Difference between pages "UEFI Install Guide" and "Emerge"

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m (Undo revision 8974 by Tocadotux (talk) not under pt-br names)
 
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This tutorial will show you how to install Funtoo on a UEFI system. UEFI, also known as the [[Wikipedia:Unified Extensible Firmware Interface|Unified Extensible Firmware Interface]], is a new firmware interface that is used on some newer computers as a replacement for the traditional PC BIOS. It has an integrated boot loader, so setting up booting is different. The recommended approach is to follow the [[ UEFI_Install_Guide#EFI_Stub_method | Efi Stub Method ]]. Many have reported that they are now unable to boot their system using the other, older method.
+
== Getting started with emerge ==
 +
Emerge is the front-end for funtoo's Portage package manager. With emerge it is easy to install, update or remove packages.
  
This tutorial is meant to be an "overlay" over the Regular Funtoo Installation. Follow the normal installation and only follow steps in this tutorial when dealing with partitioning and configuring the boot loader (GRUB). All steps are otherwise identical to the regular installation process.
+
=== Update Package Database ===
 +
'''Sync local package database. This will update your local Portage tree with the latest Funtoo ebuilds.'''
 +
<console>
 +
###i## emerge --sync
 +
</console>
  
== What Are We Doing? ==
+
=== Search packages ===
 +
'''Search packages by name.'''
 +
<console>
 +
###i## emerge -s firefox
 +
###i## emerge --search firefox
 +
</console>
  
This guide will show you how to set up your UEFI system to load the GRUB boot loader, which will then load your Funtoo Linux kernel and initramfs. This is the "UEFI + GRUB" method as described on the [[Boot Methods]] page.
+
'''Search packages by description.'''
 +
<console>
 +
###i## emerge -S web browser
 +
###i## emerge --searchdesc web browser
 +
</console>
  
== First Steps ==
+
=== Install packages ===
 +
'''Install package.'''
 +
<console>
 +
###i## emerge firefox
 +
</console>
  
To install Funtoo Linux on a UEFI system, first you need to boot SysRescueCD in UEFI mode. To do this, enable UEFI in your BIOS, and if necessary disable legacy booting. After some fiddling, you should be able to boot SysRescueCD and get a black and white text menu instead of the traditional aqua/cyan-colored menu. The black and white menu indicates that you booted SysRescueCD in UEFI mode. Once you've accomplished this, you're ready to continue with your Funtoo Linux installation and partition your drive. See below for details.
+
'''Install multiple packages.'''
 +
<console>
 +
###i## emerge firefox thunderbird
 +
</console>
  
{{fancynote|If the <tt>/sys/firmware/efi</tt> directory exists, then you have successfully booted in EFI mode and will be able to configure your Funtoo system to boot in EFI mode. If the directory doesn't exist, fix this first. It is a requirement for setting up EFI booting.}}
+
'''Install package. Ask for confirmation before performing any changes. Show verbose output.'''
 +
<console>
 +
###i## emerge -av firefox
 +
###i## emerge --ask firefox
 +
</console>
  
== Partitioning ==
+
=== Remove packages ===
 +
'''Remove package.'''
 +
<console>
 +
###i## emerge -C firefox
 +
###i## emerge --unmerge firefox
 +
</console>
  
To set up your partitions for UEFI booting, you will create a ~500MB FAT32 partition on <tt>/dev/sda1</tt>, and set it to type <tt>EF00</tt> using <tt>gdisk</tt>.
+
'''Remove package. Ask for confirmation before performing any changes.'''
 +
<console>
 +
###i## emerge -aC firefox
 +
</console>
  
 +
'''Remove orphaned packages. Ask for confirmation before performing any changes.'''
 
<console>
 
<console>
Command: ##i##n ↵
+
###i## emerge -a --depclean
Partition Number: ##i##1 ↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+500M ↵
+
Hex Code: ##i##EF00
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
This partition will serve as your Funtoo <tt>/boot</tt> filesystem as well as the partition that the UEFI firmware can read to load GRUB. Then you will set up swap on <tt>/dev/sda2</tt> and your root filesystem on <tt>/dev/sda3</tt>. To create the FAT32 filesystem, type:
+
=== Update packages ===
 +
'''Update all packages.'''
 +
<console>
 +
###i## emerge -uDN @world
 +
</console>
  
 +
'''Update all packages. Ask for confirmation before performing any changes. Show verbose output.'''
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1
+
###i## emerge -uavDN @world
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Your <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> entry for this filesystem will also differ, and will look like this:
+
'''When upgrading to a new version of perl, it is necessary to also run <code>perl-cleaner</code> afterwards:'''
 +
<console>
 +
###i## emerge -auvDN @world
 +
###i## perl-cleaner --all
 +
</console>
  
<pre>
+
{{Note|This requirement of running <code>perl-cleaner</code> will eventually go away, once all perl-related ebuilds are updated to EAPI 5. EAPI 5 is a version of the Ebuild specification that supports smart updating of perl-related bits.}}
/dev/sda1 /boot vfat noatime 1 2
+
</pre>
+
  
== Kernel ==
+
== Emerge options ==
  
=== VFAT ===
+
; --sync
 +
: Updates the portage tree that is located in /usr/portage by default.
  
Make sure you add VFAT support to your kernel if you are building it manually.
+
; --search -s
 +
: Searches  for  matches  of  the  supplied  string in the portage tree.
  
=== EFI Framebuffer ===
+
; --searchdesc -S
 +
: Matches the search string against the description field as well as the package name.
  
If you have the following option enabled in your kernel, then uvesafb and efifb will not be able to detect the framebuffer:
+
; --ask -a
 +
: Ask for confirmation before performing any changes.
  
{{kernelop|title=Bus options (PCI etc.)|desc=
+
; --pretend -p
    [*] Mark VGA/VBE/EFI FB as generic system framebuffer (NEW)
+
: Instead of actually performing the merge, simply display what *would* have been installed if --pretend weren't used.
}}
+
  
If you have that option enabled, ''you must also enable'':
+
; --unmerge -C
 +
: Removes all matching packages.
  
{{kernelop|title=Device Drivers,Graphics support,Frame buffer Devices|desc=
+
; --update -u
    [*]  Simple framebuffer support
+
: Updates  packages to the best version available, which may not always be the  highest version number due to masking for testing and development.
}}
+
  
This is the preferred method of using the EFI framebuffer, the efifb and uvesafb drivers will be used as a fallback if the above is not compatible.
+
; --deep [DEPTH] -D
=== Grub method ===
+
: force  emerge  to  consider  the entire  dependency tree of packages, instead of checking only the immediate dependencies of the packages.
  
==== Unmask Grub 2.02_beta2 ====
+
; --newuse -N
 +
: Tells emerge to include installed packages where USE flags have changed since compilation.
  
Unmask the latest version of GRUB by placing this in your <code>/etc/portage/package.unmask</code>:
+
; --depclean -c
 +
: Remove orphaned packages. Cleans the system by removing packages that are not associated with explicitly merged packages.
  
<pre>
+
; --autounmask-write
sys-boot/grub
+
: Automatically write package.use settings as necessary to satisfy dependencies.
</pre>
+
  
The 2.00 version of GRUB has known issues with UEFI booting. Using 2.02 is essential for having this boot method work reliably.
+
; --resume -r
 +
: Resumes  the  most recent merge list that has been aborted due to an error.
  
==== Emerging GRUB ====
+
; --jobs[=JOBS] -j [JOBS]
 +
: Specifies the number of packages to build simultaneously.
  
You will still use GRUB as a boot loader, but before emerging grub, you will need to enable EFI booting. To do this,
+
; --load-average [LOAD]
add the following line to <tt>/etc/portage/make.conf</tt>:
+
: Specifies  that  no  new  builds should be started if there are other builds running and the load average is at least LOAD (a floating-point number).
  
<pre>
+
== Configuration ==
GRUB_PLATFORMS="efi-64"
+
=== make.conf ===
</pre>
+
Emerge can be configured by editing
  
Then, <tt>emerge grub</tt>. You will notice <tt>efibootmgr</tt> getting pulled in as a dependency. This is expected and good.
+
{{file|name=/etc/portage/make.conf||desc=See [[Make.conf]]|body=
 +
CFLAGS="-march=native -O2 -pipe"
 +
CXXFLAGS="-march=native -O2 -pipe"
  
==== Installing GRUB ====
+
MAKEOPTS="-j2"
 +
EMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS="--jobs 2 --load-average 2"
 +
INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
 +
VIDEO_CARDS="intel i965"
 +
LINGUAS="en en_US en_GB"
 +
ACCEPT_LICENSE="*"
  
Now, for the magic of getting everything in place for booting. You should copy your kernel and initramfs (if you have one -- you will if you are following the default install) to <tt>/boot</tt>. GRUB will boot those. But how do we get UEFI to boot GRUB? Well, we need to run the following command:
+
USE="mmx mmxext sse sse2 sse3 ssse3 threads alsa X gtk xcb dri opengl vaapi udev \
 
+
    svg x264 xvid gstreamer webm vpx icu bash-completion vim-pager \
<console>
+
    -gnome -xscreensaver -cups -fortran -deprecated -iptables -ipv6 -geoloc \
# ##i##grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda
+
    -mta -sendmail -kmod -tiff -live -quicktime -real -gpm -themes"
</console>
+
This command will simply install all the stuff to <tt>/boot/EFI</tt> and <tt>/boot/grub</tt> that your system needs to boot. In particular, the <tt>/boot/EFI/grub/grubx64.efi</tt> file will be created. This is the GRUB boot image that UEFI will load and start.
+
 
+
A more detailed explanation of the flags used in the above command:
+
* <code>--target=x86_64-efi</code>: Tells GRUB that we want to install it in a way that allows it to boot in UEFI
+
* <code>--efi-directory=/boot</code>: All GRUB UEFI files will be installed in ''/boot''
+
* <code>--bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]"</code>: This flag is not necessary for GRUB to boot. However, it allows you to change the text of the boot option in the UEFI BIOS. The stuff in the quotes can be set to anything that you would like.
+
* <code>--recheck</code>: If a device map already exists on the disk or partition that GRUB is being installed on, it will be removed.
+
* <code>/dev/sda</code>:The device that we are installing GRUB on.
+
 
+
==== Configuring GRUB ====
+
 
+
OK, now UEFI has the GRUB image it needs to boot. But we still need to configure GRUB itself so it finds and boots your kernel and initramfs. This is done by performing the following steps. Since boot-update doesn't yet support UEFI, we will use boot-update, but then edit our <code>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</code> to support UEFI booting.
+
 
+
First, you will need to edit <code>/etc/boot.conf</code>. Format this as you would if you were booting without UEFI. If you are not sure how this should look, below is an example of what it could look like if you are booting from an unencrypted ext4 partition:
+
 
+
{{file|name=/etc/boot.conf|desc=|body=
+
boot {
+
        generate grub
+
        default "Funtoo Linux"
+
        timeout 3
+
}
+
 
+
"Funtoo Linux" {
+
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
+
        params += rootfstype=ext4 root=/dev/sda2
+
}
+
 
}}
 
}}
  
After you have edited your <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> file, run <code>boot-update</code>. If you check your <code>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</code> now, you should see something like this:
+
=== Package.use ===
 +
Per-package use flags can be configured in
  
{{file|name=/boot/grub/grub.cfg|desc=|body=
+
{{file|name=/etc/portage/package.use|body=
set timeout=3
+
x11-wm/dwm savedconfig
 
+
x11-drivers/ati-drivers qt4
  insmod part_gpt
+
media-sound/ncmpcpp visualizer clock taglib
  insmod fat
+
  set root=(hostdisk//dev/sda,gpt1)
+
  search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 3CFD-6884
+
if loadfont /grub/unifont.pf2; then
+
  set gfxmode=text
+
  insmod gfxterm
+
  insmod vbe
+
  terminal_output gfxterm
+
fi
+
 
+
set menu_color_normal=cyan/blue
+
set menu_color_highlight=blue/cyan
+
 
+
menuentry "Funtoo Linux - vmlinuz-3.16.3" {
+
  insmod part_gpt
+
  insmod fat
+
  set root=(hostdisk//dev/sda,gpt1)
+
  search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 3CFD-6884
+
  linux /vmlinuz-3.16.3 video=uvesafb:1920x1080-32,mtrr:3,ywrap rootfstype=ext4 root=/dev/sda2
+
  set gfxpayload=text
+
}
+
set default=0
+
 
}}
 
}}
  
To get your <code>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</code> to support booting with UEFI, make your <code>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</code> look like this:
+
=== package.accept_keywords ===
{{file|name=/boot/grub/grub.cfg|desc=|body=
+
If you want to install a package that has not been tested on your architecture you need to edit
set timeout=3
+
{{file|name=/etc/portage/package.accept_keywords|body=
 
+
=app-misc/screenfetch-9999 **
  insmod part_gpt
+
  insmod fat
+
  insmod efi_gop
+
  insmod efi_uga
+
  set root=(hostdisk//dev/sda,gpt1)
+
  search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 3CFD-6884
+
if loadfont /grub/unifont.pf2; then
+
  set gfxmode=auto
+
  insmod gfxterm
+
  insmod vbe
+
  terminal_output gfxterm
+
fi
+
 
+
set menu_color_normal=cyan/blue
+
set menu_color_highlight=blue/cyan
+
 
+
menuentry "Funtoo Linux - vmlinuz-3.16.3" {
+
  insmod part_gpt
+
  insmod fat
+
  set root=(hostdisk//dev/sda,gpt1)
+
  search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 3CFD-6884
+
  linux /vmlinuz-3.16.3 video=uvesafb:1920x1080-32,mtrr:3,ywrap rootfstype=ext4 root=/dev/sda2
+
  set gfxpayload=keep
+
}
+
set default=0
+
 
}}
 
}}
  
The lines that we have added and altered do the following:
+
== Other Resources ==
* <code>insmod efi_gop</code> and <code>insmod efi_uga</code>: Both of these involve adding support for the UEFI framebuffer to GRUB.
+
For more info see the emerge man page.
* <code>set gfxmode=auto</code>: Instead of having the GRUB boot option screen being displayed at the smallest resolution possible, changing this to auto will make it fit the resolution of your display.
+
<console>
 
+
$##i## man emerge
== Known Issues ==
+
</console>
*With pure UEFI boot mode, with legacy mode disabled, following error expected:
+
** video driver not supported, boot hangs, hard reboot required.
+
*Choose UEFI first, next legacy driver. It depends on motherboard vendor and efi bios version.
+
**In UEFI bios choose grub option, if your succeeded with above guide, additional menu should appear in Boot Menu, otherwise it boots into EFI shell: <code>grub:NAME of you hard drive</code>
+
* On some systems, installing the packages that are required for UEFI booting with any gcc later than a 4.x.x release may lead to a black screen after the GRUB screen. To fix this, before you begin installing any packages on your system, emerge =gcc-4.6.4-r2 and proceed with the installation as usual. Remember to switch your compiler back to the version of gcc that came with your system after you have finished installing. To do this, use <code>gcc-config 2</code>. This problem can also be fixed by following the [[Efi Stub guide]] instead of the GRUB one.
+
 
+
=== Done! ===
+
 
+
Remember to follow all other steps in the regular Funtoo Install Guide. Assuming you did everything correctly, your system should now boot via UEFI! We will be adding UEFI support to boot-update soon to make this process easier.
+
  
 +
[[Category:Portage]]
 
[[Category:HOWTO]]
 
[[Category:HOWTO]]
 +
[[Category:Tutorial]]
 +
[[Category:System]]
 +
[[Category:First Steps]]

Latest revision as of 16:03, February 7, 2015

Getting started with emerge

Emerge is the front-end for funtoo's Portage package manager. With emerge it is easy to install, update or remove packages.

Update Package Database

Sync local package database. This will update your local Portage tree with the latest Funtoo ebuilds.

# emerge --sync

Search packages

Search packages by name.

# emerge -s firefox
# emerge --search firefox

Search packages by description.

# emerge -S web browser
# emerge --searchdesc web browser

Install packages

Install package.

# emerge firefox

Install multiple packages.

# emerge firefox thunderbird

Install package. Ask for confirmation before performing any changes. Show verbose output.

# emerge -av firefox
# emerge --ask firefox

Remove packages

Remove package.

# emerge -C firefox
# emerge --unmerge firefox

Remove package. Ask for confirmation before performing any changes.

# emerge -aC firefox

Remove orphaned packages. Ask for confirmation before performing any changes.

# emerge -a --depclean

Update packages

Update all packages.

# emerge -uDN @world

Update all packages. Ask for confirmation before performing any changes. Show verbose output.

# emerge -uavDN @world

When upgrading to a new version of perl, it is necessary to also run perl-cleaner afterwards:

# emerge -auvDN @world
# perl-cleaner --all
Note

This requirement of running perl-cleaner will eventually go away, once all perl-related ebuilds are updated to EAPI 5. EAPI 5 is a version of the Ebuild specification that supports smart updating of perl-related bits.

Emerge options

--sync
Updates the portage tree that is located in /usr/portage by default.
--search -s
Searches for matches of the supplied string in the portage tree.
--searchdesc -S
Matches the search string against the description field as well as the package name.
--ask -a
Ask for confirmation before performing any changes.
--pretend -p
Instead of actually performing the merge, simply display what *would* have been installed if --pretend weren't used.
--unmerge -C
Removes all matching packages.
--update -u
Updates packages to the best version available, which may not always be the highest version number due to masking for testing and development.
--deep [DEPTH] -D
force emerge to consider the entire dependency tree of packages, instead of checking only the immediate dependencies of the packages.
--newuse -N
Tells emerge to include installed packages where USE flags have changed since compilation.
--depclean -c
Remove orphaned packages. Cleans the system by removing packages that are not associated with explicitly merged packages.
--autounmask-write
Automatically write package.use settings as necessary to satisfy dependencies.
--resume -r
Resumes the most recent merge list that has been aborted due to an error.
--jobs[=JOBS] -j [JOBS]
Specifies the number of packages to build simultaneously.
--load-average [LOAD]
Specifies that no new builds should be started if there are other builds running and the load average is at least LOAD (a floating-point number).

Configuration

make.conf

Emerge can be configured by editing

/etc/portage/make.conf - See Make.conf
CFLAGS="-march=native -O2 -pipe"
CXXFLAGS="-march=native -O2 -pipe"

MAKEOPTS="-j2"
EMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS="--jobs 2 --load-average 2"
INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
VIDEO_CARDS="intel i965"
LINGUAS="en en_US en_GB"
ACCEPT_LICENSE="*"

USE="mmx mmxext sse sse2 sse3 ssse3 threads alsa X gtk xcb dri opengl vaapi udev \
     svg x264 xvid gstreamer webm vpx icu bash-completion vim-pager \
     -gnome -xscreensaver -cups -fortran -deprecated -iptables -ipv6 -geoloc \
     -mta -sendmail -kmod -tiff -live -quicktime -real -gpm -themes"

Package.use

Per-package use flags can be configured in

/etc/portage/package.use
x11-wm/dwm savedconfig
x11-drivers/ati-drivers qt4
media-sound/ncmpcpp visualizer clock taglib

package.accept_keywords

If you want to install a package that has not been tested on your architecture you need to edit

/etc/portage/package.accept_keywords
=app-misc/screenfetch-9999 **

Other Resources

For more info see the emerge man page.

$ man emerge