Difference between pages "Funtoo Linux FAQ" and "Zero Configuration Networking"

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(I can't use emerge --sync to download an initial Portage tree.)
 
 
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== Common Misconceptions, Rumors, etc. ==
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Zero Configuration Networking, also called Zeroconf or [[wikipedia:Bonjour_(software)|Bonjour]]  ([http://developer.apple.com/softwarelicensing/agreements/bonjour.html Apple's trademark] for their Zero Configuration Networking implementation) is a suite of related technologies that allow networked devices to interoperate on a local network without requiring explicit configuration.
  
=== Does Funtoo Linux use a Red Hat kernel? ===
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== Requirements ==
  
Funtoo Linux users are free to choose their own kernel, just like in Gentoo Linux, although RHEL kernel compatibility is a priority of this project, so that enterprise users have the option of using
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Zero Configuration Networking requires the following things to operate:
such kernels. We maintain instructions for how to get a RHEL5-based kernel running under Funtoo Linux, and also ensure that this option is officially supported. See [[RHEL5 Kernel HOWTO]].
+
  
=== Does Funtoo use an overlay? ===
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* A valid IP address, obtained either by:
 +
** Static assignment
 +
** DHCP
 +
** Link-local Addressing (part of Zero Configuration Networking)
 +
* A means to address other devices by name, provided either by:
 +
** DNS
 +
** multicast DNS (mDNS -- part of Zero Configuration Networking)
  
Yes and no. We do have an overlay at [http://www.github.com/funtoo/funtoo-overlay GitHub] that contains all the Funtoo modifications to Gentoo. However, the overlay is intended for developers, and users should use our integrated git-based Portage trees with all the overlay changes merged in. The reason for this is that our integrated Portage trees also have profile patches applied, which are stored within our overlay at funtoo/patches, if you want to check them out. So if you just use our overlay on top of the Gentoo tree, it will not work properly.
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== Service Discovery ==
  
=== Is there a lot of junk in your Portage tree? ===
+
On top of this, Zero Configuration Networking also provides a means to discover what services are available on each device. This is something that is provided exclusively by Zero Configuration Networking and is called Zeroconf Service Discovery.
  
No. At one point, we had a lot of overlays merged in to our Portage tree, such as the sunrise overlay. We now have a very clean Portage tree, and sunrise is no longer part of the tree. All Funtoo changes to the tree can be found in our overlay at [http://www.github.com/funtoo/funtoo-overlay GitHub]. All other changes come from Gentoo and a few other overlays (see [[Portage Tree]].) Funtoo Linux changes are very well-maintained and organized in our overlay.
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== Configuration ==
  
== Using Funtoo Linux, Portage and Git ==
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In order to get these sort of networking services running, some configuration needs to happen initially.
  
=== How do I start using Funtoo Linux? ===
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== Link-local Addresses ==
  
For information on how to start using Funtoo Linux, see the [[Funtoo Linux Quick Install Guide]].
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{{Fancynote|It's only necessary to use link-local addressing if you have no other means of obtaining a valid IP address on your LAN. Typically, this is the case if you are setting up a small or ad-hoc network where no DHCP server has been configured.}}
 
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=== Is it possible to convert an existing Gentoo Linux install to Funtoo Linux? ===
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+
Yes, it is possible, but I am no longer supporting this method as it can be problematic and is always sub-optimal to installing Funtoo Linux from a stage3.
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=== I can't use <tt>emerge --sync</tt> to download an initial Portage tree. ===
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Make sure you have the following in <tt>/etc/portage/make.conf</tt>:
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+
{{File
+
|/etc/portage/make.conf|<pre>
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SYNC="git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012.git"
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</pre>}}
+
 
+
{{Fancynote| Recent versions of portage do not require hard-coded SYNC variables. In fact, after you have synced and to, you should remove the SYNC line from your make.conf.}}
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+
=== I try to emerge something and Portage complains that a digest is not found. ===
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You are using a Funtoo mini-manifest tree and forgot to enable mini-manifest. To do this, add the following to <tt>/etc/portage/make.conf</tt>:
+
 
+
{{File
+
|/etc/portage/make.conf|<pre>
+
FEATURES="mini-manifest"
+
</pre>}}
+
 
+
=== What is mini-manifest? ===
+
 
+
Funtoo's default Portage tree has gone on a diet - Manifests now include only entries for distfiles (source tarballs.) For everything else, we rely on git's internal integrity-checking mechanisms which is based on SHA1 digests.
+
 
+
In addition, our mini-Portage tree does not include ChangeLogs for additional space savings. This allows us to offer a Portage tree snapshot that is under 30MB in size when compressed.
+
 
+
=== How do I update my git-based Portage tree? ===
+
 
+
If you already have an existing git-based Portage tree, you can update it by typing:
+
  
 +
To use link-local addressing, first set up the proper routes:
 
<console>
 
<console>
###i## emerge --sync
+
###i## route add default dev eth0 metric 99
 +
###i## route add -net 169.254.0.0 netmask 255.255.0.0 dev eth0 metric 99
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
=== I set up my initial git-based Portage tree, but <tt>/usr/portage</tt> seems to be empty. ===
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Then, use avahi-autoipd to discover a valid link-local IP address:
 
+
You forgot to type:
+
 
+
 
<console>
 
<console>
###i## cd /usr/portage
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###i## /usr/sbin/avahi-autoipd --daemonize --syslog --wait eth0
###i## git checkout funtoo.org
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
Funtoo Linux's portage tree snapshot ships with a mostly empty branch active by default to reduce the size of the resultant snapshot tarball.
 
  
=== What is different with Funtoo's UTF-8 support? ===
+
Once a valid link-local IP address is found, eth0 will now have a 169.254.x.x address that can be used to communicate on the local LAN.
  
Funtoo Linux has UTF-8 enabled by default, even for the <tt>root</tt> user. This allows UTF-8 files to be edited without issue, <tt>root</tt> GNU screen sessions to display UTF-8 character sets properly, etc. The classic sort order of <tt>ls -a</tt> has been preserved by setting <tt>LC_COLLATE</tt> to <tt>POSIX</tt>. All other locale settings inherit the system default defined in the <tt>LANG</tt> variable, which is set to <tt>en_US.UTF-8</tt>.
+
As an alternative, you can have dhcpcd built with <code>USE="zeroconf"</code>, and it will provide a link local address if no DHCP server is found.
  
=== What if I want to use a non-English locale/language? ===
+
== Multicast DNS ==
  
I recommend two things. First, it's strongly recommended that you always use a UTF-8-based locale.
+
Multicast DNS, or mDNS, is a means by which individual machines can broadcast their DNS information to machines on the local LAN so that a DNS server is not required to address local devices by name. The ".local" domain is typically used for multicast DNS, so your laptop might be addressable by pinging "mylaptop.local", for example. mDNS is not necessary if you have some other means of addressing machines by name, such as unicast (regular) DNS. But many LANs do not have their own DNS server configured, in which case mDNS can be very handy.
  
The next thing I recommend is to try to avoid changing the global system LANG setting, and instead set the LANG setting on a per-user basis by adding the desired LANG setting to your <tt>~/.bashrc</tt>. This will preserve English log output in <tt>/var/log</tt> and make it easier to search for more common matching English strings on the Internet when you need help.
+
=== .local Hostname Suffix ===
 +
 
 +
If you want to configure your Funtoo Linux system to be addressable on your LAN using a <tt>myhostname.local</tt> address, first ensure that you set your system's hostname in <tt>/etc/conf.d/hostname</tt>, and use ''only'' the non-qualified name, so don't add a <tt>.local</tt> yourself. Multicast DNS will automatically use that suffix. Here is a sample <tt>/etc/conf.d/hostname</tt> for a machine on my network that I can ping from other machines as <tt>antec.local</tt>:
  
If you really want to change the default system LANG setting (taking into account the paragraph above,) then it's recommended that you create your own <tt>/etc/env.d/02locale</tt> file that contains something like this:
 
 
{{File
 
{{File
|/etc/env.d/02locale|<pre>
+
|/etc/conf.d/hostname|<pre>
LANG="fr_CA.UTF-8"
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hostname="antec"
 
</pre>}}
 
</pre>}}
You will need to run <tt>env-update</tt> and <tt>source /etc/profile</tt> to apply changes immediately to any open shells, and reboot to apply changes fully.
 
  
=== What is different with Funtoo's Ruby? ===
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== Receiving mDNS ==
  
Funtoo Linux tracks Gentoo's Ruby, but we do have one change for ruby-1.9 and greater - the binary name is changed with /usr/bin/ruby1.9 instead of Gentoo's /usr/bin/ruby19. This makes the versioning consistent with Python binaries and MacOS X. This means that for ruby-1.9 and greater. While the path to the binary has changed, all Portage variables are the same as Gentoo, so you should use &quot;ruby19&quot; for the <tt>RUBY_TARGETS</tt> setting in <tt>/etc/make.conf</tt>.
+
The ebuild "nss-mdns" provides the necessary functionality for your Funtoo/Gentoo Linux machine to receive mDNS broadcasts, so that it can do things like ping mybox.local, or ssh mylaptop.local.
  
=== Ruby 1.9 is masked. How do I use it? ===
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From the [http://0pointer.de/lennart/projects/nss-mdns/#overview nss-mdns] home page:
  
Add the following to <tt>/etc/portage/make.conf</tt>:
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''nss-mdns is a plugin for the GNU Name Service Switch (NSS) functionality of the GNU C Library (glibc) providing host name resolution via Multicast DNS (aka Zeroconf, aka Apple Rendezvous, aka Apple Bonjour), effectively allowing name resolution by common Unix/Linux programs in the ad-hoc mDNS domain .local.
{{File
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|/etc/portage/make.conf|<pre>
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RUBY_TARGETS="ruby19"
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</pre>}}
+
  
Then unmask ruby-1.9 as follows:
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''nss-mdns provides client functionality only, which means that you have to run a mDNS responder daemon seperately from nss-mdns if you want to register the local host name via mDNS. I recommend Avahi.
  
 +
''nss-mdns is very lightweight (9 KByte stripped binary .so compiled with -DNDEBUG=1 -Os on i386, gcc 4.0), has no dependencies besides the glibc and requires only minimal configuration.
 +
 +
''By default nss-mdns tries to contact a running avahi-daemon for resolving host names and addresses and making use of its superior record cacheing. Optionally nss-mdns can be compiled with a mini mDNS stack that can be used to resolve host names without a local Avahi installation. Both Avahi support and this mini mDNS stack are optional, however at least one of them needs to be enabled. If both are enabled a connection to Avahi is tried first, and if that fails the mini mDNS stack is used.
 
<console>
 
<console>
###i## install -d /etc/portage
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###i## emerge -av nss-mdns
###i## echo "dev-lang/ruby:1.9" >> /etc/portage/package.unmask
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</console>
 
</console>
If you are using Funtoo stable, then you will also need to do this:
 
  
 +
Set up multicast route:
 
<console>
 
<console>
###i## echo "dev-lang/ruby:1.9" >> /etc/portage/package.keywords
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###i## route add -net 224.0.0.0 netmask 240.0.0.0 dev eth0
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
=== Why is Funtoo Linux still an older udev? ===
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Note: Adding <code>multicast="yes"</code> in <code>/etc/conf.d/netif.foo</code> (replace foo with your actual network interface name) will set up the multicast route automatically at startup.
 
+
Funtoo Linux currently uses udev-160 and generally updates udev less frequently than in Gentoo Linux.
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=== What is the minimum kernel version I can use with Funtoo Linux? ===
+
 
+
Without making changes to the default version of the udev package, Funtoo Linux is compatible with kernel versions 2.6.27 and greater. To use earlier kernels or enterprise kernels, see below.
+
 
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=== I need to use a kernel earlier than 2.6.27. What should I do? ===
+
 
+
To use a RHEL5 or RHEL5-based kernel, you will need to use udev-146 or earlier. Funtoo Linux provides these versions in its portage tree. All you need to do is add the following line to <tt>/etc/portage/package.mask</tt>:
+
  
 +
Now, it's necessary to modify <tt>/etc/nsswitch.conf</tt> so that your system will use multicast DNS for hostname lookup. In the example, we use the <tt>mdns_minimal</tt> and <tt>mdns</tt> words, which enable multicast DNS for IPv4 and IPv6. If you only want to enable IPv4-based multicast DNS, which is recommended for IPv4-only networks, use <tt>mdns4_minimal</tt> and <tt>mdns4</tt> instead. This will improve hostname lookup performance.
 
{{File
 
{{File
|/etc/portage/package.mask|<pre>
+
|/etc/nsswitch.conf|<pre>
>=sys-fs/udev-160
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hosts:      files mdns_minimal [NOTFOUND=return] dns mdns
 
</pre>}}
 
</pre>}}
  
Then, emerge udev:
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== Sending Multicast DNS ==
  
<console>
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Avahi-daemon handles the task of '''sending''' multicast DNS broadcasts, as well as service discovery broadcasts, on your local LAN. If you want other devices to be able to reach your Funtoo/Gentoo Linux machine via multicast DNS, and Zeroconf Service Discovery, you'll want to enable avahi-daemon. This will also improve the efficiency of performing multicast DNS lookups locally.
###i## emerge udev
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</console>
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You can now reboot with a RHEL5-based kernel and udev will still work properly. <tt>udev-135</tt> is also available for even earlier kernels.
+
 
+
=== How do I use a RHEL5-based kernel, such as openvz-sources-2.6.18* with Funtoo? ===
+
 
+
The steps required to do this, including downgrading udev and emerging gcc-4.1.2, can be found in the [[RHEL5 Kernel HOWTO]]
+
 
+
=== Why is package.mask a directory? ===
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+
I decided to convert <tt>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</tt> to a directory as soon as I discovered that this was a supported feature in the current Portage. This allows us to maintain package.mask data more effectively.
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+
=== Git complains and aborts when I emerge --sync. ===
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+
It appears that a previous git merge was interrupted or did not complete, leaving your portage tree in an intermediate state. Typically, this can be fixed by typing:
+
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
###i## cd /usr/portage
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###i## rc-update add avahi-daemon default
###i## git reset --hard origin/funtoo.org
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###i## rc
 
</console>
 
</console>
This should restore your portage tree to a consistent state and allow future <tt>emerge --sync</tt> commands to complete successfully.
 
 
If this doesn't work, then you may have a conflicted merge. Maybe you modified some local ebuilds? To view conflicts, type <tt>git diff --stat</tt> from within the <tt>/usr/portage</tt> directory. You can choose to either resolve these conflicts or revert back to the official Funtoo Portage tree.
 
 
If you want to throw away your local changes and simply use the Funtoo Portage tree, you'll need to remove all the files in <tt>/usr/portage</tt> besides the <tt>.git</tt> directory, and then trying the <tt>git reset --hard origin/funtoo.org</tt> command again, as follows:
 
  
 +
Test:
 
<console>
 
<console>
###i## cd /usr/portage
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###i## ping daniel-pc.local
###i## mv distfiles ..
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PING daniel-pc.local (10.0.1.11) 56(84) bytes of data.
###i## rm -rf * .gitignore
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64 bytes from Daniel-PC.local (10.0.1.11): icmp_req=1 ttl=128 time=3.73 ms
###i## git reset --hard origin/funtoo.org
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64 bytes from Daniel-PC.local (10.0.1.11): icmp_req=2 ttl=128 time=0.905 ms
###i## mv ../distfiles .
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64 bytes from Daniel-PC.local (10.0.1.11): icmp_req=3 ttl=128 time=0.922 ms
 +
64 bytes from Daniel-PC.local (10.0.1.11): icmp_req=4 ttl=128 time=0.827 ms
 
</console>
 
</console>
Now everything should be working again.
 
 
=== How do I tell if a problem I am having originates from Gentoo or Funtoo? ===
 
 
You can tell if there are any Funtoo changes to an ebuild by browsing the [http://www.github.com/funtoo/funtoo-overlay funtoo-overlay]. All the Funtoo-specific ebuilds can be found in our overlay. If you see an ebuild in my overlay, then we use my version ''instead of'' the Gentoo version. If you don't see it in the funtoo overlay, then it comes from Gentoo.
 
 
=== How can I see the differences between the Gentoo and Funtoo Portage trees? ===
 
 
In the old days, this was tricky, but now you just look at the [http://www.github.com/funtoo/funtoo-overlay funtoo-overlay] for a complete repository of all the Funtoo-specific stuff. Everything ''not'' in the Funtoo overlay comes from Gentoo, with a few exceptions -- see [[Portage Tree]] for details.
 
 
=== Is Paludis compatible with the Funtoo Portage tree? ===
 
 
Paludis does not appear to be compatible with the Funtoo Portage tree, unfortunately. It does not support the <tt>package.mask</tt> directory without additional hooks, and also does not support merging device nodes. These features are supported by Portage and we use both of these capabilities. I think that both <tt>package.mask</tt> (and <tt>package.keywords</tt>, etc.) directories are a good idea, and I also think it's a good idea for the package manager to support device nodes, which is particularly useful for the <tt>udev</tt> and <tt>baselayout</tt> ebuilds. Funtoo Linux has separate versions of these packages, and these ebuilds are easier to maintain if device nodes are correctly supported by the package manger, and the <tt>package.mask</tt> directory is a great help to us as well.
 
 
We could maintain a patched version of Paludis that would be useable with the Funtoo Portage tree, but I don't want to get into the business of supporting a non-standard package manager as the upstream project seems not seem very supportive of getting these compatibility issues resolved, and thus this could turn into a maintenance burden for Funtoo. So I'd rather just not support Paludis for now.
 
 
=== What about pkgcore? ===
 
 
Pkgcore is not currently compatible with Funtoo Linux but efforts are under way to resolve this.
 
 
=== How do I report a bug? ===
 
 
The best way to report your bug is to describe the issue you are having on the [http://groups.google.com/group/funtoo-dev funtoo-dev mailing list]. Another option is to ask for support in the [irc://irc.freenode.net/funtoo #funtoo]. In general, it's best to contact us first about an issue you are having, rather than opening a Gentoo bug report, unless you are quite familiar with the issue and are fairly certain that it is not a Funtoo Linux issue.
 
 
If you report a bug to Gentoo that may impact Funtoo Linux in some way, please post information about it to the [http://groups.google.com/group/funtoo-dev funtoo-dev mailing list] so we are aware of the issue.
 
 
* More informations: [[Reporting Bugs|Guidelines for Reporting Bugs]].
 
 
=== How do I become a Funtoo developer? ===
 
 
Funtoo is a personal project of mine, so I'm the only real developer. However, I involve everyone on the [http://groups.google.com/group/funtoo-dev funtoo-dev mailing list] and [irc://irc.freenode.net/funtoo #funtoo] in what I am doing so that patches, feedback, requests, etc. can be shared. My advice is to get involved in the Funtoo community on the mailing list and irc channel.
 
 
== General Funtoo Stuff ==
 
 
=== What is funtoo.org? ===
 
 
Funtoo.org is the online home of Daniel Robbins (me) and is a place to put all my stuff.
 
 
=== What kind of stuff? ===
 
 
Well, I have Funtoo Linux, which is a Gentoo Linux variant. Then I have technical articles -- some new, and some updated versions of originals that appeared on IBM developerWorks.
 
 
Then I have [[Metro]], an operating system build tool, and I have [[Keychain]], which is a tool to help you manage RSA and DSA keys for ssh.
 
 
So Funtoo is not just Funtoo Linux.
 
 
=== What is 'Funtoo' all about? And 'Funtoo Linux'? ===
 
 
<tt>Funtoo</tt> by itself refers to this site, or the larger <tt>Funtoo</tt> project run by Daniel Robbins. That's just a fancy way of saying that <tt>Funtoo</tt> refers to all the stuff I'm doing.
 
 
''Funtoo Linux'' refers specifically to my variant of Gentoo Linux.
 
 
If you see me use the phrase <tt>Funtoo Portage tree</tt> or <tt>Funtoo ebuild</tt>, I'm just talking about our separate (and slightly different) Portage tree, or our version of an ebuild.
 
 
=== What is 'tnufoo'? ===
 
 
<tt>tnufoo</tt> is <tt>funtoo</tt> rotated 180 degrees vertically.
 
 
=== How many developers are working on Funtoo Linux? ===
 
 
Funtoo Linux development is led by Daniel Robbins, along with a [[Core Team]] that also makes significant contributions to Funtoo Linux development and Funtoo infrastructure.
 
 
=== Is Funtoo Linux a fork of Gentoo Linux? ===
 
 
It depends on your definition of <tt>fork</tt>. Officially, I am calling Funtoo Linux a <tt>Gentoo Linux variant</tt>, meaning that it is more like another flavor of Gentoo than a fork.
 
 
We share our changes and bug fixes with the Gentoo project, so Gentoo is free to merge in any of our changes at any time. We also merge in Gentoo's changes every 12 hours.
 
 
I could officially call Funtoo Linux a fork of Gentoo Linux, but Gentoo could merge most of our changes into Gentoo proper and then what would Funtoo Linux be? It'd be my variant of Gentoo, that's what it'd be. So let's just call it a variant of Gentoo.
 
 
=== What is the best way to interact with the Funtoo community? ===
 
 
I recommend joining the [http://groups.google.com/group/funtoo-dev funtoo-dev mailing list] and, if desired, hanging out in the [irc://irc.freenode.net/funtoo #funtoo] on freenode.
 
 
The [http://groups.google.com/group/funtoo-dev funtoo-dev mailing list] as well as the [irc://irc.freenode.net/funtoo #funtoo] are unmoderated, open discussion forums for both Funtoo Linux users and developers. In addition, these are ''also'' the official lists for discussing other Funtoo projects such as [[Metro]] and [[Keychain]].
 
 
=== What Architectures does Funtoo Linux support? ===
 
 
While Funtoo Linux can run on any architecture that Gentoo Linux supports, we are only maintaining Funtoo Linux for x86 and amd64 architectures. Adding support for other architectures may require a little bit of unmasking work in our Portage tree -- or not. We're not testing anything but x86 and amd64, so we don't know :)
 
 
=== How should a developer use package.mask? ===
 
 
We currently have four files in the package.mask directory -- <tt>gentoo</tt>, <tt>funtoo</tt>, <tt>funtoo-cautionary</tt> and <tt>sunrise</tt>. Gentoo is an almost pristine version of the upstream gentoo package.mask. It differs from gentoo only in that we will remove stuff from it that we no longer want in it, but we don't ''add'' masks to this file. So if there is a mask in <tt>gentoo</tt>, you know it came upstream from Gentoo.
 
 
<tt>funtoo</tt> is where we place our masks. <tt>funtoo-cautionary</tt> is where we place masks that are designed to shield us from upstream unstable version changes to core packages, since we don't want to simply follow Gentoo unstable -- instead, we want to control when gcc and glibc switch to new versions. <tt>sunrise</tt> contains a bunch of sunrise and other miscellaneous masks from the <tt>mpd</tt> overlays. It is currently sort of our &quot;junk drawer&quot; that we'll get around to cleaning up at some point.
 
 
=== Do you use the normal Gentoo system profiles? ===
 
 
I've made some minor changes to the Funtoo Linux <tt>profiles/</tt> directory, and I'll continue to make improvements as time goes on. The most recent change I made (as of 17 Jul 2009) was to add <tt>net-dns/openresolv</tt> to the core system profile. Since Funtoo development focuses primarily on the core system, you can expect our system profiles to be somewhat different from Gentoo's. However, from a user perspective, you use them the same way and we have the same profile names that are in Gentoo.
 
 
=== Is Funtoo Linux More Stable Than Gentoo Linux? ===
 
 
That is a hard question to answer directly, as one person's definition of &quot;stable&quot; may be different than another person's, and I do not know how you intend to use Funtoo Linux. So rather than tackle the question head-on, I can give you some additional information that may help you decide:
 
 
* The goal of Funtoo Linux is to allow me to improve the Gentoo core system and tools. That does mean that I will be periodically changing various parts of Gentoo plumbing from time to time. When I do this, I try to be careful and provide notices of upcoming major changes on the mailing list, Atom feed and on the Web site.
 
* Both Funtoo Linux and Gentoo Linux have a stable and unstable (<tt>~</tt> - called "current" in Funtoo) tree
 
* The Funtoo and Gentoo trees are 99% identical. However, there are signficant differences in certain areas, particularly the core system and Perl, Python and Ruby.
 
* Funtoo and Gentoo trees do have some significant differences for core packages, particularly <tt>openrc</tt>, <tt>baselayout</tt>, <tt>udev</tt> and <tt>lvm2</tt>.
 
* If it is important to you, Metro is tested daily to ensure that it can build Funtoo Linux (and Gentoo Linux) successfully. However, these builds are not performed in advance of the changes hitting the public git-based Portage tree.
 
* Any Metro Funtoo Linux build failures found are typically fixed in the Funtoo Portage within 0-1 days. Gentoo build failures are only fixed if they are related to an issue with Metro. So there is very fast response in Funtoo to core system build failures. In Gentoo, this process is not as integrated.
 
* Funtoo merges in upstream changes from Gentoo Portage every 12 hours.
 
* I focus on testing the core, non-GUI/non-X system. Sometimes Funtoo will trail behind in udev revisions that cutting-edge desktop users want to run.
 
* Both Funtoo Linux stable and current have OpenRC, dhcpcd-5 and OpenResolv integrated by default.
 
* Funtoo Linux current tries to upgrade certain core packages such as <tt>udev</tt>, <tt>gcc</tt> and <tt>glibc</tt> much less frequently and in a more controlled manner than Gentoo unstable. This may or may not be a benefit to you, depending on what you are looking for. Basically, I am trying to offer the package updates of Gentoo Linux unstable without as much of the (too frequent, in my opinion) core system changes that can often cause problems for people.
 
* The Funtoo receives Gentoo changes once every 12 hours. In contrast, the Gentoo rsync tree receives updates hourly. This means that the changes in the Funtoo tree are compressed into a single monolithic event, whereas the Gentoo tree undergoes more continual, but less signficant, change every hour.
 
* Significant build-related bugs found by Funtoo that also impact Gentoo Linux are sent upstream to [http://bugs.gentoo.org bugs.gentoo.org].
 
 
=== Do you use Gentoo's Guide XML for Documentation? ===
 
 
I originally created Gentoo's Guide XML format (which I originally created for Gentoo) for documentation, and started to transition away from it in favor of [http://docutils.sourceforge.net/rst.html ReStructuredText]. However, now I am trying to support Guide XML ''and'' [http://docutils.sourceforge.net/rst.html ReStructuredText] as they are both useful for different types of things.
 
 
Many funtoo.org articles and documents are maintained in ReStructuredText format. HTML versions of the ReStructuredText documentation are generated by first converting the <tt>.rst</tt> file to XML using <tt>rst2xml.py</tt> (part of the docutils distribution), and then using XSLT to convert the resultant XML to HTML.
 
 
To view the plaintext [http://docutils.sourceforge.net/rst.html ReStructuredText] version of a document, append <tt>/index.rst</tt> to any funtoo.org URL. For example, here is the [http://www.funtoo.org/en/funtoo/faq/index.rst ReStructuredText version of this document]
 
 
=== Are you looking for translators? ===
 
 
Many kind people have provided translations of the funtoo.org pages, and the old version of the site used to contain these translations. However, after much consideration, I've decided to not provide translated versions of funtoo.org pages, for several reasons:
 
 
* Translated documents tend to become out-of-date
 
* Updating the translated documents is quite a bit of work
 
* Most people online seem to have at least a basic grasp of English
 
 
For these reasons, I'm going to focus on improving the quantity and quality of English documentation, and not focus on translations for now.
 
 
== Forking the Portage Tree ==
 
 
=== I want to fork the Portage tree. How do I do this? ===
 
 
The old way used to involve forking our huge, complete Portage tree. Currently, the best way to do it involves forking the [http://www.github.com/funtoo/funtoo-overlay funtoo-overlay], which is much smaller, or creating your own overlay. I have scripts that combine the Funtoo overlay and the Gentoo tree to create a unified Portage tree.
 
 
=== I have forked my own Portage tree. How do I generate metadata for it? ===
 
 
You should only do this if you are creating a unified Portage tree for distribution to users. Otherwise, it is much more efficient to use an overlay for this purpose.
 
  
First, add <tt>FEATURES=&quot;metadata-transfer&quot;</tt> to your <tt>/etc/make.conf</tt> file. Then type the following commands:
+
== Service Discovery ==
  
 +
Get a list of services on the LAN:
 
<console>
 
<console>
###i## cd /usr/portage
+
###i## avahi-browse -ac
###i## egencache --update --jobs=4
+
###i## cd metadata/cache
+
###i## git add .
+
###i## git commit -a
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
<tt>egencache</tt> is part of {{Package|sys-apps/portage}} and was kindly integrated by Zack Medico, Portage maintainer.
 
  
=== Where can I learn more about <tt>git</tt>? ===
+
== Resources ==
  
So, you want to learn more about <tt>git</tt>, do you? A collection of excellent git resources is now available on the [[Git Guide]].
+
* [http://developer.apple.com/library/mac/#qa/qa2004/qa1357.html Apple Technical Q&A QA1357]
 +
* [http://en.gentoo-wiki.com/wiki/Avahi Gentoo Wiki Avahi]
 +
* [http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/docs/HOWTO/other-formats/html_single/Multicast-HOWTO.html#toc2 Multicast over TCP/IP HOWTO]
 +
* [http://sitka.triumf.ca/pub/linux/multicast-FAQ Linux Multicast FAQ]
 +
* [http://www.multicastdns.org/ multicastdns.org]
  
 +
 
[[Category:HOWTO]]
 
[[Category:HOWTO]]
 +
[[Category:Networking]]

Revision as of 21:33, 28 January 2014

Zero Configuration Networking, also called Zeroconf or Bonjour (Apple's trademark for their Zero Configuration Networking implementation) is a suite of related technologies that allow networked devices to interoperate on a local network without requiring explicit configuration.

Contents

Requirements

Zero Configuration Networking requires the following things to operate:

  • A valid IP address, obtained either by:
    • Static assignment
    • DHCP
    • Link-local Addressing (part of Zero Configuration Networking)
  • A means to address other devices by name, provided either by:
    • DNS
    • multicast DNS (mDNS -- part of Zero Configuration Networking)

Service Discovery

On top of this, Zero Configuration Networking also provides a means to discover what services are available on each device. This is something that is provided exclusively by Zero Configuration Networking and is called Zeroconf Service Discovery.

Configuration

In order to get these sort of networking services running, some configuration needs to happen initially.

Link-local Addresses

Note: It's only necessary to use link-local addressing if you have no other means of obtaining a valid IP address on your LAN. Typically, this is the case if you are setting up a small or ad-hoc network where no DHCP server has been configured.

To use link-local addressing, first set up the proper routes:

# route add default dev eth0 metric 99
# route add -net 169.254.0.0 netmask 255.255.0.0 dev eth0 metric 99

Then, use avahi-autoipd to discover a valid link-local IP address:

# /usr/sbin/avahi-autoipd --daemonize --syslog --wait eth0

Once a valid link-local IP address is found, eth0 will now have a 169.254.x.x address that can be used to communicate on the local LAN.

As an alternative, you can have dhcpcd built with USE="zeroconf", and it will provide a link local address if no DHCP server is found.

Multicast DNS

Multicast DNS, or mDNS, is a means by which individual machines can broadcast their DNS information to machines on the local LAN so that a DNS server is not required to address local devices by name. The ".local" domain is typically used for multicast DNS, so your laptop might be addressable by pinging "mylaptop.local", for example. mDNS is not necessary if you have some other means of addressing machines by name, such as unicast (regular) DNS. But many LANs do not have their own DNS server configured, in which case mDNS can be very handy.

.local Hostname Suffix

If you want to configure your Funtoo Linux system to be addressable on your LAN using a myhostname.local address, first ensure that you set your system's hostname in /etc/conf.d/hostname, and use only the non-qualified name, so don't add a .local yourself. Multicast DNS will automatically use that suffix. Here is a sample /etc/conf.d/hostname for a machine on my network that I can ping from other machines as antec.local:

hostname="antec"

Receiving mDNS

The ebuild "nss-mdns" provides the necessary functionality for your Funtoo/Gentoo Linux machine to receive mDNS broadcasts, so that it can do things like ping mybox.local, or ssh mylaptop.local.

From the nss-mdns home page:

nss-mdns is a plugin for the GNU Name Service Switch (NSS) functionality of the GNU C Library (glibc) providing host name resolution via Multicast DNS (aka Zeroconf, aka Apple Rendezvous, aka Apple Bonjour), effectively allowing name resolution by common Unix/Linux programs in the ad-hoc mDNS domain .local.

nss-mdns provides client functionality only, which means that you have to run a mDNS responder daemon seperately from nss-mdns if you want to register the local host name via mDNS. I recommend Avahi.

nss-mdns is very lightweight (9 KByte stripped binary .so compiled with -DNDEBUG=1 -Os on i386, gcc 4.0), has no dependencies besides the glibc and requires only minimal configuration.

By default nss-mdns tries to contact a running avahi-daemon for resolving host names and addresses and making use of its superior record cacheing. Optionally nss-mdns can be compiled with a mini mDNS stack that can be used to resolve host names without a local Avahi installation. Both Avahi support and this mini mDNS stack are optional, however at least one of them needs to be enabled. If both are enabled a connection to Avahi is tried first, and if that fails the mini mDNS stack is used.

# emerge -av nss-mdns

Set up multicast route:

# route add -net 224.0.0.0 netmask 240.0.0.0 dev eth0

Note: Adding multicast="yes" in /etc/conf.d/netif.foo (replace foo with your actual network interface name) will set up the multicast route automatically at startup.

Now, it's necessary to modify /etc/nsswitch.conf so that your system will use multicast DNS for hostname lookup. In the example, we use the mdns_minimal and mdns words, which enable multicast DNS for IPv4 and IPv6. If you only want to enable IPv4-based multicast DNS, which is recommended for IPv4-only networks, use mdns4_minimal and mdns4 instead. This will improve hostname lookup performance.

hosts:       files mdns_minimal [NOTFOUND=return] dns mdns

Sending Multicast DNS

Avahi-daemon handles the task of sending multicast DNS broadcasts, as well as service discovery broadcasts, on your local LAN. If you want other devices to be able to reach your Funtoo/Gentoo Linux machine via multicast DNS, and Zeroconf Service Discovery, you'll want to enable avahi-daemon. This will also improve the efficiency of performing multicast DNS lookups locally.

# rc-update add avahi-daemon default
# rc

Test:

# ping daniel-pc.local
PING daniel-pc.local (10.0.1.11) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from Daniel-PC.local (10.0.1.11): icmp_req=1 ttl=128 time=3.73 ms
64 bytes from Daniel-PC.local (10.0.1.11): icmp_req=2 ttl=128 time=0.905 ms
64 bytes from Daniel-PC.local (10.0.1.11): icmp_req=3 ttl=128 time=0.922 ms
64 bytes from Daniel-PC.local (10.0.1.11): icmp_req=4 ttl=128 time=0.827 ms

Service Discovery

Get a list of services on the LAN:

# avahi-browse -ac

Resources