Difference between revisions of "ZFS Install Guide"

m (Create the initramfs)
(23 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
Line 92: Line 92:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##gdisk /dev/sda
+
# ##i##sgdisk -Z /dev/sda
 
+
Command: ##i##x ↵
+
Expert command: ##i##z ↵
+
About to wipe out GPT on /dev/sda. Proceed?: ##i##y ↵
+
GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or other utilities.
+
Blank out MBR?: ##i##y ↵
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
{{fancywarning|This is a destructive operation. Make sure you really don't want anything on this disk.}}
+
{{fancywarning|This is a destructive operation and the program will not ask you for confirmation! Make sure you really don't want anything on this disk.}}
  
 
Now that we have a clean drive, we will create the new layout.
 
Now that we have a clean drive, we will create the new layout.
 +
 +
First open up the application:
 +
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##gdisk /dev/sda
 +
</console>
  
 
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
 
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
Line 140: Line 140:
  
  
=== Format your boot volume ===
+
=== Format your /boot partition ===
Format your separate <tt>/boot</tt> partition:
+
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 -m 1 /dev/sda1
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Line 153: Line 153:
 
# ##i##cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda3 vault_1
 
# ##i##cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda3 vault_1
 
</console>
 
</console>
 +
 +
{{fancywarning|On some machines, a combination of ZFS and LUKS has caused instability and system crashes.}}
  
 
=== Create the zpool ===
 
=== Create the zpool ===
Line 159: Line 161:
  
 
{{fancyimportant|If you are using encrypted root, change '''/dev/sda3 to /dev/mapper/vault_1'''.}}
 
{{fancyimportant|If you are using encrypted root, change '''/dev/sda3 to /dev/mapper/vault_1'''.}}
 
{{fancynote| '''ashift<nowiki>=</nowiki>12''' should be use if you have a newer, advanced format disk that has a sector size of 4096 bytes. If you have an older disk with 512 byte sectors, you should use '''ashift<nowiki>=</nowiki>9''' or don't add the option for auto detection.}}
 
  
 
{{fancynote| If you have a previous pool that you would like to import, you can do a: '''zpool import -f -R /mnt/funtoo <pool_name>'''.}}
 
{{fancynote| If you have a previous pool that you would like to import, you can do a: '''zpool import -f -R /mnt/funtoo <pool_name>'''.}}
Line 169: Line 169:
 
<console>
 
<console>
 
Create some empty containers for organization purposes, and make the dataset that will hold /
 
Create some empty containers for organization purposes, and make the dataset that will hold /
# ##i##zfs create -p tank/os/funtoo
+
# ##i##zfs create -p tank/funtoo
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/ tank/os/funtoo/root
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/ tank/funtoo/root
  
 
Optional, but recommended datasets: /home
 
Optional, but recommended datasets: /home
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/home tank/os/funtoo/home
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/home tank/funtoo/home
  
 
Optional datasets: /usr/src, /usr/portage/{distfiles,packages}
 
Optional datasets: /usr/src, /usr/portage/{distfiles,packages}
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/src tank/os/funtoo/src
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/src tank/funtoo/src
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage -o compression=off tank/os/funtoo/portage
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage -o compression=off tank/funtoo/portage
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/distfiles tank/os/funtoo/portage/distfiles
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/distfiles tank/funtoo/portage/distfiles
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/packages tank/os/funtoo/portage/packages
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/packages tank/funtoo/portage/packages
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
 
=== Create your swap zvol ===
 
=== Create your swap zvol ===
'''Make your swap +1G greater than your RAM. An 8G machine would have 9G of SWAP (This is kinda big though). For machines with this much memory, You could just make it 2G if you don't have any problems.'''
+
For modern machines that have greater than 4 GB of RAM, A swap size of 2G should be enough. However if your machine doesn't have a lot of RAM, the rule of thumb is either 2x the RAM or RAM + 1 GB.
 +
 
 +
For this tutorial we will assume that it is a newer machine and make a 2 GB swap.
 +
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##zfs create -o sync=always -o primarycache=metadata -o secondarycache=none -o volblocksize=4K -V 1G tank/swap
+
# ##i##zfs create -o sync=always -o primarycache=metadata -o secondarycache=none -o volblocksize=4K -V 2G tank/swap
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Line 197: Line 200:
  
 
== Installing Funtoo ==
 
== Installing Funtoo ==
[[Funtoo_Linux_Installation|Download and extract the Funtoo stage3 and continue installation as normal.]]
 
  
Then once you've extracted the stage3, chroot into your new funtoo environment:
+
=== Pre-Chroot ===
 +
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
 
Go into the directory that you will chroot into
 
Go into the directory that you will chroot into
 
# ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
 
# ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
  
Mount your boot drive
+
Make a boot folder and mount your boot drive
# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot
+
# ##i##mkdir boot
 +
# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 boot
 +
</console>
  
 +
[[Funtoo_Linux_Installation|Now download and extract the Funtoo stage3 ...]]
 +
 +
Once you've extracted the stage3, do a few more preparations and chroot into your new funtoo environment:
 +
 +
<console>
 
Bind the kernel related directories
 
Bind the kernel related directories
# ##i##mount -t proc none /mnt/funtoo/proc
+
# ##i##mount -t proc none proc
# ##i##mount --rbind /dev /mnt/funtoo/dev
+
# ##i##mount --rbind /dev dev
# ##i##mount --rbind /sys /mnt/funtoo/sys
+
# ##i##mount --rbind /sys sys
  
 
Copy network settings
 
Copy network settings
# ##i##cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/funtoo/etc/
+
# ##i##cp -f /etc/resolv.conf etc
  
chroot into your new funtoo environment
+
Make the zfs folder in 'etc' and copy your zpool.cache
# ##i##env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot /mnt/funtoo /bin/bash --login
+
# ##i##mkdir etc/zfs
 +
# ##i##cp /etc/zfs/zpool.cache etc/zfs
  
Place your mountpoints into your /etc/mtab file
+
Chroot into Funtoo
# ##i##cat /proc/mounts > /etc/mtab
+
# ##i##env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
=== In Chroot ===
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
Create a symbolic link to your mountpoints
 +
# ##i##ln -sf /proc/mounts /etc/mtab
  
 
Sync your tree
 
Sync your tree
Line 227: Line 245:
 
=== Add filesystems to /etc/fstab ===
 
=== Add filesystems to /etc/fstab ===
  
Before we continue to compile and or install our kernel in the next step, we will edit the <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> file because if we decide to install our kernel through portage, portage will need to know where is your <tt>/boot</tt> so that it can place the files in there. We also need to update <tt>/etc/mtab</tt> so our system knows what is mounted. Edit <tt>/etc/fstab</tt>:
+
Before we continue to compile and or install our kernel in the next step, we will edit the <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> file because if we decide to install our kernel through portage, portage will need to know where our <tt>/boot</tt> is, so that it can place the files in there.  
 +
 
 +
Edit <tt>/etc/fstab</tt>:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
Line 237: Line 257:
  
 
== Kernel Configuration ==
 
== Kernel Configuration ==
To speed up this step, you can install "bliss-kernel" since it's already properly configured for ZFS and a lot of other configurations. The kernel is also compiled and ready to go. To install {{Package|sys-kernel/bliss-kernel}} type the following:
+
To speed up this step, you can install a pre-configured/compiled kernel called '''bliss-kernel'''. This kernel already has the correct configurations for ZFS and a variety of other scenarios. It's a vanilla kernel from kernel.org without any external patches.
 +
 
 +
To install {{Package|sys-kernel/bliss-kernel}} type the following:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
Line 244: Line 266:
  
 
Now make sure that your <tt>/usr/src/linux symlink</tt> is pointing to this kernel by typing the following:
 
Now make sure that your <tt>/usr/src/linux symlink</tt> is pointing to this kernel by typing the following:
 +
 
<console>
 
<console>
 
# ##i##eselect kernel list
 
# ##i##eselect kernel list
 
Available kernel symlink targets:
 
Available kernel symlink targets:
[1]  linux-3.10.10-FB.01 *
+
[1]  linux-3.12.13-KS.02 *
 
</console>
 
</console>
You should see a star next to the bliss-kernel version you installed. In this case it was 3.10.10-FB.01. If it's not set, you can type '''eselect kernel set #'''.
+
 
 +
You should see a star next to the version you installed. In this case it was 3.12.13-KS.02. If it's not set, you can type '''eselect kernel set #'''.
  
 
== Installing the ZFS userspace tools and kernel modules ==
 
== Installing the ZFS userspace tools and kernel modules ==
Emerge {{Package|sys-fs/zfs}}, {{Package|sys-kernel/spl}}, and {{Package|sys-fs/zfs-kmod}}:
+
Emerge {{Package|sys-fs/zfs}}. This package will bring in {{Package|sys-kernel/spl}}, and {{Package|sys-fs/zfs-kmod}} as its dependencies:
<console># ##i##emerge zfs </console>
+
 
Check to make sure that the zfs tools are working, the <code>zpool.cache</code> file that you copied before should be displayed.
+
<console>
 +
# ##i##emerge zfs
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Check to make sure that the zfs tools are working. The <code>zpool.cache</code> file that you copied before should be displayed.
  
{{Fancynote| SPL stands for: Solaris Porting Layer}}
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
 
# ##i##zpool status
 
# ##i##zpool status
Line 264: Line 291:
 
If everything worked, continue.
 
If everything worked, continue.
  
== Install the bootloader ==
+
== Installing & Configuring the Bootloader ==
=== GRUB 2 ===
+
Before you do this, make sure this checklist is followed:
+
* Installed kernel and kernel modules
+
* Installed zfs package from the tree
+
* <code>/dev</code>, <code>/proc</code>, <code>/sys</code> are mounted in the chroot environment
+
  
Once all this is checked, let's install grub2. First we need to enable the "libzfs" use flag so zfs support is compiled for grub2.
+
For the bootloader and its configuration we will use '''bliss-boot'''. This is a new program that is designed to generate a simple, human-readable/editable, configuration file for a variety of bootloaders. It currently supports grub2, extlinux, and lilo.
  
<console># ##i##echo "sys-boot/grub libzfs" >> /etc/portage/package.use</console>
+
Depending which bootloader you want ('''grub2''', '''extlinux''', '''lilo'''), add a use flag for it and emerge bliss-boot:
  
Then we will compile grub2:
+
<console>
 +
# ##i##echo "sys-boot/bliss-boot grub2" >> /etc/portage/package.use
 +
# ##i##emerge bliss-boot
 +
</console>
  
<console># ##i##emerge grub</console>
+
=== GRUB 2 ===
 +
If you enabled the '''grub2''' flag in '''bliss-boot''', then grub has now been installed.
 +
You can check that grub is version 2.00 by doing the following command:
  
Once this is done, you can check that grub is version 2.00 by doing the following command:
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
 
# ##i##grub-install --version
 
# ##i##grub-install --version
Line 285: Line 311:
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Now try to install {{Package|sys-boot/grub}}:
+
Now install grub to the drive itself (not a partition):
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##grub-install --recheck /dev/sda
+
# ##i##grub-install /dev/sda
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
 
You should receive the following message:
 
You should receive the following message:
 +
 
<console>
 
<console>
 
Installation finished. No error reported.
 
Installation finished. No error reported.
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
If not, then go back to the above checklist.
+
You should now see some a grub directory with some files inside your /boot folder:
  
=== LILO ===
+
<console>
Before you do this, make sure the following checklist is followed:
+
# ##i##ls -l /boot/grub
* <code>/dev</code>, <tt>/proc</tt> and <tt>/sys</tt> are mounted.
+
total 2520
* Installed the {{Package|sys-fs/zfs}} package from the tree.
+
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    1024 Jan  4 16:09 grubenv
Once the above requirements are met, LILO can be installed.
+
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    8192 Jan 12 14:29 i386-pc
 +
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    4096 Jan 12 14:28 locale
 +
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2555597 Feb  4 11:50 unifont.pf2
 +
</console>
  
Now we will install {{Package|sys-boot/lilo}}.
+
=== Extlinux ===
<console># ##i##emerge sys-boot/lilo</console>
+
To install extlinux, you can follow the guide here: [[Extlinux|Link to Extlinux Guide]].
Once the installation of LILO is complete we will need to edit the <tt>/etc/lilo.conf</tt> file:
+
  
 +
=== Bootloader Configuration===
 +
In order to generate our bootloader configuration file, we will first configure bliss-boot so that it knows what we want. The 'bliss-boot' configuration file is located in '''/etc/bliss-boot/conf.py'''. Open that file and make sure that the following variables are set appropriately:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
boot=/dev/sda
+
# This should be set to the bootloader you installed earlier: (grub2, extlinux, and lilo are the available options)
prompt
+
bootloader = "grub2"
timeout=4
+
default=Funtoo
+
  
image=/boot/bzImage
+
# This should be set to the kernel you installed earlier
      label=Funtoo
+
default = "3.12.13-KS.02"  
      read-only
+
      append="root=tank/os/funtoo/root"
+
      initrd=/boot/initramfs
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
All that is left now is to install the bootcode to the MBR.
 
  
This can be accomplished by running:
+
Scroll all the way down until you find 'kernels'. You will need to add the kernels and the options
<console># ##i##/sbin/lilo</console>
+
you want for these kernels here. Below are a few configuration options depending if you are using
If it is successful you should see:
+
'''bliss-initramfs''' or '''genkernel'''.
 +
 
 +
==== Bliss Initramfs Creator ====
 +
<pre>
 +
kernel = {
 +
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'root=tank/funtoo/root quiet',
 +
}
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
'''If you are using encryption then you would let the initramfs know:'''
 +
 
 +
#"What type of encryption authentication you want to use? ('''enc_type=''')
 +
::* pass = will ask for passphrase directly
 +
::* key = a plain unencrypted key file
 +
::* key_gpg = an encrypted key file
 +
#"Where is the encrypted drive?" ('''enc_root=''')
 +
#"Where is the root pool after it has been decrypted?" ('''root=''')
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
kernel = {
 +
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'root=tank/funtoo/root enc_root=/dev/sda3 enc_type=pass quiet',
 +
}
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
==== Genkernel ====
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
kernel = {
 +
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root dozfs=force quiet',
 +
}
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
'''If you are using encryption you can add the crypt_root option:'''
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
kernel = {
 +
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root dozfs=force crypt_root=/dev/sda3 quiet',
 +
}
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
=== Generate the configuration ===
 +
Now that we have configure our '''/etc/bliss-boot/conf.py''' file, we can generate our config. Simply run the following command:
 +
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
 +
# ##i##bliss-boot
 +
</console>
 +
 +
This will generate a configuration file for the bootloader you specified previously in your current directory. You can check your config file before hand to make sure it doesn't have any errors. Simply open either: grub.cfg, extlinux.conf, or lilo.conf.
 +
 +
Once you have checked it for errors, place this file in the correct directory:
 +
 +
* grub2 = /boot/grub/
 +
* extlinux = /boot/extlinux/
 +
* lilo = /etc/lilo.conf
 +
 +
=== LILO ===
 +
If you enabled the '''lilo''' flag in '''bliss-boot''', then lilo has now been installed.
 +
 +
Since we have already generated our config file and placed it in /etc/lilo.conf, we can install lilo to the MBR:
 +
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##lilo
 +
 +
You should see the following:
 
Warning: LBA32 addressing assumed
 
Warning: LBA32 addressing assumed
 
Added Funtoo + *
 
Added Funtoo + *
Line 332: Line 419:
  
 
== Create the initramfs ==
 
== Create the initramfs ==
There are two ways to do this, you can use genkernel, or you can use my bliss initramfs creator. I will show you both.
+
There are two ways to do this, you can use "genkernel" or "bliss-initramfs". Both will be shown.
  
 
=== genkernel ===
 
=== genkernel ===
 +
Install genkernel and run it:
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##emerge sys-kernel/genkernel
+
# ##i##emerge genkernel
# You only need to add --luks if you used encryption
+
 
 +
You only need to add --luks if you used encryption
 
# ##i##genkernel --zfs --luks initramfs
 
# ##i##genkernel --zfs --luks initramfs
 
</console>
 
</console>
Line 348: Line 437:
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Now install the creator:
+
Now install the program and run it:
 
+
 
<console>
 
<console>
 
# ##i##emerge bliss-initramfs
 
# ##i##emerge bliss-initramfs
 +
# ##i##bliss-initramfs
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
 +
=== Moving into correct location ===
 +
Place the file that was generated by the above applications into either your /boot folder (If you are using boot-update) or into your /boot/kernels/3.12.13-KS.02 folder (If you are using bliss-boot). For bliss-boot, the file needs to be called 'initrd' rather than 'initrd-3.12.13-KS.02'.
  
Then go into the install directory, run the script as root, and place it into /boot:
+
==== boot-update ====
<console># ##i##cd /opt/bliss-initramfs
+
<console>
# ##i##./createInit
+
# ##i##mv initrd-3.12.13-KS.02 /boot
# ##i##mv initrd-<kernel_name> /boot
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
'''<kernel_name>''' is the name of what you selected in the initramfs creator, and the name of the outputted file.
 
  
== Using boot-update ==
+
==== bliss-boot ====
=== /boot on separate partition ===
+
If you created a separate non-zfs partition for boot then configuring boot-update is almost exactly the same as a normal install except that auto detection for root does not work. You must tell boot-update what your root is.
+
==== Genkernel ====
+
If your using genkernel you must add 'real_root=ZFS=<root>' and 'dozfs' to your params.
+
Example entry for <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt>:
+
 
+
<pre>
+
"Funtoo ZFS" {
+
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
+
        initrd initramfs-genkernel-x86_64[-v]
+
        params real_root=ZFS=tank/os/funtoo/root
+
        params += dozfs=force
+
        # Also add 'params += crypt_root=/dev/sda3' if you used encryption
+
        # Adjust the above setting to your system if needed
+
}
+
</pre>
+
 
+
==== Bliss Initramfs Creator ====
+
If you used the Bliss Initramfs Creator then all you need to do is add 'root=<root>' to your params.
+
Example entry for <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt>:
+
 
+
<pre>
+
"Funtoo ZFS" {
+
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
+
        initrd initrd[-v]
+
        params root=tank/os/funtoo/root quiet
+
        # If you have an encrypted device with a regular passphrase,
+
        # you can add the following line
+
        params += enc_root=/dev/sda3 enc_type=pass
+
}
+
</pre>
+
 
+
After editing /etc/boot.conf, you just need to run boot-update to update grub.cfg
+
 
<console>
 
<console>
###i## boot-update
+
# ##i##mv initrd-3.12.13-KS.02 /boot/kernels/3.12.13-KS.02/initrd
 
</console>
 
</console>
 
=== /boot on ZFS ===
 
TBC - pending update to boot-update to support this
 
  
 
== Final configuration ==
 
== Final configuration ==

Revision as of 21:57, 4 March 2014

Introduction

This tutorial will show you how to install Funtoo on ZFS (rootfs). This tutorial is meant to be an "overlay" over the Regular Funtoo Installation. Follow the normal installation and only use this guide for steps 2, 3, and 8.

Introduction to ZFS

Since ZFS is a new technology for Linux, it can be helpful to understand some of its benefits, particularly in comparison to BTRFS, another popular next-generation Linux filesystem:

  • On Linux, the ZFS code can be updated independently of the kernel to obtain the latest fixes. btrfs is exclusive to Linux and you need to build the latest kernel sources to get the latest fixes.
  • ZFS is supported on multiple platforms. The platforms with the best support are Solaris, FreeBSD and Linux. Other platforms with varying degrees of support are NetBSD, Mac OS X and Windows. btrfs is exclusive to Linux.
  • ZFS has the Adaptive Replacement Cache replacement algorithm while btrfs uses the Linux kernel's Last Recently Used replacement algorithm. The former often has an overwhelmingly superior hit rate, which means fewer disk accesses.
  • ZFS has the ZFS Intent Log and SLOG devices, which accelerates small synchronous write performance.
  • ZFS handles internal fragmentation gracefully, such that you can fill it until 100%. Internal fragmentation in btrfs can make btrfs think it is full at 10%. Btrfs has no automatic rebalancing code, so it requires a manual rebalance to correct it.
  • ZFS has raidz, which is like RAID 5/6 (or a hypothetical RAID 7 that supports 3 parity disks), except it does not suffer from the RAID write hole issue thanks to its use of CoW and a variable stripe size. btrfs gained integrated RAID 5/6 functionality in Linux 3.9. However, its implementation uses a stripe cache that can only partially mitigate the effect of the RAID write hole.
  • ZFS send/receive implementation supports incremental update when doing backups. btrfs' send/receive implementation requires sending the entire snapshot.
  • ZFS supports data deduplication, which is a memory hog and only works well for specialized workloads. btrfs has no equivalent.
  • ZFS datasets have a hierarchical namespace while btrfs subvolumes have a flat namespace.
  • ZFS has the ability to create virtual block devices called zvols in its namespace. btrfs has no equivalent and must rely on the loop device for this functionality, which is cumbersome.

The only area where btrfs is ahead of ZFS is in the area of small file efficiency. btrfs supports a feature called block suballocation, which enables it to store small files far more efficiently than ZFS. It is possible to use another filesystem (e.g. reiserfs) on top of a ZFS zvol to obtain similar benefits (with arguably better data integrity) when dealing with many small files (e.g. the portage tree).

Disclaimers

Warning

This guide is a work in progress. Expect some quirks.

Important

Since ZFS was really designed for 64 bit systems, we are only recommending and supporting 64 bit platforms and installations. We will not be supporting 32 bit platforms!

Video Tutorial

As a companion to the installation instructions below, a YouTube video tutorial is now available:

Important

The video and guide are currently out of sync. The video has newer instructions. The guide needs to be updated.

Downloading the ISO (With ZFS)

In order for us to install Funtoo on ZFS, you will need an environment that already provides the ZFS tools. Therefore we will download a customized version of System Rescue CD with ZFS included.

Name: sysresccd-4.0.1_zfs_0.6.2.iso  (545 MB)
Release Date: 2014-02-25
md5sum 01f4e6929247d54db77ab7be4d156d85


Download System Rescue CD with ZFS

Creating a bootable USB from ISO (From a Linux Environment)

After you download the iso, you can do the following steps to create a bootable USB:

Make a temporary directory
# mkdir /tmp/loop

Mount the iso
# mount -o ro,loop /root/sysresccd-4.0.1_zfs_0.6.2.iso /tmp/loop

Run the usb installer
# /tmp/loop/usb_inst.sh

That should be all you need to do to get your flash drive working.

Booting the ISO

Warning

When booting into the ISO, Make sure that you select the "Alternate 64 bit kernel (altker64)". The ZFS modules have been built specifically for this kernel rather than the standard kernel. If you select a different kernel, you will get a fail to load module stack error message.

Creating partitions

There are two ways to partition your disk: You can use your entire drive and let ZFS automatically partition it for you, or you can do it manually.

We will be showing you how to partition it manually because if you partition it manually you get to create your own layout, you get to have your own separate /boot partition (Which is nice since not every bootloader supports booting from ZFS pools), and you get to boot into RAID10, RAID5 (RAIDZ) pools and any other layouts due to you having a separate /boot partition.

gdisk (GPT Style)

A Fresh Start:

First lets make sure that the disk is completely wiped from any previous disk labels and partitions. We will also assume that /dev/sda is the target drive.

# sgdisk -Z /dev/sda

Warning

This is a destructive operation and the program will not ask you for confirmation! Make sure you really don't want anything on this disk.

Now that we have a clean drive, we will create the new layout.

First open up the application:

# gdisk /dev/sda

Create Partition 1 (boot):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 
First sector: 
Last sector: +250M ↵
Hex Code: 

Create Partition 2 (BIOS Boot Partition):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 
First sector: 
Last sector: +32M ↵
Hex Code: EF02 ↵

Create Partition 3 (ZFS):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 
First sector: 
Last sector: 
Hex Code: bf00 ↵

Command: p ↵

Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size       Code  Name
   1            2048          514047   250.0 MiB   8300  Linux filesystem
   2          514048          579583   32.0 MiB    EF02  BIOS boot partition
   3          579584      1953525134   931.2 GiB   BF00  Solaris root

Command: w ↵


Format your /boot partition

# mkfs.ext2 -m 1 /dev/sda1

Encryption (Optional)

If you want encryption, then create your encrypted vault(s) now by doing the following:

# cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/sda3
# cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda3 vault_1

Warning

On some machines, a combination of ZFS and LUKS has caused instability and system crashes.

Create the zpool

We will first create the pool. The pool will be named `tank` and the disk will be aligned to 4096 (using ashift=12)

# zpool create -f -o ashift=12 -o cachefile= -O compression=on -m none -R /mnt/funtoo tank /dev/sda3

Important

If you are using encrypted root, change /dev/sda3 to /dev/mapper/vault_1.

Note

If you have a previous pool that you would like to import, you can do a: zpool import -f -R /mnt/funtoo <pool_name>.

Create the zfs datasets

We will now create some datasets. For this installation, we will create a small but future proof amount of datasets. We will have a dataset for the OS (/), and your swap. We will also show you how to create some optional datasets: /home, /var, /usr/src, and /usr/portage.

Create some empty containers for organization purposes, and make the dataset that will hold /
# zfs create -p tank/funtoo
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/ tank/funtoo/root

Optional, but recommended datasets: /home
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/home tank/funtoo/home

Optional datasets: /usr/src, /usr/portage/{distfiles,packages}
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/src tank/funtoo/src
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage -o compression=off tank/funtoo/portage
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/distfiles tank/funtoo/portage/distfiles
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/packages tank/funtoo/portage/packages

Create your swap zvol

For modern machines that have greater than 4 GB of RAM, A swap size of 2G should be enough. However if your machine doesn't have a lot of RAM, the rule of thumb is either 2x the RAM or RAM + 1 GB.

For this tutorial we will assume that it is a newer machine and make a 2 GB swap.

# zfs create -o sync=always -o primarycache=metadata -o secondarycache=none -o volblocksize=4K -V 2G tank/swap

Format your swap zvol

# mkswap -f /dev/zvol/tank/swap
# swapon /dev/zvol/tank/swap

Now we will continue to install funtoo.

Installing Funtoo

Pre-Chroot

Go into the directory that you will chroot into
# cd /mnt/funtoo

Make a boot folder and mount your boot drive
# mkdir boot
# mount /dev/sda1 boot

Now download and extract the Funtoo stage3 ...

Once you've extracted the stage3, do a few more preparations and chroot into your new funtoo environment:

Bind the kernel related directories
# mount -t proc none proc
# mount --rbind /dev dev
# mount --rbind /sys sys

Copy network settings
# cp -f /etc/resolv.conf etc

Make the zfs folder in 'etc' and copy your zpool.cache
# mkdir etc/zfs
# cp /etc/zfs/zpool.cache etc/zfs

Chroot into Funtoo
# env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l

In Chroot

Create a symbolic link to your mountpoints
# ln -sf /proc/mounts /etc/mtab

Sync your tree
# emerge --sync

Add filesystems to /etc/fstab

Before we continue to compile and or install our kernel in the next step, we will edit the /etc/fstab file because if we decide to install our kernel through portage, portage will need to know where our /boot is, so that it can place the files in there.

Edit /etc/fstab:

# <fs>                  <mountpoint>    <type>          <opts>          <dump/pass>

/dev/sda1               /boot           ext2            defaults        0 2
/dev/zvol/tank/swap     none            swap            sw              0 0

Kernel Configuration

To speed up this step, you can install a pre-configured/compiled kernel called bliss-kernel. This kernel already has the correct configurations for ZFS and a variety of other scenarios. It's a vanilla kernel from kernel.org without any external patches.

To install sys-kernel/bliss-kernel (package not on wiki - please add) type the following:

# emerge bliss-kernel

Now make sure that your /usr/src/linux symlink is pointing to this kernel by typing the following:

# eselect kernel list
Available kernel symlink targets:
[1]   linux-3.12.13-KS.02 *

You should see a star next to the version you installed. In this case it was 3.12.13-KS.02. If it's not set, you can type eselect kernel set #.

Installing the ZFS userspace tools and kernel modules

Emerge sys-fs/zfs (package not on wiki - please add). This package will bring in sys-kernel/spl (package not on wiki - please add), and sys-fs/zfs-kmod (package not on wiki - please add) as its dependencies:

# emerge zfs

Check to make sure that the zfs tools are working. The zpool.cache file that you copied before should be displayed.

# zpool status
# zfs list

If everything worked, continue.

Installing & Configuring the Bootloader

For the bootloader and its configuration we will use bliss-boot. This is a new program that is designed to generate a simple, human-readable/editable, configuration file for a variety of bootloaders. It currently supports grub2, extlinux, and lilo.

Depending which bootloader you want (grub2, extlinux, lilo), add a use flag for it and emerge bliss-boot:

# echo "sys-boot/bliss-boot grub2" >> /etc/portage/package.use
# emerge bliss-boot

GRUB 2

If you enabled the grub2 flag in bliss-boot, then grub has now been installed. You can check that grub is version 2.00 by doing the following command:

# grub-install --version
grub-install (GRUB) 2.00

Now install grub to the drive itself (not a partition):

# grub-install /dev/sda

You should receive the following message:

Installation finished. No error reported.

You should now see some a grub directory with some files inside your /boot folder:

# ls -l /boot/grub
total 2520
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    1024 Jan  4 16:09 grubenv
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    8192 Jan 12 14:29 i386-pc
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    4096 Jan 12 14:28 locale
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2555597 Feb  4 11:50 unifont.pf2

Extlinux

To install extlinux, you can follow the guide here: Link to Extlinux Guide.

Bootloader Configuration

In order to generate our bootloader configuration file, we will first configure bliss-boot so that it knows what we want. The 'bliss-boot' configuration file is located in /etc/bliss-boot/conf.py. Open that file and make sure that the following variables are set appropriately:

# This should be set to the bootloader you installed earlier: (grub2, extlinux, and lilo are the available options)
bootloader = "grub2"

# This should be set to the kernel you installed earlier
default = "3.12.13-KS.02" 

Scroll all the way down until you find 'kernels'. You will need to add the kernels and the options you want for these kernels here. Below are a few configuration options depending if you are using bliss-initramfs or genkernel.

Bliss Initramfs Creator

kernel = {
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'root=tank/funtoo/root quiet',
}

If you are using encryption then you would let the initramfs know:

  1. "What type of encryption authentication you want to use? (enc_type=)
  • pass = will ask for passphrase directly
  • key = a plain unencrypted key file
  • key_gpg = an encrypted key file
  1. "Where is the encrypted drive?" (enc_root=)
  2. "Where is the root pool after it has been decrypted?" (root=)
kernel = {
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'root=tank/funtoo/root enc_root=/dev/sda3 enc_type=pass quiet',
}

Genkernel

kernel = {
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root dozfs=force quiet',
}

If you are using encryption you can add the crypt_root option:

kernel = {
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root dozfs=force crypt_root=/dev/sda3 quiet',
}

Generate the configuration

Now that we have configure our /etc/bliss-boot/conf.py file, we can generate our config. Simply run the following command:

# bliss-boot

This will generate a configuration file for the bootloader you specified previously in your current directory. You can check your config file before hand to make sure it doesn't have any errors. Simply open either: grub.cfg, extlinux.conf, or lilo.conf.

Once you have checked it for errors, place this file in the correct directory:

  • grub2 = /boot/grub/
  • extlinux = /boot/extlinux/
  • lilo = /etc/lilo.conf

LILO

If you enabled the lilo flag in bliss-boot, then lilo has now been installed.

Since we have already generated our config file and placed it in /etc/lilo.conf, we can install lilo to the MBR:

# lilo

You should see the following:
Warning: LBA32 addressing assumed
Added Funtoo + *
One warning was issued

Create the initramfs

There are two ways to do this, you can use "genkernel" or "bliss-initramfs". Both will be shown.

genkernel

Install genkernel and run it:

# emerge genkernel

You only need to add --luks if you used encryption
# genkernel --zfs --luks initramfs

Bliss Initramfs Creator

If you are encrypting your drives, then add the "luks" use flag to your package.use before emerging:

# echo "sys-kernel/bliss-initramfs luks" >> /etc/portage/package.use

Now install the program and run it:

# emerge bliss-initramfs
# bliss-initramfs

Moving into correct location

Place the file that was generated by the above applications into either your /boot folder (If you are using boot-update) or into your /boot/kernels/3.12.13-KS.02 folder (If you are using bliss-boot). For bliss-boot, the file needs to be called 'initrd' rather than 'initrd-3.12.13-KS.02'.

boot-update

# mv initrd-3.12.13-KS.02 /boot

bliss-boot

# mv initrd-3.12.13-KS.02 /boot/kernels/3.12.13-KS.02/initrd

Final configuration

Add the zfs tools to openrc

# rc-update add zfs boot

Clean up and reboot

We are almost done, we are just going to clean up, set our root password, and unmount whatever we mounted and get out.

Delete the stage3 tarball that you downloaded earlier so it doesn't take up space.
# cd /
# rm stage3-latest.tar.xz

Set your root password
# passwd
>> Enter your password, you won't see what you are writing (for security reasons), but it is there!

Get out of the chroot environment
# exit

Unmount all the kernel filesystem stuff and boot (if you have a separate /boot)
# umount -l proc dev sys boot

Turn off the swap
# swapoff /dev/zvol/tank/swap

Export the zpool
# cd /
# zpool export tank

Reboot
# reboot

Important

Don't forget to set your root password as stated above before exiting chroot and rebooting. If you don't set the root password, you won't be able to log into your new system.

and that should be enough to get your system to boot on ZFS.

After reboot

Create initial ZFS Snapshot

Continue to set up anything you need in terms of /etc configurations. Once you have everything the way you like it, take a snapshot of your system. You will be using this snapshot to revert back to this state if anything ever happens to your system down the road. The snapshots are cheap, and almost instant.

To take the snapshot of your system, type the following:

# zfs snapshot -r tank@install

To see if your snapshot was taken, type:

# zfs list -t snapshot

If your machine ever fails and you need to get back to this state, just type (This will only revert your / dataset while keeping the rest of your data intact):

# zfs rollback tank/os/funtoo/root@install

Important

For a detailed overview, presentation of ZFS' capabilities, as well as usage examples, please refer to the ZFS Fun page.