Difference between pages "Boot Methods" and "Install/pt-br/Profiles"

(Difference between pages)
(BIOS + GRUB (MBR))
 
(Profiles)
 
Line 1: Line 1:
It used to be that booting a PC-compatible system didn't involve very many choices -- there was only one way to do it. All of our desktops and servers had a standard BIOS, all our hard drives used Master Boot Records, and were partitioned using the MBR partition scheme. Then, along came EFI and UEFI, which are new-style firmware designed to boot systems, along with GPT partition tables to support disks larger than 2.2TB. All of the sudden, we then had a variety of options to boot Linux systems, turning what once was a one-method-fits-all approach into something a lot more complex.
+
=== Profiles ===
  
=== BIOS + GRUB (MBR) ===
+
Uma vez que você tenha reiniciado no Funtoo Linux, você pode mais tarde personalizar seu sistema para as suas necessidade ao usar o Funtoo Profiles.
  
{{Note|This option is the "old school" way to boot Funtoo Linux, as documented in our [[Install|Install Guide]]. This method uses traditional MBR partitions, which have existed since the origin of the PC. }}
+
[[Funtoo 1.0 Profile|Funtoo profiles]] são utilizados para padões para específico Portage para suas necessidades. Há 4 típicos básicos de perfil (profile types): arch, build, [[Flavors and Mix-ins|flavor, and mix-ins]]:
  
Here is the typical disk layout:
+
;arch: tipicamente <code>x86-32bit</code> ou <code>x86-64bit</code>, isso define o tipo de processador e suporte do seu sistema. Isso é definido quando seu stage foi construído e não deve ser alterado.
 +
;build: define se seu sistema é um build <code>current</code>, <code>stable</code> ou <code>experimental</code>. Sistemas <code>current</code> terão pacotes mais recentes do que os sistemas <code>stable</code>.
 +
;flavor: define o tipo geral de sistema, tal como <code>server</code> ou <code>desktop</code>, e definirá flags padrões USE apropriadas para as suas necessidade.
 +
;mix-ins: define várias configurações opcionais que você pode estar interessado em habilitar.
  
* MBR (master boot record) at beginning of boot disk
+
Um arch, build e flavor deve ser definido para cada sistema Funtoo Linux, enquanto mix-ins são opcionais e você pode habilitar mais de um se desejado.
* MBR partition 1, <tt>/dev/sda1</tt> is the <tt>/boot</tt> filesystem (typically ext2)
+
* MBR partition 2, <tt>/dev/sda2</tt> is ''swap''.
+
* MBR partition 3, <tt>/dev/sda3</tt> is the <tt>/</tt> (root) filesystem.
+
  
Here's how the boot process works:
+
Lembre-se de que profiles pode com frequência serem herdados. Por exemplo, o flavor <code>desktop</code> herda as configurações do flavor <code>workstation</code>, que em retorno herda os mix-ins <code>X</code> e <code>audio</code>. Você pode visualizar isso ao utilizar eselect:
  
# The system BIOS loads the MBR from your boot disk (containing stage1 of the GRUB boot loader) and runs it.
+
<console>
# Extra boot-related code is loaded by the GRUB stage1 from the <tt>/boot</tt> filesystem on the disk.
+
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile show
 +
Currently set profiles:
 +
    arch: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit
 +
  build: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current
 +
  flavor: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/desktop
 +
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/kde
  
Now, the boot loader is able to run and load the Linux kernel and initramfs, and start Funtoo Linux.
+
Automatically enabled profiles:
 +
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/print
 +
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/X
 +
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/audio
 +
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd
 +
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media
 +
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/console-extras
 +
</console>
  
=== BIOS + GRUB (GPT) ===
+
To view installed profiles:
 +
<console>
 +
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile list
 +
</console>
  
This is a more modern way to boot Linux. It uses MBR for booting but uses the more modern GPT partition scheme. Here's the disk layout:
+
To change the profile flavor:
 +
<console>
 +
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile set-flavor 7
 +
</console>
  
* The protective MBR is used for booting.
+
To add a mix-in:
* GPT partition 1, <tt>/dev/sda1</tt> is the <tt>/boot</tt> filesystem (typically ext2)
+
* GPT partition 2 type 0xEF02, <tt>/dev/sda2</tt> is the ''boot loader partition'' (this contains a fake MBR).
+
* GPT partition 3, <tt>/dev/sda3</tt> is ''swap''.
+
* GPT partition 4, <tt>/dev/sda4</tt> is the <tt>/</tt> (root) filesystem.
+
  
Here's how this hybrid scheme works:
+
<console>
 
+
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile add 10
# The system BIOS loads the fake MBR from your boot disk(/dev/sda2) (containing stage1 of the GRUB boot loader) and runs it.
+
</console>
# Extra boot-related code is loaded by the GRUB stage1 from a small (a few MB) GPT partition on the disk.
+
 
+
Now, the boot loader is able to run and load the Linux kernel and initramfs, and start Funtoo Linux.
+
 
+
=== UEFI + GRUB ===
+
 
+
{{Note|This method is documented in our [[Install|Install Guide]] as the "new school" UEFI boot method.}}
+
 
+
UEFI is a new-style firmware that is used for booting. It is generally available on all new PCs (2012 and newer) and may be available on older systems as well. Here's the disk layout:
+
 
+
* ''no MBR is installed or required''
+
* GPT partition 1, <tt>/dev/sda1</tt> is the <tt>/boot</tt> filesystem (<tt>vfat</tt> aka "FAT32").
+
* GPT partition 2, <tt>/dev/sda2</tt> is ''swap''.
+
* GPT partition 3, <tt>/dev/sda3</tt> is the <tt>/</tt> (root) filesystem.
+
 
+
Here's how this boot scheme works:
+
 
+
# UEFI (contained in your motherboard's firmware) loads the Bootmanager entry from the RW NVRAM inside your motherboard.
+
# If there's a valid entry that contains Grub, then the GRUB boot loader code from your <tt>/boot</tt> filesystem will be loaded.
+
# UEFI can read from <tt>vfat</tt> partitions directly, which is why we use <tt>vfat</tt> instead of the normal <tt>ext2</tt> for <tt>/boot</tt>.
+
 
+
Now, the boot loader is able to run and load the Linux kernel and initramfs from the <tt>vfat</tt> <tt>/boot</tt> filesystem, and start Funtoo Linux.
+
 
+
=== Pure UEFI ===
+
 
+
A Pure UEFI boot is also possible. The partitioning scheme is the same as the UEFI + GRUB scheme, above.
+
 
+
Here's how this boot scheme works:
+
 
+
# UEFI (contained in your motherboard's firmware) loads the Bootmanager entry from the RW NVRAM inside your motherboard.
+
#  UEFI loads the Linux kernel STUB and initramfs directly, and runs the Linux kernel to start Funtoo Linux.
+

Revision as of 18:46, March 12, 2015

Profiles

Uma vez que você tenha reiniciado no Funtoo Linux, você pode mais tarde personalizar seu sistema para as suas necessidade ao usar o Funtoo Profiles.

Funtoo profiles são utilizados para padões para específico Portage para suas necessidades. Há 4 típicos básicos de perfil (profile types): arch, build, flavor, and mix-ins:

arch
tipicamente x86-32bit ou x86-64bit, isso define o tipo de processador e suporte do seu sistema. Isso é definido quando seu stage foi construído e não deve ser alterado.
build
define se seu sistema é um build current, stable ou experimental. Sistemas current terão pacotes mais recentes do que os sistemas stable.
flavor
define o tipo geral de sistema, tal como server ou desktop, e definirá flags padrões USE apropriadas para as suas necessidade.
mix-ins
define várias configurações opcionais que você pode estar interessado em habilitar.

Um arch, build e flavor deve ser definido para cada sistema Funtoo Linux, enquanto mix-ins são opcionais e você pode habilitar mais de um se desejado.

Lembre-se de que profiles pode com frequência serem herdados. Por exemplo, o flavor desktop herda as configurações do flavor workstation, que em retorno herda os mix-ins X e audio. Você pode visualizar isso ao utilizar eselect:

(chroot) # eselect profile show
Currently set profiles:
    arch: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit
   build: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current
  flavor: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/desktop
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/kde

Automatically enabled profiles:
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/print
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/X
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/audio
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/console-extras

To view installed profiles:

(chroot) # eselect profile list

To change the profile flavor:

(chroot) # eselect profile set-flavor 7

To add a mix-in:

(chroot) # eselect profile add 10