d/powerfail start) <- these are used if you have UPS monitoring daemon installed!
 +
* /etc/init.d/lxc seems to have broken support for graceful shutdown (it sends proper signal, but then also tries to kill the init with lxc-stop)
  
=== ~* (case-insensitive regex) Location ===
+
=== funtoo ===
A "~*" regex match is just like a regular "~" regex match, except matches will be performed in a case-insensitive manner. "~*" location directives, being regex directives, fall into the regex "bucket" and are processed along other regex directives. This means that they are processed in the order they appear in your configuration file and the first match will be used -- assuming no "=" directives match.
+
  
=== ^~ (short-circuit conventional string) Location ===
+
* Our udev should be updated to contain <tt>-lxc</tt> in scripts. (This has been done as of 02-Nov-2011, so should be resolved. But not fixed in our openvz templates, so need to regen them in a few days.)
You may think that a "^~" location is a regex location, but it is not. It is a variant of a conventional string location. If you recall, nginx will search for conventional string matches by finding the ''most specific'' match. However, when you use a "^~" location, nginx behavior is modified. Imagine the way a conventional string match works. Nginx scans your configuration file, looking at each conventional string match from line 1 to the end of file, but it scans ''all'' conventional string matches to find the ''best'' match. Well, the "~^" location match short-circuits this process. If, in the process of scanning each conventional string match in the config file, nginx encounters a "^~" match that matches the current request path, then nginx will apply this match, and stop looking for the ''best'' match.
+
* Our openrc should be patched to handle the case where it cannot mount tmpfs, and gracefully handle this situation somehow. (Work-around in our docs above, which is to mount tmpfs to <tt>/libexec/rc/init.d</tt> using the container-specific <tt>fstab</tt> file (on the host.)
 +
* Emerging udev within a container can/will fail when realdev is run, if a device node cannot be created (such as /dev/console) if there are no mknod capabilities within the container. This should be fixed.
  
== Ebuild Update Protocol ==
+
== References ==
  
To work on a new version of the ebuild, perform the following steps.
+
* <tt>man 7 capabilities</tt>
 +
* <tt>man 5 lxc.conf</tt>
  
First, temporarily set the following settings in <tt>/etc/make.conf</tt>:
+
== Links ==
  
<syntaxhighlight lang="bash">
+
* There are a number of additional lxc features that can be enabled via patches: [http://lxc.sourceforge.net/patches/linux/3.0.0/3.0.0-lxc1/]
NGINX_MODULES_HTTP="*"
+
* [https://wiki.ubuntu.com/UserNamespace Ubuntu User Namespaces page]
NGINX_MODULES_MAIL="*"
+
* lxc-gentoo setup script [https://github.com/globalcitizen/lxc-gentoo on GitHub]
</syntaxhighlight>
+
  
This will enable all available modules for nginx.
+
* '''IBM developerWorks'''
 +
** [http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/library/l-lxc-containers/index.html LXC: Linux Container Tools]
 +
** [http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/library/l-lxc-security/ Secure Linux Containers Cookbook]
  
Now, create a new version of the ebuild in your overlay, and look at all the modules listed at the top of the ebuild. Visit the URLs in the comments above each one and ensure that the latest versions of each are included. Now run <tt>ebuild nginx-x.y.ebuild clean install</tt> to ensure that all modules patch/build properly. Basic build testing is now complete.
+
* '''Linux Weekly News'''
 +
** [http://lwn.net/Articles/244531/ Smack for simplified access control]
  
== Media ==
+
[[Category:Labs]]
{{#widget:YouTube|playlist=PL0k5C_Zqzft0QyD3G4l9cp8h1waSuNWlm}}
+
[[Category:HOWTO]]
{{EbuildFooter}}
+
[[Category:Virtualization]]

Revision as of 18:52, January 28, 2015

Linux Containers, or LXC, is a Linux feature that allows Linux to run one or more isolated virtual systems (with their own network interfaces, process namespace, user namespace, and power state) using a single Linux kernel on a single server.

Status

As of Linux kernel 3.1.5, LXC is usable for isolating your own private workloads from one another. It is not yet ready to isolate potentially malicious users from one another or the host system. For a more mature containers solution that is appropriate for hosting environments, see OpenVZ.

LXC containers don't yet have their own system uptime, and they see everything that's in the host's dmesg output, among other things. But in general, the technology works.

Basic Info

  • Linux Containers are based on:
    • Kernel namespaces for resource isolation
    • CGroups for resource limitation and accounting

Package:LXC is the userspace tool for Linux containers

Control groups

  • Control groups (cgroups) in kernel since 2.6.24
    • Allows aggregation of tasks and their children
    • Subsystems (cpuset, memory, blkio,...)
    • accounting - to measure how much resources certain systems use
    • resource limiting - groups can be set to not exceed a set memory limit
    • prioritization - some groups may get a larger share of CPU
    • control - freezing/unfreezing of cgroups, checkpointing and restarting
    • No disk quota limitation ( -> image file, LVM, XFS, directory tree quota,...)

Subsystems


# cat /proc/cgroups 
subsys_name	hierarchy	num_cgroups	enabled
cpuset	
cpu	
cpuacct	
memory	
devices	
freezer	
blkio	
perf_event
hugetlb
  1. cpuset -> limits tasks to specific CPU/CPUs
  2. cpu -> CPU shares
  3. cpuacct -> CPU accounting
  4. memory -> memory and swap limitation and accounting
  5. devices -> device allow deny list
  6. freezer -> suspend/resume tasks
  7. blkio -> I/O priorization (weight, throttle, ...)
  8. perf_event -> support for per-cpu per-cgroup monitoring perf_events
  9. hugetlb -> cgroup resource controller for HugeTLB pages hugetlb

Configuring the Funtoo Host System

Install LXC kernel

Any kernel beyond 3.1.5 will probably work. Personally I prefer No results as these have support for all the namespaces without sacrificing the xfs, FUSE or NFS support for example. These checks were introduced later starting from kernel 3.5, this could also mean that the user namespace is not working optimally.

  • User namespace (EXPERIMENTAL) depends on EXPERIMENTAL and on UIDGID_CONVERTED
    • config UIDGID_CONVERTED
      • True if all of the selected software components are known to have uid_t and gid_t converted to kuid_t and kgid_t where appropriate and are otherwise safe to use with the user namespace.
        • Networking - depends on NET_9P = n
        • Filesystems - 9P_FS = n, AFS_FS = n, AUTOFS4_FS = n, CEPH_FS = n, CIFS = n, CODA_FS = n, FUSE_FS = n, GFS2_FS = n, NCP_FS = n, NFSD = n, NFS_FS = n, OCFS2_FS = n, XFS_FS = n
        • Security options - Grsecurity - GRKERNSEC = n (if applicable)
    • As of 3.10.xx kernel, all of the above options are safe to use with User namespaces, except for XFS_FS, therefore with kernel >=3.10.xx, you should answer XFS_FS = n, if you want User namespaces support.
    • in your kernel source directory, you should check init/Kconfig and find out what UIDGID_CONVERTED depends on

Kernel configuration

These options should be enable in your kernel to be able to take full advantage of LXC.

  • General setup
    • CONFIG_NAMESPACES
      • CONFIG_UTS_NS
      • CONFIG_IPC_NS
      • CONFIG_PID_NS
      • CONFIG_NET_NS
      • CONFIG_USER_NS
    • CONFIG_CGROUPS
      • CONFIG_CGROUP_DEVICE
      • CONFIG_CGROUP_SCHED
      • CONFIG_CGROUP_CPUACCT
      • CONFIG_CGROUP_MEM_RES_CTLR (in 3.6+ kernels it's called CONFIG_MEMCG)
      • CONFIG_CGROUP_MEM_RES_CTLR_SWAP (in 3.6+ kernels it's called CONFIG_MEMCG_SWAP)
      • CONFIG_CPUSETS (on multiprocessor hosts)
  • Networking support
    • Networking options
      • CONFIG_VLAN_8021Q
  • Device Drivers
    • Character devices
      • Unix98 PTY support
        • CONFIG_DEVPTS_MULTIPLE_INSTANCES
    • Network device support
      • Network core driver support
        • CONFIG_VETH
        • CONFIG_MACVLAN

Once you have lxc installed, you can then check your kernel config with:

# CONFIG=/path/to/config /usr/sbin/lxc-checkconfig

Emerge lxc

# emerge app-emulation/lxc

Configure Networking For Container

Typically, one uses a bridge to allow containers to connect to the network. This is how to do it under Funtoo Linux:

  1. create a bridge using the Funtoo network configuration scripts. Name the bridge something like brwan (using /etc/init.d/netif.brwan). Configure your bridge to have an IP address.
  2. Make your physical interface, such as eth0, an interface with no IP address (use the Funtoo interface-noip template.)
  3. Make netif.eth0 a slave of netif.brwan in /etc/conf.d/netif.brwan.
  4. Enable your new bridged network and make sure it is functioning properly on the host.

You will now be able to configure LXC to automatically add your container's virtual ethernet interface to the bridge when it starts, which will connect it to your network.

Setting up a Funtoo Linux LXC Container

Here are the steps required to get Funtoo Linux running inside a container. The steps below show you how to set up a container using an existing Funtoo Linux OpenVZ template. It is now also possible to use Metro to build an lxc container tarball directly, which will save you manual configuration steps and will provide an /etc/fstab.lxc file that you can use for your host container config. See Metro Recipes for info on how to use Metro to generate an lxc container.

Create and Configure Container Filesystem

  1. Start with a Funtoo LXC template, and unpack it to a directory such as /lxc/funtoo0/rootfs/
  2. Create an empty /lxc/funtoo0/fstab file
  3. Ensure c1 line is uncommented (enabled) and c2 through c6 lines are disabled in /lxc/funtoo0/rootfs/etc/inittab

That's almost all you need to get the container filesystem ready to start.

Create Container Configuration Files

Create the following files:

/lxc/funtoo0/config

and also create symlink from

/lxc/funtoo0/config to /etc/lxc/funtoo0.conf

# mkdir /etc/lxc/funtoo0
# ln -s /lxc/funtoo0/config /etc/lxc/funtoo0/config
Note
Daniel Robbins needs to update this config to be more in line with http://wiki.progress-linux.org/software/lxc/ -- this config appears to have nice, refined device node permissions and other goodies. // note by Havis to Daniel, this config is already superior.


Read "man 5 lxc.conf" , to get more information about linux container configuration file.

## Container
lxc.utsname                             = funtoo0
lxc.rootfs                              = /lxc/funtoo0/rootfs/
lxc.arch                                = x86_64
#lxc.console                            = /var/log/lxc/funtoo0.console  # uncomment if you want to log containers console
lxc.tty                                 = 6  # if you plan to use container with physical terminals (eg F1..F6)
#lxc.tty                                = 0  # set to 0 if you dont plan to use the container with physical terminal, also comment out in your containers /etc/inittab  c1 to c6 respawns (e.g. c1:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty 38400 tty1 linux)
lxc.pts                                 = 1024


## Capabilities
lxc.cap.drop                            = audit_control
lxc.cap.drop                            = audit_write
lxc.cap.drop                            = mac_admin
lxc.cap.drop                            = mac_override
lxc.cap.drop                            = mknod
lxc.cap.drop                            = setfcap
lxc.cap.drop                            = setpcap
lxc.cap.drop                            = sys_admin
#lxc.cap.drop                            = sys_boot # capability to reboot the container
#lxc.cap.drop                            = sys_chroot # required by SSH
lxc.cap.drop                            = sys_module
#lxc.cap.drop                            = sys_nice
lxc.cap.drop                            = sys_pacct
lxc.cap.drop                            = sys_rawio
lxc.cap.drop                            = sys_resource
lxc.cap.drop                            = sys_time
#lxc.cap.drop                            = sys_tty_config # required by getty

## Devices
#lxc.cgroup.devices.allow               = a # Allow access to all devices
lxc.cgroup.devices.deny                 = a # Deny access to all devices

# Allow to mknod all devices (but not using them)
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c *:* m
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = b *:* m

lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 1:3 rwm # /dev/null
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 1:5 rwm # /dev/zero
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 1:7 rwm # /dev/full
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 1:8 rwm # /dev/random
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 1:9 rwm # /dev/urandom
#lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 4:0 rwm # /dev/tty0 ttys not required if you have lxc.tty = 0
#lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 4:1 rwm # /dev/tty1 devices with major number 4 are "real" tty devices
#lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 4:2 rwm # /dev/tty2
#lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 4:3 rwm # /dev/tty3
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 5:0 rwm # /dev/tty
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 5:1 rwm # /dev/console
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 5:2 rwm # /dev/ptmx
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 10:229 rwm # /dev/fuse
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 136:* rwm # /dev/pts/* devices with major number 136 are pts
lxc.cgroup.devices.allow                = c 254:0 rwm # /dev/rtc0

## Limits#
lxc.cgroup.cpu.shares                  = 1024
lxc.cgroup.cpuset.cpus                 = 0        # limits container to CPU0
lxc.cgroup.memory.limit_in_bytes       = 512M
lxc.cgroup.memory.memsw.limit_in_bytes = 1G
#lxc.cgroup.blkio.weight                = 500      # requires cfq block scheduler

## Filesystem
#containers fstab should be outside it's rootfs dir (e.g. /lxc/funtoo0/fstab is ok, but /lxc/funtoo0/rootfs/etc/fstab is wrong!!!)
#lxc.mount                               = /lxc/funtoo0/fstab       

#lxc.mount.entry is prefered, because it supports relative paths
lxc.mount.entry                         = proc proc proc nosuid,nodev,noexec  0 0
lxc.mount.entry                         = sysfs sys sysfs nosuid,nodev,noexec,ro 0 0
lxc.mount.entry                         = devpts dev/pts devpts nosuid,noexec,mode=0620,ptmxmode=000,newinstance 0 0
lxc.mount.entry                         = tmpfs dev/shm tmpfs nosuid,nodev,mode=1777 0 0
lxc.mount.entry                         = tmpfs run tmpfs nosuid,nodev,noexec,mode=0755,size=128m 0 0
lxc.mount.entry                         = tmpfs tmp tmpfs nosuid,nodev,noexec,mode=1777,size=1g 0 0

##Example of having /var/tmp/portage as tmpfs in container 
#lxc.mount.entry                         = tmpfs var/tmp/portage tmpfs defaults,size=8g,uid=250,gid=250,mode=0775 0 0
##Example of bind mount
#lxc.mount.entry                        = /srv/funtoo0 /lxc/funtoo0/rootfs/srv/funtoo0 none defaults,bind 0 0

## Network
lxc.network.type                        = veth
lxc.network.flags                       = up
lxc.network.hwaddr                      = #put your MAC address here, otherwise you will get a random one
lxc.network.link                        = br0
lxc.network.name                        = eth0
#lxc.network.veth.pair                   = veth-example

Read "man 7 capabilities" to get more information aboout Linux capabilities.

Above, use the following command to generate a random MAC for lxc.network.hwaddr:

# openssl rand -hex 6 | sed 's/\(..\)/\1:/g; s/.$//'

It is a very good idea to assign a static MAC address to your container using lxc.network.hwaddr. If you don't, LXC will auto-generate a new random MAC every time your container starts, which may confuse network equipment that expects MAC addresses to remain constant.

It might happen from case to case that you aren't able to start your LXC Container with the above generated MAC address so for all these who run into that problem here is a little script that connects your IP for the container with the MAC address. Just save the following code as /etc/lxc/hwaddr.sh, make it executable and run it like /etc/lxc/hwaddr.sh xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx where xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx represents your Container IP.
/etc/lxc/hwaddr.sh:

#!/bin/sh
IP=$*
HA=`printf "02:00:%x:%x:%x:%x" ${IP//./ }`
echo $HA

/lxc/funtoo0/fstab

Note
It is now preferable to have mount entries directly in config file instead of separate fstab:

Edit the file /lxc/funtoo0/fstab:

none /lxc/funtoo0/dev/pts devpts defaults 0 0
none /lxc/funtoo0/proc proc defaults 0 0
none /lxc/funtoo0/sys sysfs defaults 0 0
none /lxc/funtoo0/dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec,mode=1777,rw 0 0

LXC Networking

  • veth - Virtual Ethernet (bridge)
  • vlan - vlan interface (requires device able to do vlan tagging)
  • macvlan (mac-address based virtual lan tagging) has 3 modes:
    • private
    • vepa (Virtual Ethernet Port Aggregator)
    • bridge
  • phys - dedicated host NIC

Linux Containers and Networking

Enable routing on the host: By default Linux workstations and servers have IPv4 forwarding disabled.

# echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
# cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
# 1

Initializing and Starting the Container

You will probably need to set the root password for the container before you can log in. You can use chroot to do this quickly:

# chroot /lxc/funtoo0/rootfs
(chroot) # passwd
New password: XXXXXXXX
Retype new password: XXXXXXXX
passwd: password updated successfully
(chroot) # exit

Now that the root password is set, run:

# lxc-start -n funtoo0 -d

The -d option will cause it to run in the background.

To attach to the console:

# lxc-console -n funtoo0

You should now be able to log in and use the container. In addition, the container should now be accessible on the network.

To directly attach to container:

# lxc-attach -n funtoo0

To stop the container:

# lxc-stop -n funtoo0

Ensure that networking is working from within the container while it is running, and you're good to go!

Starting LXC container during host boot

  1. You need to create symlink in /etc/init.d/ to /etc/init.d/lxc so that it reflects your container.
  2. ln -s /etc/init.d/lxc /etc/init.d/lxc.funtoo0
  3. now you can add lxc.funtoo0 to default runlevel
  4. rc-update add lxc.funtoo0 default
# rc
 * Starting funtoo0 ...                  [ ok ]

LXC Bugs/Missing Features

This section is devoted to documenting issues with the current implementation of LXC and its associated tools. We will be gradually expanding this section with detailed descriptions of problems, their status, and proposed solutions.

reboot

  • By default, lxc does not support rebooting a container from within. It will simply stop and the host will not know to start it.
  • If you want your container to reboot gracefully, you need sys_boot capability (comment out lxc.cap.drop = sys_boot in your container config)

PID namespaces

Process ID namespaces are functional, but the container can still see the CPU utilization of the host via the system load (ie. in top).

/dev/pts newinstance

  • Some changes may be required to the host to properly implement "newinstance" /dev/pts. See This Red Hat bug.

lxc-create and lxc-destroy

  • LXC's shell scripts are badly designed and are sure way to destruction, avoid using lxc-create and lxc-destroy.

network initialization and cleanup

  • Re-starting a container can result in a failure as network resource are tied up from the already-defunct instance: [1]

graceful shutdown

  • To gracefully shutdown a container, it's init system needs to properly handle kill -PWR signal
  • For funtoo/gentoo make sure that you have:
    • pf:12345:powerwait:/sbin/halt
    • in your containers /etc/inittab
  • For debian/ubuntu make sure that you have:
    • pf::powerwait:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -h now
    • in your container /etc/inittab
    • and also comment out other line starting with pf:powerfail (such as pf::powerwait:/etc/init.d/powerfail start) <- these are used if you have UPS monitoring daemon installed!
  • /etc/init.d/lxc seems to have broken support for graceful shutdown (it sends proper signal, but then also tries to kill the init with lxc-stop)

funtoo

  • Our udev should be updated to contain -lxc in scripts. (This has been done as of 02-Nov-2011, so should be resolved. But not fixed in our openvz templates, so need to regen them in a few days.)
  • Our openrc should be patched to handle the case where it cannot mount tmpfs, and gracefully handle this situation somehow. (Work-around in our docs above, which is to mount tmpfs to /libexec/rc/init.d using the container-specific fstab file (on the host.)
  • Emerging udev within a container can/will fail when realdev is run, if a device node cannot be created (such as /dev/console) if there are no mknod capabilities within the container. This should be fixed.

References

  • man 7 capabilities
  • man 5 lxc.conf

Links