Difference between pages "KVM" and "Windows 7 Virtualization with KVM"

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This page describes how to set up Funtoo Linux to run Windows 7 Professional 32-bit within a KVM virtual machine. KVM is suitable for running Windows 7 for general desktop application use. It does not provide 3D support, but offers a nice, high-performance virtualization solution for day-to-day productivity applications. It is also very easy to set up.
  
 
== Introduction ==
 
== Introduction ==
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KVM is a hardware-accelerated full-machine hypervisor and virtualization solution included as part of kernel 2.6.20 and later. It allows you to create and start hardware-accelerated virtual machines under Linux using the QEMU tools.
 
KVM is a hardware-accelerated full-machine hypervisor and virtualization solution included as part of kernel 2.6.20 and later. It allows you to create and start hardware-accelerated virtual machines under Linux using the QEMU tools.
  
== Kernel Setup ==
+
[[File:Windows7virt.png|400px|Windows 7 Professional 32-bit running within qemu-kvm]]
  
To enable KVM, the following kernel config parameters should be enabled (this is based on a 3.x kernel):
+
== KVM Setup ==
  
Under <tt>Processor type and features</tt>, enable <tt>Linux guest support</tt>, and enable the following options:
+
If you are using an automatically-built kernel, it is likely that kernel support for KVM is already available.
  
{{kernelop|title=Processor type and features,Linux guest support|desc=
+
If you build your kernel from scratch, please see [[KVM|the KVM page]] for detailed instructions on how to enable KVM. These instructions also cover the process of emerging qemu, which is also necessary. [[KVM|Do this first, as described on the KVM page]] -- then come back here.
--- Linux guest support
+
[*]  Enable paravirtualization code
+
[ ]     paravirt-ops debugging (NEW)
+
[*]     Paravirtualization layer for spinlocks
+
[ ]    Xen guest support (NEW)
+
[*]  KVM Guest support (including kvmclock) (NEW)
+
[ ]     Enable debug information for KVM Guests in debugfs (NEW)
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[ ]   Paravirtual steal time accounting (NEW)
+
}}
+
  
 +
{{fancyimportant|Before using KVM, be sure that your user account is in the <tt>kvm</tt> group. You will need to use a command such as <tt>vigr</tt> as root to do this, and then log out and log back in for this to take effect.}}
  
Under the <tt>Virtualization</tt> category from the main kernel config menu, enable <tt>Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) support</tt>, and enable at least one type of KVM, either for Intel or AMD processors. It is also recommended to enable <tt>Host kernel acceleration for virtio net</tt>.
+
== Windows 7 ISO Images ==
  
{{kernelop|title=Virtualization|desc=
+
In this tutorial, we are going to install Windows 7 Professional, 32-bit Edition. Microsoft provides a free download of the ISO DVD image, but this does require a valid license key for installation. You can download Windows 7 Professional, 32 bit at the following location:
--- Virtualization
+
<M>  Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) support
+
<M>    KVM for Intel processors support
+
<M>    KVM for AMD processors support
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[*]    KVM legacy PCI device assignment support
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<M>  Host kernel accelerator for virtio net
+
}}
+
  
 +
http://msft-dnl.digitalrivercontent.net/msvista/pub/X15-65804/X15-65804.iso
  
You can use modules or build these parts directly into the kernel. Build your new kernel and modules, and reboot.
+
{{fancynote|Windows 7 Professional, 32-bit Edition is a free download but requires a valid license key for installation.}}
  
== User-space tools ==
+
In addition, it's highly recommended that you download "VirtIO" drivers produced by Red Hat. These drivers are installed under Windows and significantly improve Windows 7 network and disk performance. You want to download the ISO file (not the ZIP file) at the following location:
  
If you are using QEMU on your desktop, add the following USE flag to <tt>/etc/portage/make.conf</tt>:
+
http://alt.fedoraproject.org/pub/alt/virtio-win/latest/images/
  
<pre>
+
== Create Raw Disk ==
USE="$USE usbredir"
+
</pre>
+
This will enable good mouse support for QEMU on your desktop.
+
  
Now, emerge qemu:
+
In this tutorial, we are going to create a 30GB raw disk image for Windows 7. Raw disk images offer better performance than the commonly-used QCOW2 format. Do this as a regular user:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i## emerge qemu
+
$ ##i##cd
 +
$ ##i##qemu-img create -f raw win7.img 30G
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
==Initial Setup==
+
We now have an empty virtual disk image called <tt>win7.img</tt> in our home directory.
  
Prior to using KVM, modprobe the appropriate accelerated driver for Intel or AMD:
+
== QEMU script ==
 +
 
 +
Now, we'll create the following script to start our virtual machine and begin Windows 7 installation. Note that this script assumes that the two ISO files downloaded earlier were placed in the user's <tt>Downloads</tt> directory. Adjust paths as necessary if that is not the case. Also be sure to adjust the following parts of the script:
 +
 
 +
* Adjust the name of <tt>VIRTIMG</tt> to match the exact name of the VirtIO ISO image you downloaded earlier
 +
* Adjust the <tt>smp</tt> option to use the number of CPU cores and threads (if your system has hyperthreading) of your Linux system's CPU.
 +
 
 +
Use your favorite text editor to create the following script. Name it something like <tt>vm.sh</tt>:
 +
 
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang="bash">
 +
#!/bin/sh
 +
export QEMU_AUDIO_DRV=alsa
 +
DISKIMG=~/win7.img
 +
WIN7IMG=~/Downloads/X15-65804.iso
 +
VIRTIMG=~/Downloads/virtio-win-0.1-74.iso
 +
qemu-kvm --enable-kvm -drive file=${DISKIMG},if=virtio -m 2048 \
 +
-net nic,model=virtio -net user -cdrom ${WIN7IMG} \
 +
-drive file=${VIRTIMG},index=3,media=cdrom \
 +
-rtc base=localtime,clock=host -smp cores=2,threads=4 \
 +
-usbdevice tablet -soundhw ac97 -cpu host -vga vmware
 +
</syntaxhighlight>
 +
 
 +
Now, make the script executable:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##modprobe kvm_intel
+
$ ##i##chmod +x vm.sh
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
 +
Here is a brief summary of what the script does. It starts the <tt>qemu-kvm</tt> program and instructs it to use KVM to accelerate virtualization. The system disk is the 30GB raw image you created, and we tell QEMU to use "virtio" mode for this disk, as well as "virtio" for network access. This will require that we install special drivers during installation to access the disk and enable networking, but will give us better performance.
 +
 +
To assist us in installing the VirtIO drivers, we have configured the system with two DVD drives -- the first holds the Windows 7 installation media, and the second contains the VirtIO driver ISO that we will need to access during Windows 7 installation.
 +
 +
The <tt>-usbdevice tablet</tt> option will cause our mouse and keyboard interaction with our virtual environment to be intuitive and easy to use.
 +
 +
{{fancyimportant|1=
 +
For optimal performance, adjust the script so that the <tt>-smp</tt> option specifies the exact number of cores and threads on your system -- on non-HyperThreading systems (AMD and some Intel), simply remove the <tt>,threads=X</tt> option entirely and just specify cores.. Also ensure that the <tt>-m</tt> option provides enough RAM for Windows 7, without eating up all your system's RAM. On a 4GB Linux system, use <tt>1536</tt>. For an 8GB system, <tt>2048</tt> is safe.}}
 +
 +
== Starting Windows 7 Installation ==
 +
 +
Now, it's time to start Windows 7 installation. Run <tt>vm.sh</tt> as follows:
 +
 +
<console>
 +
$ ##i##./vm.sh
 +
</console>
 +
 +
Windows 7 installation will begin. During the installation process, you will need to enter a valid license key, and also load ''both'' VirtIO drivers from Red Hat when prompted (Browse to the second DVD, then win7 directory, then x86).
 +
 +
After some time, Windows 7 installation will complete. You will be able to perform Windows Update, as by default, you will have network access if your host Linux system has network access.
 +
 +
Enjoy your virtualized Windows 7 system!
 +
 +
[[Category:Tutorial]]
 +
[[Category:First Steps]]
 
[[Category:Virtualization]]
 
[[Category:Virtualization]]
 
[[Category:KVM]]
 
[[Category:KVM]]

Revision as of 08:07, 4 March 2014

This page describes how to set up Funtoo Linux to run Windows 7 Professional 32-bit within a KVM virtual machine. KVM is suitable for running Windows 7 for general desktop application use. It does not provide 3D support, but offers a nice, high-performance virtualization solution for day-to-day productivity applications. It is also very easy to set up.

Contents

Introduction

KVM is a hardware-accelerated full-machine hypervisor and virtualization solution included as part of kernel 2.6.20 and later. It allows you to create and start hardware-accelerated virtual machines under Linux using the QEMU tools.

Windows 7 Professional 32-bit running within qemu-kvm

KVM Setup

If you are using an automatically-built kernel, it is likely that kernel support for KVM is already available.

If you build your kernel from scratch, please see the KVM page for detailed instructions on how to enable KVM. These instructions also cover the process of emerging qemu, which is also necessary. Do this first, as described on the KVM page -- then come back here.

Important: Before using KVM, be sure that your user account is in the kvm group. You will need to use a command such as vigr as root to do this, and then log out and log back in for this to take effect.

Windows 7 ISO Images

In this tutorial, we are going to install Windows 7 Professional, 32-bit Edition. Microsoft provides a free download of the ISO DVD image, but this does require a valid license key for installation. You can download Windows 7 Professional, 32 bit at the following location:

http://msft-dnl.digitalrivercontent.net/msvista/pub/X15-65804/X15-65804.iso

Note: Windows 7 Professional, 32-bit Edition is a free download but requires a valid license key for installation.

In addition, it's highly recommended that you download "VirtIO" drivers produced by Red Hat. These drivers are installed under Windows and significantly improve Windows 7 network and disk performance. You want to download the ISO file (not the ZIP file) at the following location:

http://alt.fedoraproject.org/pub/alt/virtio-win/latest/images/

Create Raw Disk

In this tutorial, we are going to create a 30GB raw disk image for Windows 7. Raw disk images offer better performance than the commonly-used QCOW2 format. Do this as a regular user:

$ cd
$ qemu-img create -f raw win7.img 30G

We now have an empty virtual disk image called win7.img in our home directory.

QEMU script

Now, we'll create the following script to start our virtual machine and begin Windows 7 installation. Note that this script assumes that the two ISO files downloaded earlier were placed in the user's Downloads directory. Adjust paths as necessary if that is not the case. Also be sure to adjust the following parts of the script:

  • Adjust the name of VIRTIMG to match the exact name of the VirtIO ISO image you downloaded earlier
  • Adjust the smp option to use the number of CPU cores and threads (if your system has hyperthreading) of your Linux system's CPU.

Use your favorite text editor to create the following script. Name it something like vm.sh:

#!/bin/sh
export QEMU_AUDIO_DRV=alsa 
DISKIMG=~/win7.img
WIN7IMG=~/Downloads/X15-65804.iso
VIRTIMG=~/Downloads/virtio-win-0.1-74.iso
qemu-kvm --enable-kvm -drive file=${DISKIMG},if=virtio -m 2048 \
-net nic,model=virtio -net user -cdrom ${WIN7IMG} \
-drive file=${VIRTIMG},index=3,media=cdrom \
-rtc base=localtime,clock=host -smp cores=2,threads=4 \
-usbdevice tablet -soundhw ac97 -cpu host -vga vmware

Now, make the script executable:

$ chmod +x vm.sh

Here is a brief summary of what the script does. It starts the qemu-kvm program and instructs it to use KVM to accelerate virtualization. The system disk is the 30GB raw image you created, and we tell QEMU to use "virtio" mode for this disk, as well as "virtio" for network access. This will require that we install special drivers during installation to access the disk and enable networking, but will give us better performance.

To assist us in installing the VirtIO drivers, we have configured the system with two DVD drives -- the first holds the Windows 7 installation media, and the second contains the VirtIO driver ISO that we will need to access during Windows 7 installation.

The -usbdevice tablet option will cause our mouse and keyboard interaction with our virtual environment to be intuitive and easy to use.

Important: For optimal performance, adjust the script so that the -smp option specifies the exact number of cores and threads on your system -- on non-HyperThreading systems (AMD and some Intel), simply remove the ,threads=X option entirely and just specify cores.. Also ensure that the -m option provides enough RAM for Windows 7, without eating up all your system's RAM. On a 4GB Linux system, use 1536. For an 8GB system, 2048 is safe.

Starting Windows 7 Installation

Now, it's time to start Windows 7 installation. Run vm.sh as follows:

$ ./vm.sh

Windows 7 installation will begin. During the installation process, you will need to enter a valid license key, and also load both VirtIO drivers from Red Hat when prompted (Browse to the second DVD, then win7 directory, then x86).

After some time, Windows 7 installation will complete. You will be able to perform Windows Update, as by default, you will have network access if your host Linux system has network access.

Enjoy your virtualized Windows 7 system!