Difference between pages "UEFI Install Guide" and "Install/pt-br/Profiles"

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This tutorial will show you how to install Funtoo on a UEFI system. UEFI, also known as the [[Wikipedia:Unified Extensible Firmware Interface|Unified Extensible Firmware Interface]], is a new firmware interface that is used on some newer computers as a replacement for the traditional PC BIOS. It has an integrated boot loader, so setting up booting is different.
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=== Profiles ===
  
This tutorial is meant to be an "overlay" over the Regular Funtoo Installation. Follow the normal installation and only follow steps in this tutorial when dealing with partitioning and configuring the boot loader (GRUB). All steps are otherwise identical to the regular installation process.
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Uma vez que você tenha reiniciado no Funtoo Linux, você pode mais tarde personalizar seu sistema para as suas necessidade ao usar o Funtoo Profiles.
  
== What Are We Doing? ==
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[[Funtoo 1.0 Profile|Funtoo profiles]] são utilizados para padões para específico Portage para suas necessidades. Há 4 típicos básicos de perfil (profile types): arch, build, [[Flavors and Mix-ins|flavor, and mix-ins]]:
  
This guide will show you how to set up your UEFI system to load the GRUB boot loader, which will then load your Funtoo Linux kernel and initramfs. This is the "UEFI + GRUB" method as described on the [[Boot Methods]] page.
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;arch: tipicamente <code>x86-32bit</code> ou <code>x86-64bit</code>, isso define o tipo de processador e suporte do seu sistema. Isso é definido quando seu stage foi construído e não deve ser alterado.
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;build: define se seu sistema é um build <code>current</code>, <code>stable</code> ou <code>experimental</code>. Sistemas <code>current</code> terão pacotes mais recentes do que os sistemas <code>stable</code>.
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;flavor: define o tipo geral de sistema, tal como <code>server</code> ou <code>desktop</code>, e definirá flags padrões USE apropriadas para as suas necessidade.
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;mix-ins: define várias configurações opcionais que você pode estar interessado em habilitar.
  
== First Steps ==
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Um arch, build e flavor deve ser definido para cada sistema Funtoo Linux, enquanto mix-ins são opcionais e você pode habilitar mais de um se desejado.
  
To install Funtoo Linux on a UEFI system, first you need to boot SysRescueCD in UEFI mode. To do this, enable UEFI in your BIOS, and if necessary disable legacy booting. After some fiddling, you should be able to boot SysRescueCD and get a black and white text menu instead of the traditional aqua/cyan-colored menu. The black and white menu indicates that you booted SysRescueCD in UEFI mode. Once you've accomplished this, you're ready to continue with your Funtoo Linux installation and partition your drive. See below for details.
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Lembre-se de que profiles pode com frequência serem herdados. Por exemplo, o flavor <code>desktop</code> herda as configurações do flavor <code>workstation</code>, que em retorno herda os mix-ins <code>X</code> e <code>audio</code>. Você pode visualizar isso ao utilizar eselect:
  
'''If the <tt>/sys/firmware/efi</tt> directory exists, then you have successfully booted in EFI mode and will be able to configure your Funtoo system to boot in EFI mode. If the directory doesn't exist, fix this first. It is a requirement for setting up EFI booting.'''
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<console>
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(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile show
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Currently set profiles:
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    arch: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit
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  build: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current
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  flavor: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/desktop
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mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/kde
  
== Partitioning ==
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Automatically enabled profiles:
 
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mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/print
To set up your partitions for UEFI booting, you will create a ~500MB FAT32 partition on <tt>/dev/sda1</tt>, and set it to type <tt>EF00</tt> using <tt>gdisk</tt>.
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mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/X
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mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/audio
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mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd
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mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media
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mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/console-extras
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</console>
  
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Para visualizar profiles instalados:
 
<console>
 
<console>
Command: ##i##n ↵
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(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile list
Partition Number: ##i##1 ↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##+500M ↵
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Hex Code: ##i##EF00
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</console>
 
</console>
  
This partition will serve as your Funtoo <tt>/boot</tt> filesystem as well as the partition that the UEFI firmware can read to load GRUB. Then you will set up swap on <tt>/dev/sda2</tt> and your root filesystem on <tt>/dev/sda3</tt>. To create the FAT32 filesystem, type:
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Para alterar o profile flavor:
 
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<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1
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(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile set-flavor 7
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Your <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> entry for this filesystem will also differ, and will look like this:
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Para adicionar um mix-in:
 
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<pre>
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/dev/sda1 /boot vfat noatime 1 2
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</pre>
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== Kernel ==
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=== VFAT ===
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Make sure you add VFAT support to your kernel if you are building it manually.
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=== EFI Framebuffer ===
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If you have the following option enabled in your kernel, then uvesafb and efifb will not be able to detect the framebuffer:
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{{kernelop|title=Bus options (PCI etc.)|desc=
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    [*] Mark VGA/VBE/EFI FB as generic system framebuffer (NEW)
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}}
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If you have that option enabled, ''you must also enable'':
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{{kernelop|title=Device Drivers,Graphics support,Frame buffer Devices,Support for frame buffer devices|desc=
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    [*]  Simple framebuffer support
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}}
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This is the preferred method of using the EFI framebuffer, the efifb and uvesafb drivers will be used as a fallback if the above is not compatible.
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== Kernel ==
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== Boot Loader ==
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=== Emerging GRUB ===
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You will still use GRUB as a boot loader, but before emerging grub, you will need to enable EFI booting. To do this,
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add the following line to <tt>/etc/portage/make.conf</tt>:
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<pre>
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GRUB_PLATFORMS="efi-64"
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</pre>
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Then, <tt>emerge grub</tt>. You will notice <tt>efibootmgr</tt> getting pulled in as a dependency. This is expected and good.
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=== Installing GRUB ===
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Now, for the magic of getting everything in place for booting. You should copy your kernel and initramfs (if you have one -- you will if you are following the default install) to <tt>/boot</tt>. GRUB will boot those. But how do we get UEFI to boot GRUB? Well, we need to run the following command:
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<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot /dev/sda
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(chroot) # ##i##eselect profile add 10
 
</console>
 
</console>
This command will simply install all the stuff to <tt>/boot/EFI</tt> and <tt>/boot/grub</tt> that your system needs to boot. In particular, the <tt>/boot/EFI/grub/grubx64.efi</tt> file will be created. This is the GRUB boot image that UEFI will load and start.
 
=== Configuring GRUB ===
 
 
OK, now UEFI has the GRUB image it needs to boot. But we still need to configure GRUB itself so it finds and boots your kernel and initramfs. This is done by performing the following steps. Since boot-update doesn't yet support UEFI, we will not use boot-update directly and will create a <tt>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</tt> file manually that looks like this:
 
 
 
<pre>
 
set timeout=3
 
set gfxmode=auto
 
insmod efi_gop
 
insmod efi_uga
 
 
menuentry "Funtoo Linux genkernel - kernel-debian-sources-x86_64-3.2.35-2" { 
 
    insmod part_gpt
 
    insmod fat 
 
    set root=(hostdisk//dev/sda,gpt1) 
 
    search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set __REPLACE_UUID_OF_SDA1__
 
    linux /kernel-debian-sources-x86_64-3.2.35-2 real_root=/dev/sda3
 
    initrd /initramfs-debian-sources-x86_64-3.2.35-2 
 
    set gfxpayload=keep
 
}
 
set default=0
 
</pre>
 
 
Note the <tt>search</tt> line where it says '''<tt>__REPLACE_UUID_OF_SDA1__</tt>''' above. You will need to run '''<tt>blkid /dev/sda1</tt>''' and use the UUID value that is displayed. For example, on my system, I need to use '''<tt>C34B-19CF</tt>'''. You can also change the <tt>menuentry</tt> line text in quotes to say whatever you want, and the <tt>linux</tt> and <tt>initrd</tt> lines should reference your kernel versions in <tt>/boot</tt>. As above, use the path <tt>/</tt> instead of <tt>/boot</tt> as the path should be relative to the root of the VFAT filesystem.
 
 
== Known Issues ==
 
With pure UEFI boot mode, with legacy mode disabled, following error expected:
 
* video driver not supported, boot hangs, hard reboot required.
 
Choose UEFI first, next legacy driver. It depends on motherboard vendor and efi bios version.
 
In UEFI bios choose grub option, if your succeeded with above guide, additional menu should appear in Boot Menu, otherwise it boots into EFI shell:
 
* grub:NAME of you hard drive
 
 
=== Done! ===
 
 
Remember to follow all other steps in the regular Funtoo Install Guide. Assuming you did everything correctly, your system should now boot via UEFI! We will be adding UEFI support to boot-update soon to make this process easier.
 
 
[[Category:HOWTO]]
 

Revision as of 18:47, March 12, 2015

Profiles

Uma vez que você tenha reiniciado no Funtoo Linux, você pode mais tarde personalizar seu sistema para as suas necessidade ao usar o Funtoo Profiles.

Funtoo profiles são utilizados para padões para específico Portage para suas necessidades. Há 4 típicos básicos de perfil (profile types): arch, build, flavor, and mix-ins:

arch
tipicamente x86-32bit ou x86-64bit, isso define o tipo de processador e suporte do seu sistema. Isso é definido quando seu stage foi construído e não deve ser alterado.
build
define se seu sistema é um build current, stable ou experimental. Sistemas current terão pacotes mais recentes do que os sistemas stable.
flavor
define o tipo geral de sistema, tal como server ou desktop, e definirá flags padrões USE apropriadas para as suas necessidade.
mix-ins
define várias configurações opcionais que você pode estar interessado em habilitar.

Um arch, build e flavor deve ser definido para cada sistema Funtoo Linux, enquanto mix-ins são opcionais e você pode habilitar mais de um se desejado.

Lembre-se de que profiles pode com frequência serem herdados. Por exemplo, o flavor desktop herda as configurações do flavor workstation, que em retorno herda os mix-ins X e audio. Você pode visualizar isso ao utilizar eselect:

(chroot) # eselect profile show
Currently set profiles:
    arch: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit
   build: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current
  flavor: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/desktop
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/kde

Automatically enabled profiles:
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/print
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/X
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/audio
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media
 mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/console-extras

Para visualizar profiles instalados:

(chroot) # eselect profile list

Para alterar o profile flavor:

(chroot) # eselect profile set-flavor 7

Para adicionar um mix-in:

(chroot) # eselect profile add 10