Difference between pages "Hostname" and "Install/pt-br/Profiles"

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==Introduction==
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=== Profiles ===
A hostname is a unique name created to identify a machine on a network. In computer networking, a hostname  is a label that is assigned to a device connected to a computer network and that is used to identify the device in various forms of electronic communication such as the World Wide Web, e-mail or Usenet. Hostnames may be simple names consisting of a single word or phrase, or they may be structured.
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==Configuration==
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Uma vez que você tenha reiniciado no Funtoo Linux, você pode mais tarde personalizar seu sistema para as suas necessidade ao usar o Funtoo Profiles.
In Funtoo Linux <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> is the only configuration file for setting a hostname. In OpenRC framework <code>/etc/conf.d/foo</code> is the configuration file for a corresponding Init script <code>/etc/init.d/foo</code>. With the case of hostname, default value in <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> is set to ''localhost'', means when system boots and OpenRC's <code>/etc/init.d/hostname</code> script started a hostname getting only ''localhost'' name. How it looks?  In your shell promt this will look in following way, an example for root:
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[[Funtoo 1.0 Profile|Funtoo profiles]] são utilizados para padões para específico Portage para suas necessidades. Há 4 típicos básicos de perfil (profile types): arch, build, [[Flavors and Mix-ins|flavor, and mix-ins]]:
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;arch: tipicamente <code>x86-32bit</code> ou <code>x86-64bit</code>, isso define o tipo de processador e suporte do seu sistema. Isso é definido quando seu stage foi construído e não deve ser alterado.
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;build: define se seu sistema é um build <code>current</code>, <code>stable</code> ou <code>experimental</code>. Sistemas <code>current</code> terão pacotes mais recentes do que os sistemas <code>stable</code>.
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;flavor: define o tipo geral de sistema, tal como <code>server</code> ou <code>desktop</code>, e definirá flags padrões USE apropriadas para as suas necessidade.
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;mix-ins: define várias configurações opcionais que você pode estar interessado em habilitar.
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Um arch, build e flavor deve ser definido para cada sistema Funtoo Linux, enquanto mix-ins são opcionais e você pode habilitar mais de um se desejado.
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Lembre-se de que profiles pode com frequência serem herdados. Por exemplo, o flavor <code>desktop</code> herda as configurações do flavor <code>workstation</code>, que em retorno herda os mix-ins <code>X</code> e <code>audio</code>. Você pode visualizar isso ao utilizar eselect:
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<console>
 
<console>
localhost ~ # ##i## Hello :)
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(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile show
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Currently set profiles:
 +
    arch: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit
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  build: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current
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  flavor: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/desktop
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mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/kde
 +
 
 +
Automatically enabled profiles:
 +
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/print
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mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/X
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mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/audio
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mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd
 +
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media
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mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/console-extras
 
</console>
 
</console>
Let's play a bit with a configuration. Open <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> with your favorite editor and set a hostname of your choice.  Below, I will use a real examples  from one of my working test boxes.
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To view installed profiles:
 
<console>
 
<console>
localhost ~ # ##i## nano /etc/conf.d/hostname
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(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile list
 
</console>
 
</console>
Let's set it to hostname="oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org". Save the file and restart  a hostname service:
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 +
To change the profile flavor:
 
<console>
 
<console>
localhost ~ # ##i## service hostname restart
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(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile set-flavor 7
 
</console>
 
</console>
Now, let's examine our changes, after a restarting a hostname
 
<console>
 
oleg-stable ~ # ##i## Hello :)
 
</console>
 
== Diving deeper==
 
Notice, that in above output we seeing a shortened hostname and not a FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name). Don't be frustrated. This is  how  default bash promt <code>PS1</code> set. To get nice promts, please, follow http://www.funtoo.org/Prompt_Magic
 
Another way to test our settings is using a '''hostname''' command. Here we will show only  some of it's features. Let's try to execute '''hostname''' command:
 
<console>
 
oleg-stable ~ # ##i## hostname
 
oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org
 
</console>
 
Now we see our fully qualified domain name hostname just how we configured it in <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> in above paragraph. To get a short hostname we need to set '''-s ''' (short) argument to hostname command.
 
<console>
 
oleg-stable ~ # ##i## hostname -s
 
oleg-stable
 
</console>
 
Good! Hostname offers more then just displaying a system host name but can also set one. Let's try:
 
<console>
 
oleg-stable ~ # ##i## hostname foo.bar.baz
 
oleg-stable ~ # ##i## hostname
 
foo.bar.baz
 
</console>
 
As you can see, we changed a hostname on-the-fly. This is not recommended way.
 
{{fancywarning|Please, notice that using '''hostname''' command to configure will work temporary for a current session and will be reverted back to a value set in <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> file with next system restart.}}
 
  
Now that we got a brief description of a hostname and basic configuration steps, its time to reflect another important case which is directly related to a Funtoo Linux hostname generation, a hosts.
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To add a mix-in:
  
==Hosts case==
 
As per man page <code>hosts</code> stands for static table lookup for hostnames and it's configuration file is <code>/etc/hosts</code>. Here is how it looks
 
{{file|name=/etc/hosts|body=
 
# Auto-generated hostname. Please do not remove this comment.
 
127.0.0.1      oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain
 
::1            oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain
 
}}
 
As you can see it has entries from our <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code>. As you may have guessed, in Funtoo Linux <code>/etc/hosts</code> file entries are auto-generated, when OpenRC hostname service starts. Previously, it is used to edit <code>/etc/hosts</code> manually. In Funtoo Linux there is no such need.
 
 
What about custom hosts entries? This can be easily configured with '''aliases'''. For example you want to have a hosts for your remote router or a computer in home LAN. Let's try to modify <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> with adding following - my remote computer oleg.distant.home has an IP 10.1.1.2:
 
<console>
 
oleg-stable ~ # ##i## echo 'aliases="10.1.1.2 oleg.distant.home"' >> /etc/conf.d/hostname
 
oleg-stable ~ # ##i## service hostname restart
 
</console>
 
Examine our changes:
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
oleg-stable ~ # ##i## cat /etc/hosts
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(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile add 10
 
</console>
 
</console>
{{file|name=/etc/hosts|body=
 
# Auto-generated hostname. Please do not remove this comment.
 
10.1.1.2        oleg.distant.home
 
127.0.0.1      oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain
 
::1            oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain
 
}}
 
Please use the funtoo-dev mailing list and #funtoo irc channel  for hostname and OpenRC support, questions as well as bug reports on bugs.funtoo.org.
 

Revision as of 18:46, March 12, 2015

Profiles

Uma vez que você tenha reiniciado no Funtoo Linux, você pode mais tarde personalizar seu sistema para as suas necessidade ao usar o Funtoo Profiles.

Funtoo profiles são utilizados para padões para específico Portage para suas necessidades. Há 4 típicos básicos de perfil (profile types): arch, build, flavor, and mix-ins:

arch
tipicamente x86-32bit ou x86-64bit, isso define o tipo de processador e suporte do seu sistema. Isso é definido quando seu stage foi construído e não deve ser alterado.
build
define se seu sistema é um build current, stable ou experimental. Sistemas current terão pacotes mais recentes do que os sistemas stable.
flavor
define o tipo geral de sistema, tal como server ou desktop, e definirá flags padrões USE apropriadas para as suas necessidade.
mix-ins
define várias configurações opcionais que você pode estar interessado em habilitar.

Um arch, build e flavor deve ser definido para cada sistema Funtoo Linux, enquanto mix-ins são opcionais e você pode habilitar mais de um se desejado.

Lembre-se de que profiles pode com frequência serem herdados. Por exemplo, o flavor desktop herda as configurações do flavor workstation, que em retorno herda os mix-ins X e audio. Você pode visualizar isso ao utilizar eselect:

(chroot) # eselect profile show
Currently set profiles:
    arch: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit
   build: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current
  flavor: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/desktop
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/kde

Automatically enabled profiles:
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/print
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/X
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/audio
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/console-extras

To view installed profiles:

(chroot) # eselect profile list

To change the profile flavor:

(chroot) # eselect profile set-flavor 7

To add a mix-in:

(chroot) # eselect profile add 10