Difference between pages "Funtoo Linux Installation" and "MediaWiki"

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== Introduction ==
+
This page documents how to set up MediaWiki on Funtoo Linux, from a bare stage3 install with network connectivity. We will use Nginx, xcache and PHP-FPM, which will result in very good performance. We will also properly secure MediaWiki, and also cover some additional tips and tricks, focusing on spam reduction.
  
This document was written to help you install Funtoo Linux as concisely as possible, with a minimum number of distracting options regarding system configuration.
+
== Portage Settings ==
  
These docs assume you have a "PC compatible" computer system with a standard PC BIOS. Many new computers support UEFI for booting, which is a new firmware interface that replaces the old-fashioned MBR-based BIOS. If you have a system with UEFI, you will want to use this documentation along with the [[UEFI Install Guide]], which will augment these instructions and explain how to get your system to boot. You may need to change your PC BIOS settings to enable or disable UEFI booting. The [[UEFI Install Guide]] has more information on this, and steps on how to determine if your system supports UEFI.
+
Add the following line to <tt>/etc/make.conf</tt>:
  
We also offer a [[ZFS Install Guide]], which augment the instructions on this page for those who want to install Funtoo Linux on ZFS.  If you are installing Funtoo Linux on [[Funtoo Linux Installation on ARM|ARM]] architecture, please see [[Funtoo Linux Installation on ARM]] for notable differences regarding ARM support. An experimental Funtoo Linux build also exists for [[Funtoo Linux Installation on SPARC|SPARC]] platforms. See [[Funtoo Linux Installation on SPARC]].
 
  
If you've had previous experience installing Gentoo Linux then a lot of steps will be familiar, but you should still read through as there are a few differences.
+
<pre>
 +
PHP_TARGETS="php5-4"
 +
</pre>
  
== Installation Overview ==
+
Add the following lines to <tt>/etc/portage/package.use/php</tt>:
  
This is a basic overview of the Funtoo installation process:
+
<pre>
 +
dev-lang/php curl exif fpm gd mysql mysqli sockets suhosin threads intl xmlreader xmlwriter
 +
>=dev-php/xcache-2.0.0 php_targets_php5-4
 +
</pre>
  
# [[#Live CD|Download and boot the live CD of your choice]].
+
== Emerge ==
# [[#Prepare Hard Disk|Prepare your disk]].
+
# [[#Creating filesystems|Create]] and [[#Mounting filesystems|mount]] filesystems.
+
# [[#Installing the Stage 3 tarball|Install the Funtoo stage tarball]] of your choice.
+
# [[#Chroot into Funtoo|Chroot into your new system]].
+
# [[#Downloading the Portage tree|Download the Portage tree]].
+
# [[#Configuring your system|Configure your system]] and [[#Configuring your network|network]].
+
# [[#Configuring and installing the Linux kernel|Install a kernel]].
+
# [[#Installing a Bootloader|Install a bootloader]].
+
# [[#Finishing Steps|Complete final steps]].
+
# [[#Restart your system|Reboot and enjoy]].
+
  
=== Live CD ===
+
Emerge xcache, and we'll also emerge metalog and postfix. This should pull in MySQL as well as php-5.4:
  
Funtoo doesn't provide an "official" Funtoo Live CD, but there are plenty of good ones out there to choose from. A great choice is the Gentoo-based [http://www.sysresccd.org/ System Rescue CD] as it contains lots of tools and utilities and supports both 32-bit and 64-bit systems.
+
<console>
 +
# ##i##emerge --jobs xcache metalog postfix
 +
</console>
  
It is also possible to install Funtoo Linux using many other Linux-based live CDs. Generally, any modern bootable Linux live CD or live USB media will work. See [[Requirements|requirements]] for an overview of what the Live Media must provide to allow a problem-free install of Funtoo Linux.
+
== Start and Configure Services ==
  
To begin a Funtoo Linux installation, download System Rescue CD from:
+
Time to configure MySQL with a root password, start it, secure it, and enable it to start at boot. We'll also start metalog and postfix:
  
* Main US mirror: [http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/funtoo/distfiles/sysresccd/ The Oregon State University Open Source Lab]
+
<console>
* Main EU mirror: [http://ftp.heanet.ie/mirrors/funtoo/distfiles/sysresccd/ HEAnet] or use your preferred live media. Insert it into your disc drive, and boot from it. If using an older version of System Rescue CD, '''be sure to select the <tt>rescue64</tt> kernel at the boot menu if you are installing a 64-bit system'''. By default, System Rescue CD used to boot in 32-bit mode though the latest version attempts to automatically detect 64-bit processors.
+
# ##i##emerge --config mysql
 +
# ##i##rc-update add mysql default
 +
# ##i##rc-update add metalog default
 +
# ##i##rc-update add postfix default
 +
# ##i##rc
 +
# ##i##mysql_secure_installation
 +
</console>
  
=== Prepare Hard Disk ===
+
== Database Setup ==
==== Partitions ====
+
  
Funtoo Linux fully supports traditional MBR partitions, as well as newer GPT/GUID partition formats. Funtoo Linux recommends the use of the GPT partitioning scheme, since it is newer and more flexible. Here are the various trade-offs between each partitioning scheme:
+
Now, let's create a database named <tt>mediawiki</tt> for use by MediaWiki, and a <tt>mediawiki@localhost</tt> user to access this database, using a password of <tt>wikifever</tt>:
  
===== GPT Partitions =====
+
<console>
 +
# ##i##mysql -u root -p
 +
Enter password:
 +
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
 +
Your MySQL connection id is 7
 +
Server version: 5.1.62-log Gentoo Linux mysql-5.1.62-r1
  
* Newer, preferred format for Linux systems
+
Copyright (c) 2000, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
* Supports 2 TB+ hard drives for booting
+
* Supports hundreds of partitions per disk of any size
+
* Requires legacy BIOS boot partition (~32 MB) to be created if system does not use EFI
+
* Requires bootloader with support for GPT such as GRUB 2, EXTLINUX, or a patched version of GRUB Legacy
+
  
===== MBR Partitions =====
+
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
 +
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
 +
owners.
  
* Legacy, DOS partitioning scheme
+
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
* Only 4 primary partitions per disk; after that, you must use "logical" partitions
+
* Does not support 2 TB+ disks for booting
+
* Compatible with certain problematic systems (such as the HP ProBook 4520)
+
* Dual-boot with Windows for BIOS systems (Windows handle GPT only on true EFI systems, whatever version it is)
+
* Multiple boot loader options, e.g. GRUB 2, GRUB Legacy, lilo
+
  
{{fancyimportant|If you plan to use partitions of 2 TB or greater, you ''must'' partition using the GPT/GUID format. Also note that there are small percentage of PCs that will not boot properly with GPT. For these systems, using MBR partitions or a primary drive with an MBR partition may be required in order to boot.}}
+
mysql> ##i##create database mediawiki;
 +
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)
  
==== Partitioning Using gdisk ====
+
mysql> ##i##grant index, create, select, insert, update, delete, alter, lock tables on mediawiki.* to 'mediawiki'@'localhost' identified by 'wikifever';
 +
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
  
===== Notes Before We Begin =====
+
mysql> ##i##\q
 
+
Bye
These install instructions assume you are installing Funtoo Linux to an empty hard disk using GUID partition tables (GPT). If you are installing Funtoo Linux on a machine where another OS is installed, or there is an existing Linux distribution on your system that you want to keep, then you will need to adapt these instructions to suit your needs.
+
#  
 
+
If you are going to create a legacy MBR partition table instead of GUID/GPT, you will use the <tt>fdisk</tt> command instead of <tt>gdisk</tt>, and you will not need to create the GRUB boot loader partition. See the table under [[#Partitioning Recommendations|Partitioning Recommendations]], in particular the
+
'''MBR Block Device (<tt>fdisk</tt>)''' and '''MBR Code''' columns. <tt>fdisk</tt> works just like <tt>gdisk</tt>, but creates legacy MBR partition tables instead of the newer GPT/GUID partition tables.
+
 
+
Advanced users may be interested in the following topics:
+
 
+
* [[GUID Booting Guide]]
+
* [[Rootfs over encrypted lvm]]
+
* [[Rootfs over encrypted lvm over raid-1 on GPT]]
+
* '''NEW!''' '''[[ZFS Install Guide]] (Also contains instructions for Rootfs over Encrypted ZFS!)'''
+
 
+
===== Using gdisk =====
+
 
+
The first step after booting SystemRescueCd is to use <tt>gdisk</tt> to create GPT (also known as GUID) partitions, specifying the disk you want to use, which is typically <tt>/dev/sda</tt>, the first disk in the system:
+
 
+
<console># ##i##gdisk /dev/sda</console>
+
You should find <tt>gdisk</tt> very similar to <tt>fdisk</tt>. Here is the partition table we want to end up with:
+
 
+
<console>Command (? for help): ##i##p
+
Disk /dev/sda: 234441648 sectors, 111.8 GiB
+
Logical sector size: 512 bytes
+
Disk identifier (GUID): A4E5208A-CED3-4263-BB25-7147DC426931
+
Partition table holds up to 128 entries
+
First usable sector is 34, last usable sector is 234441614
+
Partitions will be aligned on 2048-sector boundaries
+
Total free space is 2014 sectors (1007.0 KiB)
+
 
+
Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size      Code  Name
+
  1            2048          206847  500.0 MiB  8300  Linux filesystem
+
  2          206848          272383  32.0 MiB    EF02  BIOS boot partition
+
  3          272384        8660991  4.0 GiB    8200  Linux swap
+
  4        8660992      234441614  107.7 GiB  8300  Linux filesystem
+
 
+
Command (? for help): </console>
+
 
+
Above, you'll see that we have a 500 MiB boot partition, a 32 MiB "BIOS boot partition" (also known as the GRUB boot loader partition), 4 GiB of swap, and the remaining disk used by a 107.7 GiB root partition.
+
 
+
===== For new <tt>gdisk</tt> users =====
+
 
+
These partitions were created using the "<tt>n</tt>" command from within <tt>gdisk</tt>. The <tt>gdisk</tt> commands to create the partition table above are as follows. Adapt sizes as necessary, although these defaults will work for most users. The partition codes entered below can be found in the [[#Partitioning Recommendations|Partitioning Recommendations]] table below, in the GPT Code column.
+
 
+
Within <tt>gdisk</tt>, follow these steps:
+
 
+
'''Create a new empty partition table''' (This ''will'' erase all data on the disk when saved):
+
 
+
<console>
+
Command: ##i##o ↵
+
This option deletes all partitions and creates a new protective MBR.
+
Proceed? (Y/N): ##i##y ↵
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
+
== Nginx Setup ==
 
+
<console>
+
Command: ##i##n ↵
+
Partition Number: ##i##1 ↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+500M ↵
+
Hex Code: ##i##↵
+
</console>
+
  
'''Create Partition 2''' (GRUB):
+
We will use nginx as our Web server. Let's emerge it:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
Command: ##i##n ↵
+
# ##i##emerge --jobs nginx
Partition Number: ##i##2 ↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+32M ↵
+
Hex Code: ##i##EF02 ↵
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
'''Create Partition 3''' (swap):
+
== User and Group ==
  
<console>
+
When we run our wiki, we will run it as the <tt>docs</tt> user, for security. Let's set up a <tt>docs</tt> user and group:
Command: ##i##n ↵
+
Partition Number: ##i##3 ↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+4G ↵
+
Hex Code: ##i##8200 ↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Create Partition 4''' (root):
+
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
Command: ##i##n ↵
+
# ##i##groupadd docs
Partition Number: ##i##4 ↵
+
# ##i##useradd -g docs --home /home/docs docs
First sector: ##i##
+
# ##i##install -d /home/docs
Last sector: ##i####!i## (for rest of disk)
+
# ##i##chown -R docs:docs /home/docs
Hex Code: ##i##↵
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Along the way, you can type "<tt>p</tt>" and hit Enter to view your current partition table. If you make a mistake, you can type "<tt>d</tt>" to delete an existing partition that you created. When you are satisfied with your partition setup, type "<tt>w</tt>" to write your configuration to disk:
+
== Set up PHP ==
  
'''Write Partition Table To Disk''':
+
As our last major configuration step, we will configure the PHP FastCGI Process Manager by creating a <tt>/etc/php/fpm-php5.4/php-fpm.conf</tt> file with the following contents (existing contents can be deleted):
  
<console>
+
<pre>
Command: ##i##w ↵
+
[global]
Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): ##i##Y ↵
+
error_log = /var/log/php-fpm.log
</console>
+
log_level = notice
  
The partition table will now be written to disk and <tt>gdisk</tt> will close.
+
[docs]
 +
listen = /var/run/docs.php-fpm.socket
 +
listen.allowed_clients = 127.0.0.1
 +
listen.owner = docs
 +
listen.group = nginx
 +
listen.mode = 0660
 +
user = docs
 +
group = docs
 +
pm = dynamic
 +
pm.max_children = 16
 +
pm.start_servers = 2
 +
pm.min_spare_servers = 2
 +
pm.max_spare_servers = 2
 +
pm.max_requests = 500
 +
php_admin_value[open_basedir] = /home/docs/public_html:/tmp
 +
php_admin_value[error_log] = /home/docs/php-errors.log
 +
php_admin_value[disable_functions] = exec, system, shell_exec, passthru, popen, dl, curl_multi_exec, posix_getpwuid,
 +
disk_total_space, disk_free_space, escapeshellcmd, escapeshellarg, eval, get_current_user, getmyuid, getmygid,
 +
posix_getgrgid, parse_ini_file, proc_get-status, proc_nice, proc_terminate, suexec, pclose, virtual, set_time_limit, show_source
 +
</pre>
  
Now, your GPT/GUID partitions have been created, and will show up as the following ''block devices'' under Linux:
+
This configuration file tells PHP to use the <tt>docs</tt> user when running MediaWiki. '''Please note that the last line is very long - I have split it into 3 lines for readability on this wiki, but you should combine them into a single line in your configuration file. The line should start with <tt>php_admin_value[disable_functions]</tt> and end with <tt>show_source</tt>.
  
* <tt>/dev/sda1</tt>, which will be used to hold the <tt>/boot</tt> filesystem,
+
== Configure Nginx ==
* <tt>/dev/sda2</tt>, which will be used directly by the new GRUB,
+
* <tt>/dev/sda3</tt>, which will be used for swap space, and
+
* <tt>/dev/sda4</tt>, which will hold your root filesystem.
+
  
===== For Previous fdisk users =====
+
Oh! Now we need to configure nginx to serve pages as the docs user. Assuming your site is named wiki.mysite.com, create a <tt>/etc/nginx/sites-available/wiki.mysite.com</tt> file with the following contents:
  
If you have installed Gentoo Linux before, the one thing that is likely new to you here is the GRUB boot loader partition, which is listed as "BIOS boot partition" within <tt>gdisk</tt>. This partition is required for GRUB 2 to boot GPT/GUID boot disks. What is it? In GRUB-speak, this partition is essentially the location of the meat of GRUB's boot loading code. If you've used GRUB Legacy in the past, this partition is where the new GRUB stores the equivalent of the <tt>stage1_5</tt> and <tt>stage2</tt> files in legacy GRUB. Since GPT-based partition tables have less dead space at the beginning of the disk than their MBR equivalents, an explicitly defined partition of code <tt>EF02</tt> is required to hold the guts of the boot loader.
+
<pre>
 +
server {
 +
        listen 80;
 +
        server_name wiki.mysite.com;
  
In all other respects, the partition table is similar to that which you might create for an MBR-based disk during a Gentoo Linux installation. We have a boot and a root partition with code <tt>0700</tt>, and a Linux swap partition with code <tt>8200</tt>.
+
        access_log /var/log/nginx/wiki.mysite.com.access.log main;
 +
        error_log /var/log/nginx/wiki.mysite.com.error.log error;
 +
       
 +
        root /home/docs/public_html;
 +
        index index.html index.php;
  
===== Partitioning Recommendations =====
+
        # uncomment this if you want to htpasswd-protect your site while you set it up initially
 +
        # auth_basic "Ninjas allowed only";
 +
        # auth_basic_user_file /etc/nginx/docs.funtoo.org.htpasswd;
  
Below are our partitioning recommendations in table form. For GPT-based partitions, use the GPT Block Device and GPT Code columns with <tt>gdisk</tt>. For legacy MBR-based partitions, use the MBR Block Device and MBR code columns with <tt>fdisk</tt>:
+
location ~* ^(.*)(install.php|LocalSettings.php|\.git) { deny all; }
  
{| {{table}}
+
location ~* \.php$ {
!Partition
+
        #set $https "off";  
!Size
+
        #if ($scheme = https) { set $https "on"; }
!MBR Block Device (<tt>fdisk</tt>)
+
        #fastcgi_param HTTPS $https;
!GPT Block Device (<tt>gdisk</tt>)
+
!Filesystem
+
!MBR Code
+
!GPT Code
+
|-
+
|<tt>/boot</tt>
+
|500 MB
+
|<tt>/dev/sda1</tt>
+
|<tt>/dev/sda1</tt>
+
|ext2
+
|83
+
|8300
+
|-
+
|GRUB boot loader partition
+
|32 MB
+
| ''not required for MBR''
+
|<tt>/dev/sda2</tt>
+
|For GPT/GUID only, skip for MBR - no filesystem.
+
|''N/A''
+
|EF02
+
|-
+
|swap
+
|2x RAM for low-memory systems and production servers; otherwise 2GB.
+
|<tt>/dev/sda2</tt>
+
|<tt>/dev/sda3</tt>
+
|swap (default)
+
|82
+
|8200
+
|-
+
|<tt>/</tt> (root)
+
|Rest of the disk, minimum of 10GB.
+
|<tt>/dev/sda3</tt>
+
|<tt>/dev/sda4</tt>
+
|XFS recommended, alternatively ext4
+
|83
+
|8300
+
|-
+
|<tt>/home</tt> (optional)
+
|User storage and media. Typically most of the disk.
+
|<tt>/dev/sda4</tt> (if created)
+
|<tt>/dev/sda5</tt> (if created)
+
|XFS recommended, alternatively ext4
+
|83
+
|8300
+
|-
+
| LVM (optional)
+
| If you want to create an LVM volume.
+
| <tt>/dev/sda4</tt> (PV, if created)
+
| <tt>/dev/sda5</tt> (PV, if created)
+
| LVM PV
+
| 8E
+
| 8E00
+
|}
+
  
==== Creating filesystems ====
+
        try_files      $uri    @404;
 +
        fastcgi_param  GATEWAY_INTERFACE  CGI/1.1;
 +
        fastcgi_param  SERVER_SOFTWARE    nginx;
 +
        fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING      $query_string;
 +
        fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD    $request_method;
 +
        fastcgi_param  CONTENT_TYPE      $content_type;
 +
        fastcgi_param  CONTENT_LENGTH    $content_length;
 +
        fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME    $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
 +
        fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        $fastcgi_script_name;
 +
        fastcgi_param  REQUEST_URI        $request_uri;
 +
        fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_URI      $document_uri;
 +
        fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_ROOT      $document_root;
 +
        fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;
 +
        fastcgi_param  REMOTE_ADDR        $remote_addr;
 +
        fastcgi_param  REMOTE_PORT        $remote_port;
 +
        fastcgi_param  SERVER_ADDR        $server_addr;
 +
        fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
 +
        fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        wiki.mysite.com;
  
Before your newly-created partitions can be used, the block devices need to be initialized with filesystem ''metadata''. This process is known as ''creating a filesystem'' on the block devices. After filesystems are created on the block devices, they can be mounted and used to store files.
+
        fastcgi_pass    unix:/var/run/docs.php-fpm.socket;
 +
        fastcgi_index  index.php;
 +
}
  
You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, but will initialize it using the <tt>mkswap</tt> command so that it can be used as disk-based virtual memory. Then we'll run the <tt>swapon</tt> command to make your newly-initialized swap space active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process.
+
# this will secure the MediaWiki uploads against arbitrary PHP injection attacks:
 +
location /images/ {
 +
        location ~.*\.(php)?$ {
 +
                deny all;
 +
        }
 +
}
  
Note that we will not create a filesystem on the GRUB boot loader partition, as GRUB writes binary data directly to that partition when the boot loader is installed, which we'll do later.
 
  
You can see the commands you will need to type below. Like the rest of this document, it assumes that you are using a GPT partitioning scheme. If you are using MBR, your root filesystem will likely be created on <tt>/dev/sda3</tt> instead and you will need to adjust the target block devices. If you are following our recommendations, then simply do this:
+
location @404 {
 +
        return 404;
 +
        break;
 +
}
  
'''We generally recommend XFS for root filesystems, although ext4 is also a good choice.''' This tutorial assumes the use of XFS. If you want to use ext4, then be sure that your <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> file reflects this.
+
location / {
 +
        try_files $uri $uri/ @mediawiki;
 +
}
  
{{fancywarning|1=
+
location @mediawiki {
Please use ext4 exclusively when deploying an OpenVZ host. The Parallels development team tests extensively with ext4, and modern versions of <tt>openvz-rhel6-stable</tt> are '''not''' compatible with XFS, and you may experience kernel bugs.
+
        rewrite ^/([^?]*)(?:\?(.*))? /index.php?title=$1&$2 last;
}}
+
}
  
'''To use XFS as your root filesystem:'''
+
}
 +
</pre>
  
<console>
+
== Enable Ngnix and PHP-FPM ==
# ##i##mke2fs -t ext2 /dev/sda1
+
# ##i##mkfs.xfs /dev/sda4
+
# ##i##mkswap /dev/sda3
+
# ##i##swapon /dev/sda3
+
</console>
+
  
'''To use ext4 as your root filesystem:'''
+
Now, let's enable nginx to serve our site, and also be sure to enable php-fpm:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##mke2fs -t ext2 /dev/sda1
+
# ##i##cd /etc/nginx/sites-enabled
# ##i##mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda4
+
# ##i##ln -s ../sites-available/wiki.mysite.com wiki.mysite.com
# ##i##mkswap /dev/sda3
+
# ##i##rc-update add nginx default
# ##i##swapon /dev/sda3
+
# ##i##rc-update add php-fpm default
 +
# ##i##rc
 +
* Starting PHP FastCGI Process Manager ...                                                            [ ok ]
 +
* Starting nginx ...                                                                                  [ ok ]
 +
#
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
==== Mounting filesystems ====
+
== Download MediaWiki ==
  
Mount the newly-created filesystems as follows, creating <tt>/mnt/funtoo</tt> as the installation mount point:
+
We're getting close. Now, head to http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Download and copy the link address for the latest version of MediaWiki, currently 1.19.1 at the time this was written. Let's download the archive to <tt>/var/tmp</tt>:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo
+
# ##i##cd /var/tmp
# ##i##mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/funtoo
+
# ##i##wget http://download.wikimedia.org/mediawiki/1.19/mediawiki-1.19.1.tar.gz
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Optionally, if you have a separate filesystem for <tt>/home</tt> or anything else:
+
== Extract MediaWiki ==
  
<console>
+
We now have all the Web, database and email infrastructure enabled that we need. Heading to the IP address of your server should result in a 404 - Not Found error in your Web browser. Time to extract and configure MediaWiki itself:
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/home
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sda5 /mnt/funtoo/home
+
</console>
+
 
+
If you have <tt>/tmp</tt> or <tt>/var/tmp</tt> on a separate filesystem, be sure to change the permissions of the mount point to be globally-writeable after mounting, as follows:
+
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##chmod 1777 /mnt/funtoo/tmp
+
# ##i##su docs
 +
$ ##i##cd /var/tmp
 +
$ ##i##tar xvf ./mediawiki-1.19.1.tar.gz
 +
$ ##i##mv mediawiki-1.19.1 ~/public_html
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
=== Installing the Stage 3 tarball ===
+
== MediaWiki from GIT ==
==== Stage 3 tarball ====
+
  
After creating filesystems, the next step is downloading the initial Stage 3 tarball. The Stage 3 is a pre-compiled system used as a starting point to install Funtoo Linux. Visit the [[Download]] page and copy the URL to the Stage 3 tarball you want to use. We will download it soon.
+
Alternatively, we can download the code from the git repository:
 
+
{{fancyimportant|If your system's date and time are too far off (typically by months or years,) then it may prevent Portage from properly downloading source tarballs. This is because some of our sources are downloaded via HTTPS, which use SSL certificates and are marked with an activation and expiration date.}}
+
 
+
Now is a good time to verify the date and time are correctly set to UTC. Use the <tt>date</tt> command to verify the date and time:
+
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##date
+
# ##i##su docs
Fri Jul 15 19:47:18 UTC 2011
+
$ ##i##cd ~
 +
$ ##i##git clone https://gerrit.wikimedia.org/r/p/mediawiki/core.git public_html
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
If the date and/or time need to be corrected, do so using <tt>date MMDDhhmmYYYY</tt>, keeping in mind <tt>hhmm</tt> are in 24-hour format. The example below changes the date and time to "July 16th, 2011 @ 8:00PM" UTC:
+
Specific stable versions of MediaWiki are tracked using 'tags'. These are analogous to the tarball releases. We can see the versions available with:
 
+
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##date 071620002011
+
$ ##i##cd public_html
Fri Jul 16 20:00:00 UTC 2011
+
$ ##i##git tag -l | sort -V
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Once you are in your Funtoo Linux root filesystem, use <tt>wget</tt> to download the Stage 3 tarball you have chosen from the [[Download]] page to use as the basis for your new Funtoo Linux system. It should be saved to the <tt>/mnt/funtoo</tt> directory as follows:
+
To use a specific tag (1.19.1):
 
+
<console># ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
+
# ##i##wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-64bit/generic_64/stage3-latest.tar.xz
+
</console>
+
 
+
 
+
Note that 64-bit systems can run 32-bit or 64-bit stages, but 32-bit systems can only run 32-bit stages. Make sure that you select a Stage 3 build that is appropriate for your CPU. If you are not certain, it is a safe bet to choose the <tt>generic_64</tt> or <tt>generic_32</tt> stage. Consult the [[Download]] page for more information.
+
 
+
Once the stage is downloaded, extract the contents with the following command, substituting in the actual name of your stage 3 tarball:
+
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##tar xpf stage3-latest.tar.xz
+
$ ##i##git checkout 1.19.1
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
{{fancyimportant|It is very important to use <tt>tar</tt>'s "<tt>p</tt>" option when extracting the Stage 3 tarball - it tells <tt>tar</tt> to ''preserve'' any permissions and ownership that exist within the archive. Without this option, your Funtoo Linux filesystem permissions will be incorrect.}}
+
== Initial Web Config ==
  
=== Chroot into Funtoo ===
+
You will now be able to load the URL of your server in your Web browser and configure MediaWiki through the Web user interface. Complete the '''full''' installation process and be sure to specify that you are using XCache for caching. Once you go through this process, the Web installation process will provide you with a <tt>LocalSettings.php</tt> file, which you should place in <tt>/home/docs/public_html</tt>. The <tt>LocalSettings.php</tt> file can also be manually edited and used to enable MediaWiki features and extensions.
Before chrooting into your new system, there's a few things that need to be done first. You will need to mount /proc and /dev inside your new system. Use the following commands:
+
<console>
+
# ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
+
# ##i##mount -t proc none proc
+
# ##i##mount --rbind /sys sys
+
# ##i##mount --rbind /dev dev
+
</console>
+
  
You'll also want to copy over <tt>resolv.conf</tt> in order to have proper DNS name resolution from inside the chroot:
+
== Tips and Tricks ==
<console>
+
# ##i##cp /etc/resolv.conf etc
+
</console>
+
  
Now you can chroot into your new system. Use <tt>env</tt> before <tt>chroot</tt> to ensure that no environment variables from the installation media are used by your new system:
+
=== ArticlePath ===
  
<console>
+
By default, MediaWiki pages will have a URL of <tt>wiki.myserver.com/index.php?title=PageName</tt>. With a few minor tweaks, you can tell MediaWiki to use <tt>wiki.myserver.com/PageName</tt> instead. Here's how. Open up <tt>LocalSettings.php</tt> and search for the <tt>$wgScriptPath</tt> line. This part of the config will look like this:
# ##i##env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l
+
</console>
+
  
{{fancynote|Users of live CDs with 64-bit kernels: Some software may use <tt>uname -r</tt> to check whether the system is 32 or 64-bit. You may want append linux32 to the chroot command as a workaround, but it's generally not needed.}}
 
{{fancyimportant|If you receive the error "<tt>chroot: failed to run command `/bin/bash': Exec format error</tt>", it is probably because you are running a 32-bit kernel and trying to execute 64-bit code. SystemRescueCd boots with a 32-bit kernel by default.}}
 
 
It's also a good idea to change the default command prompt while inside the chroot. This will avoid confusion if you have to change terminals. Use this command:
 
<console>
 
# ##i##export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"
 
</console>
 
 
Congratulations! You are now chrooted inside a Funtoo Linux system. Now it's time to get Funtoo Linux properly configured so that Funtoo Linux will boot successfully when your system is restarted.
 
 
=== Downloading the Portage tree ===
 
 
{{fancynote|For an alternative way to do this, see [[Installing Portage From Snapshot]].}}
 
Now it's time to install a copy of the Portage repository, which contains package scripts (ebuilds) that tell portage how to build and install thousands of different software packages. To create the Portage repository, simply run <tt>emerge --sync</tt> from within the chroot. This will automatically clone the portage tree from [http://github.com/ GitHub]:
 
 
<console>
 
(chroot) # ##i##emerge --sync
 
</console>
 
 
{{fancyimportant|If you receive the error with initial <tt>emerge --sync</tt> due to git protocol restrictions, change <tt>SYNC</tt> variable in <tt>/etc/portage/make.conf</tt>}}
 
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
SYNC="https://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012.git"
+
$wgScriptPath      = "";
 +
$wgScriptExtension  = ".php";
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
 
+
Change this part of the file to look like this:
=== Configuring your system ===
+
As is expected from a Linux distribution, Funtoo Linux has its share of configuration files. The one file you are absolutely required to edit in order to ensure that Funtoo Linux boots successfully is <tt>/etc/fstab</tt>. The others are optional. Here are a list of files that you should consider editing:
+
 
+
{| {{table}}
+
!File
+
!Do I need to change it?
+
!Description
+
|-
+
|<tt>/etc/fstab</tt>
+
|'''YES - required'''
+
|Mount points for all filesystems to be used at boot time. This file must reflect your disk partition setup. We'll guide you through modifying this file below.
+
|-
+
|<tt>/etc/localtime</tt>
+
|''Maybe - recommended''
+
|Your timezone, which will default to UTC if not set. This should be a symbolic link to something located under /usr/share/zoneinfo (e.g. /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/Montreal)
+
|-
+
|<tt>/etc/make.conf<br/>/etc/portage/make.conf&nbsp;(new&nbsp;location)</tt>
+
|''Maybe - recommended''
+
|Parameters used by gcc (compiler), portage, and make. It's a good idea to set MAKEOPTS. This is covered later in this document.
+
|-
+
|<tt>/etc/conf.d/hostname</tt>
+
|''Maybe - recommended''
+
|Used to set system hostname. Set to the fully-qualified (with dots) name. Defaults to <tt>localhost</tt> if not set.
+
|-
+
|<tt>/etc/hosts</tt>
+
|''No''
+
| You no longer need to manually set the hostname in this file. This file is automatically generated by <tt>/etc/init.d/hostname</tt>.
+
|-
+
|<tt>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</tt>
+
|Optional
+
|Keyboard mapping configuration file (for console pseudo-terminals). Set if you have a non-US keyboard. See [[Funtoo Linux Localization]].
+
|-
+
|<tt>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</tt>
+
|Optional
+
|How the time of the battery-backed hardware clock of the system is interpreted (UTC or local time). Linux uses the battery-backed hardware clock to initialize the system clock when the system is booted.
+
|-
+
|<tt>/etc/conf.d/modules</tt>
+
|Optional
+
|Kernel modules to load automatically at system startup. Typically not required. See [[Additional Kernel Resources]] for more info.
+
|-
+
|<tt>profiles</tt>
+
|Optional
+
|Some useful portage settings that may help speed up intial configuration.
+
|}
+
 
+
If you're installing an English version of Funtoo Linux, you're in luck as most of the configuration files can be used as-is. If you're installing for another locale, don't worry. We will walk you through the necessary configuration steps on the [[Funtoo Linux Localization]] page, and if needed, there's always plenty of friendly, helpful support. (See [[#Community portal|Community]])
+
 
+
Let's go ahead and see what we have to do. Use <tt>nano -w <name_of_file></tt> to edit files -- the "<tt>-w</tt>" disables word-wrapping, which is handy when editing configuration files. You can copy and paste from the examples.
+
 
+
{{fancywarning|It's important to edit your <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> file before you reboot! You will need to modify both the "fs" and "type" columns to match the settings for your partitions and filesystems that you created with <tt>gdisk</tt> or <tt>fdisk</tt>. Skipping this step may prevent Funtoo Linux from booting successfully.}}
+
 
+
==== /etc/fstab ====
+
 
+
<tt>/etc/fstab</tt> is used by the <tt>mount</tt> command which is ran when your system boots. Statements of this file inform <tt>mount</tt> about partitions to be mounted and how they are mounted. In order for the system to boot properly, you must edit <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> and ensure that it reflects the partition configuration you used earlier:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##nano -w /etc/fstab
+
</console>
+
 
+
You can use arrow keys to move around and hit Control-X to exit. If you want to save your changes, type "<tt>Y</tt>" when asked if you want to save the modified buffer, or hit Control-O before closing <tt>nano</tt>. Otherwise your changes will be discarded.
+
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
# The root filesystem should have a pass number of either 0 or 1.
+
$wgScriptPath      = "";
# All other filesystems should have a pass number of 0 or greater than 1.
+
$wgArticlePath     = "/$1";
#
+
$wgUsePathInfo      = true;
# NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
+
$wgScriptExtension = ".php";
#
+
# See the manpage fstab(5) for more information.
+
#
+
# <fs>     <mountpoint>  <type>  <opts>        <dump/pass>
+
 
+
/dev/sda1    /boot        ext2    noatime        1 2
+
/dev/sda3    none          swap    sw            0 0
+
/dev/sda4    /            ext4    noatime        0 1
+
#/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom    auto    noauto,ro      0 0
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
==== /etc/localtime ====
+
The old-style URLs will still work, but the shorter more intuitive URLs will now be used for all wiki links.
 
+
<tt>/etc/localtime</tt> is used to specify the timezone that your machine is in, and defaults to UTC. If you would like your Funtoo Linux system to use local time, you should replace <tt>/etc/localtime</tt> with a symbolic link to the timezone that you wish to use.
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/MST7MDT /etc/localtime
+
</console>
+
 
+
The above sets the timezone to Mountain Standard Time (with daylight savings). Type <tt>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</tt> to see what timezones are available. There are also sub-directories containing timezones described by location.
+
 
+
==== /etc/make.conf ====
+
  
{{fancynote|This file is the symlink to /etc/portage/make.conf, new default location, edit /etc/portage/make.conf.}}
+
=== $wgSpamRegex ===
  
MAKEOPTS can be used to define how many parallel compilations should occur when you compile a package, which can speed up compilation significantly. A rule of thumb is the number of CPUs (or CPU threads) in your system plus one. If for example you have a dual core processor without [[wikipedia:Hyper-threading|hyper-threading]], then you would set MAKEOPTS to 3:
+
You may find that your wiki is the target of spammers. The easiest way to combat spam is to set <tt>$wgSpamRegex</tt> in <tt>LocalSettings.php</tt>, like so:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
MAKEOPTS="-j3"  
+
$wgSpamRegex = "/badword1|badword2|badword3/i"
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
If you are unsure about how many processors/threads you have then use /proc/cpuinfo to help you.
+
This will perform a case-insensitive match against the bad words and block anyone from saving edits that contain these words.
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##grep "processor" /proc/cpuinfo | wc -l
+
16
+
</console>
+
  
Set MAKEOPTS to this number plus one:
+
=== DNS Blacklist ===
  
<pre>
+
MediaWiki also has the ability to consult a DNS blacklist to prevent known forum and wiki spam sites from performing any edits on your wiki. To enable this capability, add the following to <tt>LocalSettings.php</tt>:
MAKEOPTS="-j17"
+
</pre>
+
 
+
USE flags define what functionality is enabled when packages are built. It is not recommended to add a lot of them during installation; you should wait until you have a working, bootable system before changing your USE flags. A USE flag prefixed with a minus ("<tt>-</tt>") sign tells Portage not to use the flag when compiling.  A Funtoo guide to USE flags will be available in the future. For now, you can find out more information about USE flags in the [http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-amd64.xml?part=2&chap=2 Gentoo Handbook].
+
 
+
LINGUAS tells Portage which local language to compile the system and applications in (those who use LINGUAS variable like OpenOffice). It is not usually necessary to set this if you use English. If you want another language such as French (fr) or German (de), set LINGUAS appropriately:
+
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
LINGUAS="fr"
+
$wgEnableDnsBlacklist = true;
 +
$wgDnsBlacklistUrls = array( 'xbl.spamhaus.org', 'opm.tornevall.org' );
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
==== /etc/conf.d/hwclock ====
+
You may notice a significant decrease in spam posts.
If you dual-boot with Windows, you'll need to edit this file and change '''clock''' to '''local''', because Windows will set your hardware clock to local time every time you boot Windows. Otherwise you normally wouldn't need to edit this file.
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock
+
</console>
+
  
==== Localization ====
+
=== $wgServer ===
  
By default, Funtoo Linux is configured with Unicode (UTF-8) enabled, and for the US English locale and keyboard. If you would like to configure your system to use a non-English locale or keyboard, see [[Funtoo Linux Localization]].
+
Here is an important tip -- the <tt>$wgServer</tt> variable in <tt>LocalSettings.php</tt> defines the URL of your MediaWiki installation. MediaWiki will encode this within its HTML replies, which means that the Web browser from which you are accessing MediaWiki must be able to reach your server using this address, or pages will not display. This is not a security feature in any way, but a configuration issue. For example, if <tt>$wgServer</tt> is set to <tt>10.0.1.128</tt>, then the only systems that will be able to access your MediaWiki installation are those for which <tt>10.0.1.128</tt> resolves to your MediaWiki installation.  The same is true of non-IP <tt>$wgServer</tt> entries like <tt>wiki.mysite.com</tt>. If you are setting up a test wiki, you may need a temporary entry in a desktop's <tt>/etc/hosts</tt> file so that it can interact with the wiki properly before DNS is set up.
  
==== Profiles ====
+
=== $wgLogo ===
  
[[Funtoo 1.0 Profile|Funtoo profiles]] are used to define defaults for Portage specific to your needs. There are 4 basic profile types: arch, build, [[Flavors and Mix-ins|flavor, and mix-ins]]:
+
If you want to change the wiki logo, edit <tt>LocalSettings.php</tt> and replace $wgLogo with the location of the image you want to use:
 
+
;arch: typically <tt>x86-32bit</tt> or <tt>x86-64bit</tt>, this defines the processor type and support of your system. This is defined when your stage was built and should not be changed.
+
;build: defines whether your system is a <tt>current</tt>, <tt>stable</tt> or <tt>experimental</tt> build. <tt>current</tt> systems will have newer packages unmasked than <tt>stable</tt> systems.
+
;flavor: defines the general type of system, such as <tt>server</tt> or <tt>desktop</tt>, and will set default USE flags appropriate for your needs.
+
;mix-ins: define various optional settings that you may be interested in enabling.
+
 
+
One arch, build and flavor must be set for each Funtoo Linux system, while mix-ins are optional and you can enable more than one if desired.
+
 
+
Remember that profiles can often be inherited. For example, the <tt>desktop</tt> flavor inherits the <tt>workstation</tt> flavor settings, which in turn inherits the <tt>X</tt> and <tt>audio</tt> mix-ins. You can view this by using eselect:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile show
+
Currently set profiles:
+
    arch: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit
+
  build: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current
+
  flavor: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/desktop
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/kde
+
 
+
Automatically enabled profiles:
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/print
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/X
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/audio
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media
+
mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/console-extras
+
 
+
 
+
</console>
+
 
+
To view installed profiles:
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile list
+
</console>
+
 
+
To change the profile flavor:
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile set-flavor 7
+
</console>
+
 
+
To add a mix-in:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile add 10
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== Configuring and installing the Linux kernel ===
+
 
+
{{fancywarning|1=
+
Please note that Linux kernel 3.13.* has some serious incompatibility with various graphics drivers. If you like to use <tt>gentoo-sources</tt> or <tt>vanilla-sources</tt>, please use a 3.12.* kernel. This is of particular importance if you plan to run GNOME, and want to use NVIDIA (commercial or nouveau) or ATI (ati-drivers) graphics drivers.}}
+
 
+
Now it's time to build and install a Linux kernel, which is the heart of any Funtoo Linux system. In the past, the process of creating a kernel that actually booted your system could be time-consuming and require a great deal of trial and error. Fortunately, Funtoo Linux offers an option to automatically build a kernel for you that will boot nearly all systems.
+
 
+
If you are unfamiliar with how to manually configure your own kernel, or you simply want to get your system up and running quickly, you can emerge <tt>debian-sources</tt> with the <tt>binary</tt> USE flag set, which will automatically build the kernel and an initrd that will boot nearly all Funtoo Linux systems. This kernel is based on a linux-3.2 LTS official debian kernel package and is an easy way to get your system up and running relatively quickly.
+
 
+
Click [http://wiki.debian.org/DebianKernel here] for a list of all architectures the Debian kernel supports.
+
 
+
{{fancyimportant|<tt>debian-sources</tt> with <tt>binary</tt> USE flag requires at least 12GB in /var/tmp}}
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##echo "sys-kernel/debian-sources binary" >> /etc/portage/package.use
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge debian-sources</console>
+
 
+
All done!
+
 
+
{{fancynote|NVIDIA card users: the <tt>binary</tt> USE flag installs the Nouveau drivers which cannot be loaded at the same time as the proprietary drivers, and cannot be unloaded at runtime because of KMS. You need to blacklist it under <tt>/etc/modprobe.d/</tt>.}}
+
{{fancynote|For an overview of other kernel options for Funtoo Linux, see [[Funtoo Linux Kernels]]. There maybe modules that the Debian kernel doesn't include, a situation where [http://www.funtoo.org/wiki/Funtoo_Linux_Kernels#Using_Debian-Sources_with_Genkernel genkernel] would be useful. Also be sure to see [[:Category:Hardware Compatibility|hardware compatibility]] information. We have compiled a very good reference for [[Dell PowerEdge 11G Servers]] that includes kernel compatibility information as well..}}
+
 
+
 
+
The next step is to configure your boot loader so that your new kernel loads when the system boots.
+
 
+
=== Installing a Bootloader ===
+
 
+
==== Installing Grub ====
+
 
+
The boot loader is responsible for loading the kernel from disk when your computer boots. For new installations, GRUB 2 and Funtoo's boot-update tool should be used as a boot loader. GRUB supports both GPT/GUID and legacy MBR partitioning schemes.
+
 
+
To use this recommended boot method, first emerge <tt>boot-update</tt>. This will also cause <tt>grub-2</tt> to be merged, since it is a dependency of <tt>boot-update</tt>.
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##emerge boot-update
+
</console>
+
 
+
Then, edit <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt> and specify "<tt>Funtoo Linux genkernel</tt>" as the <tt>default</tt> setting at the top of the file, replacing <tt>"Funtoo Linux"</tt>.
+
 
+
<tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt> should now look like this:
+
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
boot {
+
$wgLogo = "image.png"
        generate grub
+
        default "Funtoo Linux genkernel"
+
        timeout 3
+
}
+
 
+
"Funtoo Linux" {
+
        kernel bzImage[-v]
+
        # params += nomodeset
+
}
+
 
+
"Funtoo Linux genkernel" {
+
        kernel kernel[-v]
+
        initrd initramfs[-v]
+
        params += real_root=auto
+
        # params += nomodeset
+
}
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
+
{{fancynote| The above references the file <tt>image.png</tt> in the directory <tt>/home/docs/public_html</tt>}}
Please read <tt>man boot.conf</tt> for further details.
+
[[Category:Featured]]
 
+
===== Running grub-install and boot-update =====
+
 
+
Finally, we will need to actually install the GRUB boot loader to your disk, and also run <tt>boot-update</tt> which will generate your boot loader configuration file:
+
 
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --no-floppy /dev/sda
+
(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
+
</console>
+
 
+
You only need to run <tt>grub-install</tt> when you first install Funtoo Linux, but you need to re-run <tt>boot-update</tt> every time you modify your <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt> file, so your changes are applied on next boot.
+
 
+
OK - your system should be ready to boot! Well, there are a few more loose ends...
+
 
+
==== Installing Syslinux/Extlinux ====
+
 
+
An alternate boot loader called extlinux can be used instead of GRUB if you desire. See the [[Extlinux|extlinux Guide]] for information on how to do this.
+
 
+
=== Configuring your network ===
+
 
+
It's important to ensure that you will be able to connect to your local-area network after you reboot into Funtoo Linux. There are three approaches you can use for configuring your network: NetworkManager, dhcpcd, and the [[Funtoo Linux Networking]] scripts. Here's how to choose which one to use based on the type of network you want to set up.
+
 
+
==== Wi-Fi ====
+
 
+
For laptop/mobile systems where you will be using Wi-Fi and connecting to various networks, NetworkManager is strongly recommended. The Funtoo version of NetworkManager is fully functional even from the command-line, so you can use it even without X or without the Network Manager applet. Here are the steps involved in setting up NetworkManager:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##emerge linux-firmware
+
# ##i##emerge networkmanager
+
# ##i##rc-update add NetworkManager default
+
</console>
+
 
+
Above, we installed linux-firmware which contains a complete collection of available firmware for many hardware devices including Wi-Fi adapters, plus NetworkManager to manage our network connection. Then we added NetworkManager to the <tt>default</tt> runlevel so it will start when Funtoo Linux boots.
+
 
+
After you reboot into Funtoo Linux, you will be able to add a Wi-Fi connection this way:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##addwifi -S wpa -K 'wifipassword' mywifinetwork
+
</console>
+
 
+
The <tt>addwifi</tt> command is used to configure and connect to a WPA/WPA2 Wi-Fi network named <tt>mywifinetwork</tt> with the password <tt>wifipassword</tt>. This network configuration entry is stored in <tt>/etc/NetworkManager/system-connections</tt> so that it will be remembered in the future. You should only need to enter this command once for each Wi-Fi network you connect to.
+
 
+
==== Desktop (Wired Ethernet) ====
+
 
+
For a home desktop or workstation with wired Ethernet that will use DHCP, the simplest and most effective option to enable network connectivity is to simply add <tt>dhcpcd</tt> to the default runlevel:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##rc-update add dhcpcd default
+
</console>
+
 
+
When you reboot, <tt>dhcpcd</tt> will run in the background and manage all network interfaces and use DHCP to acquire network addresses from a DHCP server.
+
 
+
==== Server (Static IP) ====
+
 
+
For servers, the [[Funtoo Linux Networking]] scripts are recommended. They are optimized for static configurations and things like virtual ethernet bridging for virtualization setups. See [[Funtoo Linux Networking]] for information on how to use Funtoo Linux's template-based network configuration system.
+
 
+
=== Finishing Steps ===
+
 
+
==== Set your root password ====
+
It's imperative that you set your root password before rebooting so that you can log in.
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##passwd
+
</console>
+
 
+
===Restart your system ===
+
 
+
Now is the time to leave chroot, to unmount Funtoo Linux partitions and files and to restart your computer. When you restart, the GRUB boot loader will start, load the Linux kernel and initramfs, and your system will begin booting.
+
 
+
Leave the chroot, change directory to /, unmount your Funtoo partitions, and reboot.
+
<console>
+
(chroot) # ##i##exit
+
# ##i##cd /
+
# ##i##umount -l /mnt/funtoo/boot /mnt/funtoo/dev /mnt/funtoo/proc /mnt/funtoo/sys /mnt/funtoo
+
# ##i##reboot
+
</console>
+
 
+
You should now see your system reboot, the GRUB boot loader appear for a few seconds, and then see the Linux kernel and initramfs loading. After this, you should see Funtoo Linux itself start to boot, and you should be greeted with a <tt>login:</tt> prompt. Funtoo Linux has been successfully installed!
+
 
+
===Next Steps===
+
 
+
If you are brand new to Funtoo Linux and Gentoo Linux, please check out [[Funtoo Linux First Steps]], which will help get you acquainted with your new system.
+
 
+
We also have a number of pages dedicated to setting up your system, which you can find below. If you are interested in adding a page to this list, add it to the "First Steps" MediaWiki category.
+
 
+
{{#ask: [[Category:First Steps]] | format=category }}
+
 
+
If your system did not boot correctly, see [[Installation Troubleshooting]] for steps you can take to resolve the problem.
+
 
+
 
[[Category:HOWTO]]
 
[[Category:HOWTO]]
[[Category:Install]]
 
 
[[Category:Official Documentation]]
 
[[Category:Official Documentation]]

Latest revision as of 23:30, 15 March 2014

This page documents how to set up MediaWiki on Funtoo Linux, from a bare stage3 install with network connectivity. We will use Nginx, xcache and PHP-FPM, which will result in very good performance. We will also properly secure MediaWiki, and also cover some additional tips and tricks, focusing on spam reduction.

Contents

[edit] Portage Settings

Add the following line to /etc/make.conf:


PHP_TARGETS="php5-4"

Add the following lines to /etc/portage/package.use/php:

dev-lang/php curl exif fpm gd mysql mysqli sockets suhosin threads intl xmlreader xmlwriter
>=dev-php/xcache-2.0.0 php_targets_php5-4

[edit] Emerge

Emerge xcache, and we'll also emerge metalog and postfix. This should pull in MySQL as well as php-5.4:

# emerge --jobs xcache metalog postfix

[edit] Start and Configure Services

Time to configure MySQL with a root password, start it, secure it, and enable it to start at boot. We'll also start metalog and postfix:

# emerge --config mysql
# rc-update add mysql default
# rc-update add metalog default
# rc-update add postfix default
# rc
# mysql_secure_installation

[edit] Database Setup

Now, let's create a database named mediawiki for use by MediaWiki, and a mediawiki@localhost user to access this database, using a password of wikifever:

# mysql -u root -p
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 7
Server version: 5.1.62-log Gentoo Linux mysql-5.1.62-r1

Copyright (c) 2000, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> create database mediawiki;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> grant index, create, select, insert, update, delete, alter, lock tables on mediawiki.* to 'mediawiki'@'localhost' identified by 'wikifever';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> \q
Bye
# 

[edit] Nginx Setup

We will use nginx as our Web server. Let's emerge it:

# emerge --jobs nginx

[edit] User and Group

When we run our wiki, we will run it as the docs user, for security. Let's set up a docs user and group:

# groupadd docs
# useradd -g docs --home /home/docs docs
# install -d /home/docs
# chown -R docs:docs /home/docs

[edit] Set up PHP

As our last major configuration step, we will configure the PHP FastCGI Process Manager by creating a /etc/php/fpm-php5.4/php-fpm.conf file with the following contents (existing contents can be deleted):

[global]
error_log = /var/log/php-fpm.log
log_level = notice

[docs]
listen = /var/run/docs.php-fpm.socket
listen.allowed_clients = 127.0.0.1
listen.owner = docs
listen.group = nginx
listen.mode = 0660
user = docs
group = docs
pm = dynamic
pm.max_children = 16
pm.start_servers = 2
pm.min_spare_servers = 2
pm.max_spare_servers = 2
pm.max_requests = 500
php_admin_value[open_basedir] = /home/docs/public_html:/tmp
php_admin_value[error_log] = /home/docs/php-errors.log
php_admin_value[disable_functions] = exec, system, shell_exec, passthru, popen, dl, curl_multi_exec, posix_getpwuid, 
 disk_total_space, disk_free_space, escapeshellcmd, escapeshellarg, eval, get_current_user, getmyuid, getmygid, 
 posix_getgrgid, parse_ini_file, proc_get-status, proc_nice, proc_terminate, suexec, pclose, virtual, set_time_limit, show_source

This configuration file tells PHP to use the docs user when running MediaWiki. Please note that the last line is very long - I have split it into 3 lines for readability on this wiki, but you should combine them into a single line in your configuration file. The line should start with php_admin_value[disable_functions] and end with show_source.

[edit] Configure Nginx

Oh! Now we need to configure nginx to serve pages as the docs user. Assuming your site is named wiki.mysite.com, create a /etc/nginx/sites-available/wiki.mysite.com file with the following contents:

server {
        listen 80;
        server_name wiki.mysite.com;

        access_log /var/log/nginx/wiki.mysite.com.access.log main;
        error_log /var/log/nginx/wiki.mysite.com.error.log error;
        
        root /home/docs/public_html;
        index index.html index.php;

        # uncomment this if you want to htpasswd-protect your site while you set it up initially
        # auth_basic "Ninjas allowed only";
        # auth_basic_user_file /etc/nginx/docs.funtoo.org.htpasswd;

location ~* ^(.*)(install.php|LocalSettings.php|\.git) { deny all; }

location ~* \.php$ {
        #set $https "off"; 
        #if ($scheme = https) { set $https "on"; }
        #fastcgi_param HTTPS $https;

        try_files       $uri    @404;
        fastcgi_param   GATEWAY_INTERFACE  CGI/1.1;
        fastcgi_param   SERVER_SOFTWARE    nginx;
        fastcgi_param   QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
        fastcgi_param   REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
        fastcgi_param   CONTENT_TYPE       $content_type;
        fastcgi_param   CONTENT_LENGTH     $content_length;
        fastcgi_param   SCRIPT_FILENAME    $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
        fastcgi_param   SCRIPT_NAME        $fastcgi_script_name;
        fastcgi_param   REQUEST_URI        $request_uri;
        fastcgi_param   DOCUMENT_URI       $document_uri;
        fastcgi_param   DOCUMENT_ROOT      $document_root;
        fastcgi_param   SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;
        fastcgi_param   REMOTE_ADDR        $remote_addr;
        fastcgi_param   REMOTE_PORT        $remote_port;
        fastcgi_param   SERVER_ADDR        $server_addr;
        fastcgi_param   SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
        fastcgi_param   SERVER_NAME        wiki.mysite.com;

        fastcgi_pass    unix:/var/run/docs.php-fpm.socket;
        fastcgi_index   index.php;
}

# this will secure the MediaWiki uploads against arbitrary PHP injection attacks:
location /images/ {
        location ~.*\.(php)?$ {
                deny all;
        }
}


location @404 {
        return 404;
        break;
}

location / {
        try_files $uri $uri/ @mediawiki;
}

location @mediawiki {
        rewrite ^/([^?]*)(?:\?(.*))? /index.php?title=$1&$2 last;
}

}

[edit] Enable Ngnix and PHP-FPM

Now, let's enable nginx to serve our site, and also be sure to enable php-fpm:

# cd /etc/nginx/sites-enabled
# ln -s ../sites-available/wiki.mysite.com wiki.mysite.com
# rc-update add nginx default
# rc-update add php-fpm default
# rc
 * Starting PHP FastCGI Process Manager ...                                                            [ ok ]
 * Starting nginx ...                                                                                  [ ok ]
#

[edit] Download MediaWiki

We're getting close. Now, head to http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Download and copy the link address for the latest version of MediaWiki, currently 1.19.1 at the time this was written. Let's download the archive to /var/tmp:

# cd /var/tmp
# wget http://download.wikimedia.org/mediawiki/1.19/mediawiki-1.19.1.tar.gz

[edit] Extract MediaWiki

We now have all the Web, database and email infrastructure enabled that we need. Heading to the IP address of your server should result in a 404 - Not Found error in your Web browser. Time to extract and configure MediaWiki itself:

# su docs
$ cd /var/tmp
$ tar xvf ./mediawiki-1.19.1.tar.gz
$ mv mediawiki-1.19.1 ~/public_html

[edit] MediaWiki from GIT

Alternatively, we can download the code from the git repository:

# su docs
$ cd ~
$ git clone https://gerrit.wikimedia.org/r/p/mediawiki/core.git public_html

Specific stable versions of MediaWiki are tracked using 'tags'. These are analogous to the tarball releases. We can see the versions available with:

$ cd public_html
$ git tag -l | sort -V

To use a specific tag (1.19.1):

$ git checkout 1.19.1

[edit] Initial Web Config

You will now be able to load the URL of your server in your Web browser and configure MediaWiki through the Web user interface. Complete the full installation process and be sure to specify that you are using XCache for caching. Once you go through this process, the Web installation process will provide you with a LocalSettings.php file, which you should place in /home/docs/public_html. The LocalSettings.php file can also be manually edited and used to enable MediaWiki features and extensions.

[edit] Tips and Tricks

[edit] ArticlePath

By default, MediaWiki pages will have a URL of wiki.myserver.com/index.php?title=PageName. With a few minor tweaks, you can tell MediaWiki to use wiki.myserver.com/PageName instead. Here's how. Open up LocalSettings.php and search for the $wgScriptPath line. This part of the config will look like this:

$wgScriptPath       = "";
$wgScriptExtension  = ".php";

Change this part of the file to look like this:

$wgScriptPath       = "";
$wgArticlePath      = "/$1";
$wgUsePathInfo      = true;
$wgScriptExtension  = ".php";

The old-style URLs will still work, but the shorter more intuitive URLs will now be used for all wiki links.

[edit] $wgSpamRegex

You may find that your wiki is the target of spammers. The easiest way to combat spam is to set $wgSpamRegex in LocalSettings.php, like so:

$wgSpamRegex = "/badword1|badword2|badword3/i"

This will perform a case-insensitive match against the bad words and block anyone from saving edits that contain these words.

[edit] DNS Blacklist

MediaWiki also has the ability to consult a DNS blacklist to prevent known forum and wiki spam sites from performing any edits on your wiki. To enable this capability, add the following to LocalSettings.php:

$wgEnableDnsBlacklist = true;
$wgDnsBlacklistUrls = array( 'xbl.spamhaus.org', 'opm.tornevall.org' );

You may notice a significant decrease in spam posts.

[edit] $wgServer

Here is an important tip -- the $wgServer variable in LocalSettings.php defines the URL of your MediaWiki installation. MediaWiki will encode this within its HTML replies, which means that the Web browser from which you are accessing MediaWiki must be able to reach your server using this address, or pages will not display. This is not a security feature in any way, but a configuration issue. For example, if $wgServer is set to 10.0.1.128, then the only systems that will be able to access your MediaWiki installation are those for which 10.0.1.128 resolves to your MediaWiki installation. The same is true of non-IP $wgServer entries like wiki.mysite.com. If you are setting up a test wiki, you may need a temporary entry in a desktop's /etc/hosts file so that it can interact with the wiki properly before DNS is set up.

[edit]

If you want to change the wiki logo, edit LocalSettings.php and replace $wgLogo with the location of the image you want to use:

$wgLogo = "image.png"
Note: The above references the file image.png in the directory /home/docs/public_html