Difference between pages "Network Templates" and "User:PsykoNerd"

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(Experimental Templates)
 
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<blockquote>This document explains how to use and configure your network settings by listing all current and experimental network templates, their options and use cases.
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{{Person
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|Full name=Peter Sloth
 
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|Email=don@psykonerd.org
== Introduction ==
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|Geoloc=55.64191, 12.087845000000016
 
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|Location name=Roskilde, Denmark
Funtoo Linux has its own core network configuration system that differs somewhat from upstream network configuration systems used in [http://www.gentoo.org Gentoo Linux] and [http://roy.marples.name/projects/openrc OpenRC].
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|Roles={{Role
 
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|Role type=User
In this document, I will explain the templating system and list the templates' variables and explain their purpose.
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|Role desc=User
 
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}}
== A Gentle Introduction to Funtoo Network Configuration ==
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|Blogs=
 
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}}
Before I get into the technical details of configuring your network, it's important to understand that Funtoo Linux has a number of different options available to you for network configuration, with more likely to be added in the future. Each approach is different and has its own strengths and weaknesses, and this is, in my opinion, a good thing.
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+
 
+
=== The Template Overview ===
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+
Here I will provide an at-a-glance look at the current and experimental templates.
+
 
+
==== Current Templates ====
+
The current templates provided within a stage3:
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;bond
+
: Bonding and Teaming of Ethernet devices
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: Requires ifenslave package
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;bridge
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: A basic bridge template utilizing bridge-utils and userspace-utilities to create the bridge
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: Requires bridge-utils, and bridging module for kernel
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;bridge-dhcpcd
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: Same as above, but with dhcpd providing the interface configuration
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: Requires bridge-utils, and dhcpd packages, and bridging module for kernel
+
;bridge-openvswitch
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: Same as the basic bridge, but utilizing openvswitch package rather than the
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: Requires openvswitch package, and bridging module for kernel
+
;dhcpcd
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: DHCPCD configuration for interfaces
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: Requires dhcpcd package
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;interface
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: Generic interface configuration
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;interface-noip
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: Configure an interface with no IP. Generally used for physical slaves of a bridge
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;ipv6-tunnel
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: Configure an ipv6 tunnel using iproute2
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;tap
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:Create a tap device. Generally used as a bridge slave.
+
:requires userspace-utilities package
+
 
+
==== Experimental Templates ====
+
 
+
Current experimental templates provided by Setsuna-Xero are available on his [[https://github.com/Setsuna-Xero/Experimental-Templates GitHub Repo]] and consist of updated Corenetwork templates to reduce dependencies, extend support, and utilize iproute2 over usermode tools, as well as new templates. If you find any deprecated tools used, please let Setsuna-Xero know so he can update the templates.
+
 
+
;bond
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: Bonding and Teaming of Ethernet devices utilizing iproute2
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: Supports all major bonding protocols
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;bridge
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: A basic bridge template utilizing iproute2
+
: Requires bridging module for kernel
+
;bridge-dhcpcd
+
: Same as above, but with dhcpcd providing the interface configuration
+
: Requires dhcpd packages, and bridging module for kernel
+
;bridge-openvswitch
+
: Same as the basic bridge, but utilizing openvswitch package rather than the kernel provided utitlities.
+
: Requires and openvswitch packages, and bridging module for kernel
+
;dhcpcd
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: DHCPCD configuration for interfaces
+
: Requires dhcpcd package
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;interface
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: Generic interface configuration
+
;interface-noip
+
: Configure an interface with no IP. Generally used for physical slaves of a bridge
+
;ipv6-tunnel
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: Configure an ipv6 tunnel using iproute2
+
;tap
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: Create a tap device using iproute2
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: Generally used as a bridge slave.
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;bridge-vde
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: Create a bridge and tap device using iproute2, attached to a vde_switch
+
: Used to provide easy bridged networking to VM guests
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:: Requires vde package
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;vde-slirp
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: Create a vde_switch with tap and slirpvde process attached
+
: Used to provide easy NAT networking to VM Guests
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:: requires vde package
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;netif.tmpl
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: Updated netif.tmpl
+
: Required to use templates
+
 
+
== Template Specifications ==
+
 
+
For servers and advanced networking scenarios, Funtoo Linux offers its own modular, template-based network configuration system. This system offers a lot of flexibility for configuring network interfaces, essentially serving as a &quot;network interface construction kit.&quot; This system can be used by itself, or even combined with <tt>dhcpcd</tt>, as shown in the previous section.
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Here are the key components of the template-based network configuration system:
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+
;<tt>/etc/init.d/netif.lo</tt>: An init script that configures the localhost interface. This script is always enabled and is part of the boot process.
+
;<tt>/etc/netif.d</tt>: This is a directory that contains various network configuration templates. Each of these templates is focused on configuring a particular type of network interface, such as a general static IP-based interface, a bridge interface, a bond interface, etc.
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;<tt>/etc/init.d/netif.tmpl</tt>: This is the master init script for the template-based network configuration system. New interfaces are added to your system by creating '''symbolic links''' to this file in <tt>/etc/init.d</tt>.
+
 
+
So, if you wanted to use this system to configure <tt>eth0</tt> with a static IP address, you would create a <tt>netif.eth0</tt> symlink to <tt>netif.tmpl</tt> as follows:
+
 
+
<console># ##i##cd /etc/init.d
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.eth0</console>
+
Then, you would create an <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.eth0</tt> configuration file that would specify which template to use from the <tt>/etc/netif.d</tt> directory:
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+
<pre>
+
template="interface"
+
ipaddr="10.0.1.200/24"
+
gateway="10.0.1.1"
+
nameservers="10.0.1.1 10.0.1.2"
+
domain="funtoo.org"
+
</pre>
+
 
+
To complete our static IP network configuration we would need to:
+
 
+
<console># ##i##rc-update add netif.eth0 default</console>
+
When configuring your own static network interface, one of <tt>ipaddr</tt> or <tt>ipaddrs</tt> is required and should specify the IP address(es) to configure for this interface, in &quot;a.b.c.d/netmask&quot; format. Optional parameters include <tt>gateway</tt>, which defines a default gateway for your entire network, and if set should specify the gateway's IP address. In addition, <tt>domain</tt> and <tt>nameservers</tt> (space-separated if more than one) can be used to specify DNS information for this interface.
+
 
+
=== Configuration Variables ===
+
 
+
==== Interface Variables ====
+
 
+
The <tt>ipaddr</tt>, <tt>ipaddrs</tt>, and <tt>ipaddr6</tt>, <tt>ipaddrs6</tt>  variables are supported by the <tt>interface</tt> and <tt>bridge</tt> templates, and are used to specify a single or multiple  IPv4 or IPv6 address(es) for the interface. IP addresses should be specified in 'IP/netmask' format, such as <tt>10.0.0.1/24</tt>. Multiple IP addresses can be specified delimited by whitespace:
+
For ipv4 addresses use:
+
<pre>ipaddrs=&quot;10.0.0.1/24 10.0.0.2/24&quot;</pre>
+
For ipv6 addresses use:
+
<pre>ipaddrs6=&quot;2001:db8::1234/32 2001:db8::abcd/32&quot;</pre>
+
===== Broadcast Address =====
+
 
+
By default, a broadcast address will be calculated based on the IP address and network mask. If you need to manually specify a broadcast address, use the following format for your IP address:
+
 
+
<pre>
+
ipaddrs="10.0.0.1/24;broadcast=10.0.1.255 10.0.0.2/24"
+
</pre>
+
 
+
===== Not Specifying An Address =====
+
 
+
Note that in some cases, you may choose to '''not''' specify <tt>ipaddr</tt> or <tt>ipaddrs</tt> for a <tt>bridge</tt> template. That is allowed. If you don't want to specify an IP address for a regular interface, you can choose to use the <tt>interface</tt> template without an IP address specified in the config, or use the <tt>interface-noip</tt> template instead, for the sake of clarity.
+
 
+
===== Viewing All Configured IP Addresses =====
+
 
+
Also note that if you specify multiple IPv4 addresses, <tt>ifconfig</tt> will only show the first IP address. To view all IP addresses associated with the interface, use the <tt>ip addr show</tt> command.
+
 
+
=== General Variables ===
+
 
+
The following variables are enabled by default for all network scripts, and if specified will trigger a corresponding configuration action:
+
 
+
;<tt>nameservers</tt>: Set DNS nameservers using OpenResolv. Specify multiple IPv4 or IPv6 nameservers like this: &quot;1.2.3.4 1.2.3.5 1.2.3.6&quot;. Please note that OpenResolv treats <tt>127.0.0.1</tt> specially, and it indicates that you are running a local name resolver like <tt>dnsmasq</tt> or <tt>bind</tt>. OpenResolv will ignore all other name servers specified alongside <tt>127.0.0.1</tt>. See <tt>man resolvconf</tt> and <tt>man resolvconf.conf</tt> for additional setup information.
+
;<tt>search</tt>: Set DNS search information using OpenResolv.
+
;<tt>domain</tt>: Set DNS domain using OpenResolv.
+
;<tt>gateway</tt>: Define a default IPv4 gateway on this interface.
+
;<tt>gateway6</tt>: Define a default IPv6 gateway on this interface.
+
;<tt>route</tt>: Specify a semi-colon delimited list of IPv4 routes to apply when this interface is brought up. Will be appended to <tt>ip -4 route add</tt>.
+
;<tt>route6</tt>: Specify a semi-colon delimited list of IPv6 routes to apply when this interface is brought up. Will be appended to <tt>ip -6 route add</tt>.
+
;<tt>mtu</tt>: Set Maximum Transmit Unit for the interface.
+
;<tt>macaddr</tt>: Sets a MAC address on a tap interface. This is usefull for avoiding layer2 address collisions when using large numbers of TUN interfaces (KVM, openVPN, ect).
+
: This option will rename the interface if it detects the address in <tt>/etc/mactab</tt>, or will assign the new macarr to the interface.
+
 
+
==== VLAN Variables ====
+
 
+
VLAN support is enabled by default for all network configuration scripts. If a network script has a name in the format <tt>netif.ethX.Y</tt>, then it is assumed to be a VLAN interface referencing trunk <tt>ethX</tt> and VLAN ID <tt>Y</tt>. If you desire a custom name for your VLAN interface, you can name your interface whatever you'd like and specify the following variables in your interface config:
+
 
+
;<tt>trunk</tt>: VLAN trunk interface, e.g. &quot;eth0&quot;
+
;<tt>vlan</tt>: VLAN id, e.g. &quot;32&quot;
+
 
+
==== Bridge / Tap / Bond Variables ====
+
 
+
The following variables for configuring a functional bridge interface with optional tap interfaces:
+
 
+
;<tt>slaves</tt>: Set slave interfaces of this interface (for bridges, etc.) All slaves will automatically be depended upon, and will also automatically have their <tt>mtu</tt> set to that of the current interface, if an <tt>mtu</tt> is specified for the current interface. This setting is required for the <tt>bond</tt> template and optional for the <tt>bridge</tt> template.
+
;<tt>stp</tt>: Enables Spanning Tree Protocol on a bridge interface like this &quot;stp=on&quot;
+
: Not used with VDE based templates
+
;<tt>forwarding</tt>: Enables forwarding on a bridge interface by calling sysctl; as this interface does not exist when sysctl is called by init, we do it here. If this is disabled, your bridge will not forward traffic back out onto the network. useage: &quot;forwarding=1&quot;
+
: Not used with VDE based templates
+
;<tt>policy</tt>: Sets bonding policy, valid options include:
+
: active-backup, balance-rr, balance-xor, balance-tlb, balance-alb, broadcast, 802.3ad
+
:: Note that 802.3.ad requires switch support, or one switch per interface
+
 
+
 
+
==== VDE / SlirpVDE Variables ====
+
 
+
The following Variables are used with the VDE and SlirpVDE based templates in addition to the bridge variables:
+
;<tt>vde_tap</tt>: Sets the tap interface used for the vde_switch, defaults to ${interface) name for <tt>vde-slirp</tt> and to ${br_interface}-tap for <tt>bridge-vde</tt>
+
;<tt>br_interface</tt>: Sets the bridge name for <tt>bridge-vde</tt>, defaults to $interface
+
;<tt>vde_pidfile</tt>: Sets the location of the pidfile for the vde_switch, defaults to /var/tmp/vde.${br_interface}.pid
+
;<tt>slip_pidfil</tt>: Sets the location of the pidfile for the vde_switch, defaults to /var/tmp/slirp.${interface}.pid
+
;<tt>vde_sock</tt>: Sets the location of the socket file for the vde_switch, defaults to/var/tmp/vde.${br_interface}.ctl
+
;<tt>vde_mgmt</tt>: Sets the location of the management socket file for the vde_switch, defaults to/var/tmp/vde.${br_interface}.mgmt
+
;<tt>vde_rcfile</tt>: Sets the location of the rcfile file for the vde_switch
+
;<tt>vde_group</tt>: Sets the group used for the vde_switch, defaults to kvm
+
;<tt>vde_mode</tt>: Sets the octal mode for the vde_switch, defaults to 660
+
;<tt>vde_hub</tt>: Enables(1) or Disables(default) hub mode on the vde_switch
+
;<tt>slirp_redir_tcp</tt>: Redirects tcp ports on the host to the guest on the specified port
+
;<tt>slirp_redir_udp</tt>: Redirects udp ports on the host to the guest on the specified port
+
;<tt>slirp_redir_sock</tt>: Redirects a port on the slirpVDE host port to unix socket
+
;<tt>slirp_redir_x</tt>: Redirects X screen sessions on the host to the guest on the specified port
+
;<tt>slirp_dhcp</tt>: Enables SlirpVDE's dhcp server, defaults to 10.0.2.0/24
+
;<tt>slirp_dhcp_start</tt>: Speficies the start of the dhcp server range, defaults to x.x.x.15-254
+
;<tt>slirp_tftp</tt>: Enables tftp server, servering speficied folder, default off
+
;<tt>slirp_host</tt>: Sets the host IP of the slirpvde virtual router if unicast address is used, if a network is specified it sets the dhcp scope as well, default is 10.0.2.2
+
;<tt>slirp_dns</tt>: Sets the DNS-proxy on the slirpcde router, default is 10.0.2.3
+
 
+
=== OpenResolv and resolv.conf ===
+
 
+
OpenResolv will be used to set DNS information provided by the <tt>nameservers</tt>, <tt>domain</tt> and <tt>search</tt> variables when an interface is brought up. The OpenResolv framework will add entries to <tt>/etc/resolv.conf</tt>, and will also handle removing these entries when the interface is brought down. This way, <tt>/etc/resolv.conf</tt> should always contain current information and should not need to be manually edited by the system administrator. <tt>dhcpcd</tt> will use OpenResolv for updating system DNS information as well.
+
 
+
=== Network-Dependent Services ===
+
 
+
One important difference between Gentoo Linux and Funtoo Linux is that, in Funtoo Linux, network-dependent services only strictly depend on <tt>netif.lo</tt>. This means that if another network service requires an interface to be up, such as <tt>samba</tt> requiring <tt>eth0</tt>, then the system administrator must specify this relationship by adding the following line to <tt>/etc/conf.d/samba</tt>:
+
 
+
<pre>rc_need=&quot;netif.eth0&quot;</pre>
+
This will have the effect of ensuring that <tt>netif.eth0</tt> is started prior to <tt>samba</tt> and that <tt>samba</tt> is stopped prior to stopping <tt>netif.eth0</tt>.
+
 
+
Many network services, especially those that listen on all network intefaces, don't need an <tt>rc_need</tt> line in order to function properly. Avoiding the use of <tt>rc_need</tt> when required will optimize boot times and allow more network services to remain available when network interfaces are brought up and down by the system administrator.
+
 
+
=== Multiple Network Configurations ===
+
 
+
For information on how to have multiple, independent network configurations, please see [[Stacked Runlevels]].
+
 
+
=== Alternate Configs ===
+
If you need to run the same service with different configuration parameters depending upon runlevel, then you'll be happy to know that you can specify runlevel-specific conf.d files by appending a <tt>.
+
&lt;runlevel&gt;</tt> suffix. In this particular example, we could imagine a situation where we had two child runlevels named <tt>home</tt> and <tt>work</tt>:
+
 
+
<pre>/etc/conf.d/netif.eth0.home
+
/etc/conf.d/netif.eth0.work</pre>Note that this feature works for all init scripts, not just network configuration scripts.
+
 
+
=== Interface Renaming ===
+
 
+
Funtoo network scripts now support interface renaming, so you can create an interface called <tt>lan</tt> if you would like. To do this, simply specify the MAC address of the interface you would like to rename using the <tt>macaddr</tt> variable:
+
<pre>macaddr=&quot;00:15:17:19:b6:a3&quot;</pre>If this MAC address is part of the <tt>netif.lan</tt> configuration file, then when this interface starts, whatever interface currently has the MAC address of 00:15:17:19:b6:a3 (i.e. <tt>eth5</tt>) will be renamed to <tt>lan</tt> prior to the interface being brought up, and will show up in <tt>ifconfig</tt> and <tt>ip</tt> commands as being an interface named <tt>lan</tt>.
+
 
+
=== Basic VLAN Configuration ===
+
 
+
The standard <tt>interface</tt> template supports VLANs. To use VLAN support, first ensure that your kernel was compiled with VLAN support (the module name is <tt>8021q</tt>) :
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##grep CONFIG_VLAN /usr/src/linux/.config
+
CONFIG_VLAN_8021Q=m
+
CONFIG_VLAN_8021Q_GVRP=y
+
</console>
+
 
+
Then, configure the trunk interface using the <tt>interface-noip</tt> template. Assuming <tt>eth1</tt> is trunked, you would create the file <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.eth1</tt> with the following contents:
+
 
+
<pre>template=&quot;interface-noip&quot;</pre>
+
 
+
Then, create a network interface symlink for the trunk and add it to your default runlevel:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##cd /etc/init.d
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.eth1
+
# ##i##rc-update add netif.eth1 default
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now, assuming you wanted to configure a VLAN of 32, you would create a config file named <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.eth1.32</tt> that looks something like this:
+
 
+
<pre>
+
template=&quot;interface&quot;
+
ipaddr=&quot;1.2.3.4/24&quot;
+
gateway=&quot;1.2.3.1&quot;# etc...
+
</pre>
+
 
+
Then, create a VLAN network interface symlink and add it to your default runlevel:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##cd /etc/init.d
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.eth1.32
+
# ##i##rc-update add netif.eth1.32 default
+
</console>
+
 
+
The Funtoo network configuration scripts will automatically recognize the filename <tt>netif.eth1.32</tt> as being VLAN 32 of trunk interface <tt>netif.eth1</tt>.
+
 
+
When the VLAN interface is brought up, it will be named <tt>eth1.32</tt>.
+
 
+
=== Custom VLAN Names ===
+
 
+
However, sometimes you may want to turn off automatic file-based VLAN naming and give your VLAN interface a custom name, such as <tt>mgmt</tt>. To do this, you would set up the trunk interface in the exact same way as described above, but instead of creating a <tt>netif.eth1.32</tt> interface, you would create a <tt>netif.mgmt</tt> interface, and specify <tt>vlan</tt> and <tt>trunk</tt> in the <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.mgmt</tt> config file, as follows:
+
 
+
<pre>template=&quot;interface&quot;
+
vlan=&quot;32&quot;
+
trunk=&quot;eth1&quot;
+
ipaddr=&quot;1.2.3.4/24&quot;
+
gateway=&quot;1.2.3.1&quot;
+
# etc...</pre>
+
When you specify <tt>trunk</tt> and <tt>vlan</tt> in the interface config file, filename-based auto-detecting of VLAN ID and trunk is disabled. Both <tt>trunk</tt> and <tt>vlan</tt> must be specified -- you can't specify just one.
+
 
+
Then you would simply create a VLAN network interface symlink for <tt>netif.mgmt</tt>:
+
 
+
<console># ##i##cd /etc/init.d
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.mgmt
+
# ##i##rc-update add netif.mgmt default</console>
+
When the VLAN interface is brought up, it will be named <tt>mgmt</tt>.
+
 
+
=== Bonding Configuration ===
+
 
+
Bonding allows you to aggregate multiple network interfaces into a single logical network interface, allowing for benefits in throughput as well as resiliency in the case that an individual interface may go down. This example shows how you would create a bonding interface (<tt>mybond</tt>) with a simple static ip setup, containing two slave devices (<tt>eth0</tt> and <tt>eth1</tt>).
+
 
+
First, ensure that your kernel is configured to support bonding (the module name is <tt>bonding</tt>) :
+
 
+
<console>
+
$ ##i##grep CONFIG_BONDING /usr/src/linux/.config
+
CONFIG_BONDING=m
+
</console>
+
 
+
You'l want to ensure that CONFIG_BONDING is set to "m" or "y". You can find this kernel configuration option tucked under "Device Drivers" -> "Network Device Support" -> "Bonding driver support".
+
Be sure that ifenslave is emerged (this package included in Funtoo stage3):
+
 
+
For current template please install ifenslave. This is not required for experimental templates.
+
<console>
+
# ##i##emerge ifenslave
+
</console>
+
Once bonding is enabled in the kernel, you will need to choose at least two devices to bond together. These will be set up as "slave" interfaces with no IP address.
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##cd /etc/init.d/
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.eth0
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.eth1
+
</console>
+
 
+
Then, configure the slave interfaces by creating <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.eth0</tt> and <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.eth1</tt> with the following contents:
+
 
+
 
+
<pre>
+
template="interface-noip"
+
</pre>
+
 
+
Now, we will create the bond interface and make <tt>netif.eth0</tt> and <tt>netif.eth1</tt> slaves of this interface. Note that our bond interface can have any name. To demonstrate this, we will give it the name of "mybond" below:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.mybond
+
# ##i##rc-update add netif.mybond default
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now we can configure "mybond" using its configuration file <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.mybond</tt>, just as we would a regular interface, except that we specify <tt>slaves</tt>:
+
'''Current template configuration:'''
+
<pre>
+
template="bond"
+
ipaddr="10.0.1.200/24"
+
gateway="10.0.1.1"
+
nameservers="10.0.1.1 10.0.1.2"
+
domain="funtoo.org"
+
slaves="netif.eth0 netif.eth1"
+
</pre>
+
'''Experimental template configuration:'''
+
<pre>
+
template="bond"
+
ipaddr="10.0.1.200/24"
+
gateway="10.0.1.1"
+
nameservers="10.0.1.1 10.0.1.2"
+
domain="funtoo.org"
+
slaves="netif.eth0 netif.eth1"
+
policy="802.3ad"
+
</pre>
+
In a bonded configuration, it is common to set the MTU to the maximum possible value supported by hardware to maximize throughput. In order to do this, simply set the MTU option in <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.mybond</tt> to the maximum value supported by your hardware. The network scripts will ensure that this MTU setting is applied to all slave interfaces:
+
 
+
<pre>
+
mtu=9000
+
</pre>
+
 
+
=== Bridge Configuration ===
+
 
+
When hosting virtual machines, it can be convenient to use a bridge setup. This example shows how you would create a bridge (br0) with a simple static ip setup, containing two slave devices (eth0, tap0).
+
 
+
First, ensure that your kernel is configured to support bridging and TUN/TAP (the module name is <tt>bridge</tt> and <tt>tun</tt>) :
+
 
+
<console>
+
$ ##i##grep -e CONFIG_BRIDGE -e CONFIG_TUN /usr/src/linux/.config
+
CONFIG_BRIDGE=m
+
CONFIG_BRIDGE_IGMP_SNOOPING=y
+
CONFIG_TUN=m
+
</console>
+
 
+
Second, make sure you have the required software installed, this is only required for Current templates:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##emerge -av bridge-utils usermode-utilities
+
</console>
+
 
+
Then, create the necessary symlinks for the interfaces and add them to your default runlevel :
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##cd /etc/init.d/
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.eth0
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.br0
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.tap0
+
# ##i##rc-update add netif.br0 default
+
# ##i##rc-update add netif.tap0 default
+
</console>
+
 
+
Then, configure the slave interface <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.eth0</tt> :
+
 
+
<pre>
+
template="interface-noip"
+
</pre>
+
 
+
Then, configure the slave interface <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.tap0</tt> - note you only require group OR user, not both :
+
 
+
<pre>
+
template="tap"
+
group="kvm"
+
user="kvm"
+
macaddr="10:20:30:40:50:66"
+
</pre>
+
 
+
... and the bridge interface <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.br0</tt> Note that by default the bridge takes over the macaddress of the <tt>LAST</tt> slave attached:
+
 
+
<pre>
+
template="bridge"
+
ipaddr="10.0.1.200/24"
+
gateway="10.0.1.1"
+
nameservers="10.0.1.1 10.0.1.2"
+
domain="funtoo.org"
+
slaves="netif.eth0 netif.tap0"
+
stp="on"
+
forwarding=1
+
</pre>
+
 
+
If you are using dhcpcd, you should ensure that it does not attempt to configure <tt>eth0</tt> or <tt>br0</tt> by adding the following to <tt>/etc/dhcpcd.conf</tt> :
+
 
+
<pre>
+
# don't attempt to pull an ip address for br0 or its slave device
+
denyinterfaces eth0 br0
+
</pre>
+
 
+
=== VDE Bridge configuration ===
+
When hosting virtual machines, it can be convenient to use a bridge setup. This example shows how you would create a VDE bridge (vde0) with a simple static ip setup, containing two slave devices (eth0, vde0-tap). The advantage of using VDE on the bridge is that it requires only one tap interface, and allows for easier VM managment, also enables dynamic vlan managment.
+
 
+
First, ensure that your kernel is configured to support bridging and TUN/TAP (the module name is <tt>bridge</tt> and <tt>tun</tt>) :
+
 
+
<console>
+
$ ##i##grep -e CONFIG_BRIDGE -e CONFIG_TUN /usr/src/linux/.config
+
CONFIG_BRIDGE=m
+
CONFIG_BRIDGE_IGMP_SNOOPING=y
+
CONFIG_TUN=m
+
</console>
+
 
+
Second, make sure you have the required software installed:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##emerge -av net-misc/vde
+
</console>
+
 
+
Then, create the necessary symlinks for the interfaces and add them to your default runlevel :
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##cd /etc/init.d/
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.eth0
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.vde0
+
# ##i##rc-update add netif.eth0 default
+
# ##i##rc-update add netif.vde0 default
+
</console>
+
 
+
Then, configure the slave interface <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.eth0</tt> :
+
 
+
<pre>
+
template="interface-noip"
+
</pre>
+
 
+
... and the bridge interface <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.vde0</tt> Note that by default the bridge takes over the macaddress of the <tt>LAST</tt> slave attached - VDE always adds the tap interface first:
+
 
+
<pre>
+
template="bridge-vde"
+
ipaddr="10.0.1.200/24"
+
gateway="10.0.1.1"
+
nameservers="10.0.1.1 10.0.1.2"
+
domain="funtoo.org"
+
slaves="netif.eth0"
+
</pre>
+
 
+
You now have a vde_switch atached on <tt>vde0-tap</tt> passing traffic out the network VIA the bridge interface <tt>vde0</tt>.  Attach your VMs or other socket based applications to the vde socket located at <tt>/var/tmp/vde.vde0.ctl</tt> or where ever you specified.
+
 
+
=== SlirpVDE configuration(NAT) ===
+
When hosting virtual machines, it can be convenient to use a NATing setup. This example shows how you would create a vde_switch with tap interface <tt>svde0</tt> attached to a slirpvde virtual router. The advantage of using slirpvde is that it allows you easily configure a NATed virtual network with basic DHCP, and allows for easier VM managment, also enables dynamic vlan managment - usefull for VMs that need internet but can't talk to each other.
+
 
+
First, ensure that your kernel is configured to support TUN/TAP (the module name is <tt>tun</tt>) :
+
 
+
<console>
+
$ ##i##grep CONFIG_TUN /usr/src/linux/.config
+
CONFIG_TUN=m
+
</console>
+
 
+
Second, make sure you have the required software installed:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##emerge -av net-misc/vde
+
</console>
+
 
+
Then, create the necessary symlinks for the interfaces and add them to your default runlevel :
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##cd /etc/init.d/
+
# ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.svde0
+
# ##i##rc-update add netif.svde0 default
+
</console>
+
 
+
... and the tap interface <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.svde0</tt> This interface is for enabling host communication to the network, if you don't want this don't assign any addresses:
+
 
+
<pre>
+
template="vde-slirp"
+
ipaddr="10.0.2.200/24"
+
gateway="10.0.2.2"
+
nameservers="10.0.2.3"
+
domain="nat.funtoo.org"
+
</pre>
+
 
+
You now have a vde_switch atached on <tt>vde0-tap</tt> passing traffic out the network VIA the bridge interface <tt>vde0</tt>.  Attach your VMs or other socket based applications to the vde socket located at <tt>/var/tmp/slirp.svde0.ctl</tt> or where ever you specified.  By default the DHCP server is off, but virtual routing and dns-proxy are enabled on 10.0.2.2 and 10.0.2.3. DHCP leases start at 10.0.2.15.
+
 
+
=== More Complex Network Configuration ===
+
 
+
If the standard templates don't work for your needs, simply create a new template -- I recommend starting from the <tt>interface</tt> template for most things:
+
 
+
<console># ##i##cd /etc/netif.d
+
# ##i##cp interface custom</console>
+
You can now call whatever commands you need to <tt>/etc/netif.d/custom</tt>. The following shell functions can be defined in a network script:
+
 
+
==== netif_create ====
+
 
+
In <tt>netif_create</tt>, you should call any commands to create the interface if it does not yet exist.
+
 
+
==== netif_depend ====
+
 
+
In <tt>netif_depend</tt>, you can define dependencies, using the functions <tt>need</tt> and <tt>use</tt>.
+
 
+
==== netif_pre_up ====
+
 
+
In <tt>netif_pre_up</tt>, you can define network configuration actions to perform prior to bringing the interface up. You can also ensure certain variables are specified by calling <tt>require var1 [var2...]</tt> here.
+
 
+
==== netif_post_up====
+
 
+
In <tt>netif_post_up</tt>, you can define network configuration actions to perform after bringing the interface up.
+
 
+
==== netif_pre_down ====
+
 
+
In <tt>netif_pre_down</tt>, you can define network configuration actions to perform prior to bringing the interface down.
+
 
+
==== netif_post_down ====
+
 
+
In <tt>netif_post_down</tt>, you can define network configuration actions to perform after bringing the interface down.
+
 
+
==== netif_destroy ====
+
 
+
In <tt>netif_destroy</tt>, you can call any commands necessary to destroy/delete the interface if it is dynamic in nature (tun/tap, etc.)
+
 
+
==== How It Works ====
+
 
+
You do not specify a function for actually bringing up the interface, because the template-based system does this for you. The template-based system also performs all normal actions required to bring an interface down, so you only need to specify atypical actions that must be performed - such as removing child interfaces or destroying a bridge using <tt>brctl</tt>.
+
 
+
When you create your own network configuration template, the following capabilities are available for use automatically, as long as the appropriate variables are set in the <tt>/etc/conf.d/netif.&lt;ifname&gt;</tt> file, without requiring any explicit steps on your part:
+
 
+
* DNS configuration using <tt>domain</tt> and <tt>nameservers</tt> config settings. OpenResolv is used automatically.
+
* VLAN configuration using auto-naming (<tt>netif.ethX.Y</tt>) or via custom naming with <tt>trunk</tt> and <tt>vlan</tt> config settings.
+
* Default IPv4 gateway and route configuration using the <tt>gateway</tt> and <tt>route</tt> settings.
+
* Default IPv6 gateway and route configuration using the <tt>gateway6</tt> and <tt>route6</tt> settings.
+
* MTU configuration using the <tt>mtu</tt> setting.
+
* Auto-depend (and auto-MTU configuration) of slave interfaces specified using <tt>slaves</tt> setting.
+
* Renaming of existing network interface (specify MAC address using <tt>macaddr</tt> setting).
+
 
+
To take advantage of this functionality, simply enable the appropriate variables.
+
 
+
All other necessary network configuration and dependency behavior should be defined using the <tt>netif_</tt>-prefix functions described above.
+
 
+
== Wireless Configuration ==
+
 
+
The recommended approach for setting up Wi-Fi under Funtoo Linux is to use NetworkManager. Steps are provided in the [[Funtoo Linux Installation#Wi-Fi|Wi-Fi section of the Funtoo Linux Installation Guide]].
+
 
+
== Other Network Configurations ==
+
 
+
If you have a network configuration template that might be useful to others, please post it to the [http://groups.google.com/group/funtoo-dev funtoo-dev mailing list] so we can review it and possibly incorporate it into Funtoo.
+
 
+
== License ==
+
 
+
Funtoo Linux networking scripts are released under the following license:
+
 
+
{{BSD2 Funtoo|src=http://github.com/funtoo/corenetwork}}
+
 
+
[[Category:HOWTO]]
+
[[Category:Projects]]
+
[[Category:Networking]]
+
[[Category:Funtoo features]]
+
[[Category:Official Documentation]]
+

Latest revision as of 15:36, April 4, 2014


Contact

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