Difference between pages "ZFS Install Guide" and "Install/ru/Overview"

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== Introduction ==
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<noinclude>
 +
{{InstallPart|начальный обзор процесса установки, включая скачивние LiveCD и инструкцию по загрузке.}}
 +
</noinclude>
 +
== Обзор Установки ==
  
This tutorial will show you how to install Funtoo on ZFS (rootfs). This tutorial is meant to be an "overlay" over the [[Funtoo_Linux_Installation|Regular Funtoo Installation]]. Follow the normal installation and only use this guide for steps 2, 3, and 8.
+
Общий обзор по установке Funtoo:
  
=== Introduction to ZFS ===
+
# [[#Live CD|Скачивание и загрузка живого диска]].
 +
# [[#Подготовка жесткого диска|Подготовка диска]].
 +
# [[#Создание файловой системы|Создание]] и [[#Монтирование файловых систем|монтирование]] файловых систем.
 +
# [[#Установка архива Stage 3|Установка  архива Funtoo stage]] по Вашему выбору.
 +
# [[#Изменение корневого каталога в Funtoo|Изменение корневого каталога в новую систему]].
 +
# [[#Скачивание дерева Portage |Скачивние дерева Portage]].
 +
# [[#Настройка Вашей системы|Настройка вашей системы]] и [[#Настройка сети|сети]].
 +
# [[#Конфигурация и установка ядра Линукс|Установка ядра]].
 +
# [[#Установка загрузчика|Установка загрузчика]].
 +
# [[#Заключительные Шаги|Заключительные шаги]].
 +
# [[#Перегрузка системы|Перегрузка системы]].
  
Since ZFS is a new technology for Linux, it can be helpful to understand some of its benefits, particularly in comparison to BTRFS, another popular next-generation Linux filesystem:
+
=== Загрузочный Диск ===
  
* On Linux, the ZFS code can be updated independently of the kernel to obtain the latest fixes. btrfs is exclusive to Linux and you need to build the latest kernel sources to get the latest fixes.
+
Funtoo не предоставляет оффициального загрузочного диска Funtoo Live CD. Мы рекомендуем основанный на Gentoo- [http://www.sysresccd.org/ System Rescue CD]. Он содержит множество полезных программ и утилит и поддерживает 32-битные и 64-битные системы соответственно. Скачайте диск по следующей ссылке:
  
* ZFS is supported on multiple platforms. The platforms with the best support are Solaris, FreeBSD and Linux. Other platforms with varying degrees of support are NetBSD, Mac OS X and Windows. btrfs is exclusive to Linux.
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http://www.sysresccd.org/Download
  
* ZFS has the Adaptive Replacement Cache replacement algorithm while btrfs uses the Linux kernel's Last Recently Used replacement algorithm. The former often has an overwhelmingly superior hit rate, which means fewer disk accesses.
+
{{Note|Если Вы используете старую версию System Rescue CD, '''убедитесь, что Вы выбрали <code>rescue64</code> ядро в меню загрузки, если Вы устанавливаете 64-битную систему'''. По-умолчанию, System Rescue CD ранее загружался в 32-битном режиме, хотя последние версии пытаются автоматически распознать 64-битные процессоры.}}
  
* ZFS has the ZFS Intent Log and SLOG devices, which accelerates small synchronous write performance.
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==== Доступ к интернету ====
  
* ZFS handles internal fragmentation gracefully, such that you can fill it until 100%. Internal fragmentation in btrfs can make btrfs think it is full at 10%. Btrfs has no automatic rebalancing code, so it requires a manual rebalance to correct it.
+
Загрузившись с System Rescue CD, проверьте если доступ к Интернет. Доступ к Интернет необходим для установки Funtoo Linux:
 
+
* ZFS has raidz, which is like RAID 5/6 (or a hypothetical RAID 7 that supports 3 parity disks), except it does not suffer from the RAID write hole issue thanks to its use of CoW and a variable stripe size. btrfs gained integrated RAID 5/6 functionality in Linux 3.9. However, its implementation uses a stripe cache that can only partially mitigate the effect of the RAID write hole.
+
 
+
* ZFS send/receive implementation supports incremental update when doing backups. btrfs' send/receive implementation requires sending the entire snapshot.
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+
* ZFS supports data deduplication, which is a memory hog and only works well for specialized workloads. btrfs has no equivalent.
+
 
+
* ZFS datasets have a hierarchical namespace while btrfs subvolumes have a flat namespace.
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+
* ZFS has the ability to create virtual block devices called zvols in its namespace. btrfs has no equivalent and must rely on the loop device for this functionality, which is cumbersome.
+
 
+
The only area where btrfs is ahead of ZFS is in the area of small file
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efficiency. btrfs supports a feature called block suballocation, which
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enables it to store small files far more efficiently than ZFS. It is
+
possible to use another filesystem (e.g. reiserfs) on top of a ZFS zvol
+
to obtain similar benefits (with arguably better data integrity) when
+
dealing with many small files (e.g. the portage tree).
+
 
+
For a quick tour of ZFS and have a big picture of its common operations you can consult the page [[ZFS Fun]].
+
 
+
=== Disclaimers ===
+
 
+
{{fancywarning|This guide is a work in progress. Expect some quirks.}}
+
{{fancyimportant|'''Since ZFS was really designed for 64 bit systems, we are only recommending and supporting 64 bit platforms and installations. We will not be supporting 32 bit platforms'''!}}
+
 
+
== Video Tutorial ==
+
 
+
As a companion to the installation instructions below, a YouTube video tutorial is now available:
+
 
+
{{#widget:YouTube|id=SWyThdxNoP8|width=640|height=360}}
+
 
+
== Downloading the ISO (With ZFS) ==
+
In order for us to install Funtoo on ZFS, you will need an environment that already provides the ZFS tools. Therefore we will download a customized version of System Rescue CD with ZFS included.  
+
 
+
<pre>
+
Name: sysresccd-4.0.1_zfs_0.6.2.iso  (545 MB)
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Release Date: 2014-02-25
+
md5sum 01f4e6929247d54db77ab7be4d156d85
+
</pre>
+
 
+
 
+
'''[http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/funtoo/distfiles/sysresccd/ Download System Rescue CD with ZFS]'''<br />
+
 
+
== Creating a bootable USB from ISO (From a Linux Environment) ==
+
Now we will download the iso, plug in our flash drive, and install sysresccd into the drive using the default sysresccd install script:
+
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
Make a temporary download directory
+
# ##i##ping www.google.com
# ##i##cd ~/
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PING www.google.com (216.58.217.36) 56(84) bytes of data.
# <download the iso into this directory>
+
64 bytes from den03s10-in-f4.1e100.net (216.58.217.36): icmp_seq=1 ttl=57 time=30.1 ms
 
+
Make a temporary directory to mount loop the iso
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# ##i##mkdir /tmp/loop
+
 
+
Mount the iso
+
# ##i##mount -o ro,loop ~/sysresccd-4.0.1_zfs_0.6.2.iso /tmp/loop
+
 
+
Run the usb installer
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# ##i##/tmp/loop/usb_inst.sh
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
That should be all you need to do to get your flash drive working.
+
Если пинг успешен ( Вы видите <code>64 bytes</code> сообщения как показано выше) значит Ваша сеть настроена. Нажмите Control-C для остановки комманды ping.  
  
{{fancywarning|Make sure the USB you want to use is unmounted before running the script, or it will fail. The script will partition, and mount your usb to /mnt/backup automatically.}}
+
Если Вам необходимо настроить Wi-Fi для доступа к Интернет, то необходимо включить графический интерфейс System Rescue CD. Для этого запустите <code>startx</code>
 
+
== Booting the ISO ==
+
 
+
{{fancywarning|'''When booting into the ISO, Make sure that you select the "Alternate 64 bit kernel (altker64)". The ZFS modules have been built specifically for this kernel rather than the standard kernel. If you select a different kernel, you will get a fail to load module stack error message.'''}}
+
 
+
== Creating partitions ==
+
There are two ways to partition your disk: You can use your entire drive and let ZFS automatically partition it for you, or you can do it manually.
+
 
+
We will be showing you how to partition it '''manually''' because if you partition it manually you get to create your own layout, you get to have your own separate /boot partition (Which is nice since not every bootloader supports booting from ZFS pools), and you get to boot into RAID10, RAID5 (RAIDZ) pools and any other layouts due to you having a separate /boot partition.
+
 
+
==== gdisk (GPT Style) ====
+
 
+
'''A Fresh Start''':
+
 
+
First lets make sure that the disk is completely wiped from any previous disk labels and partitions.
+
We will also assume that <tt>/dev/sda</tt> is the target drive.<br />
+
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##sgdisk -Z /dev/sda
+
# ##i##startx
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
{{fancywarning|This is a destructive operation and the program will not ask you for confirmation! Make sure you really don't want anything on this disk.}}
+
Далее, используйте NetworkManager апплет (иконка в правом нижнем углу) для подключения к доступной сети Wi-Fi. Затем, откройте консоль для осуществления последующих шагов по установке.
  
Now that we have a clean drive, we will create the new layout.
+
==== Удаленная установка ====
  
First open up the application:
+
Как вариант, Вы можете использовать System Rescue CD удаленно по сети посредством SSH и осуществить установку используя другой компютер,  и это может быть более удобным способом установки Funtoo Linux.
  
<console>
+
Если Вы желаете провести установку удаленно примите во внимание следующие шаги. Во-первых, Вы должны убедиться что System Rescue CD имеет настроенную сеть. Во-вторых, Вам необходимо создать пароль суперпользователя для System Rescue CD:
# ##i##gdisk /dev/sda
+
</console>
+
  
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
Command: ##i##n ↵
 
Partition Number: ##i##↵
 
First sector: ##i##↵
 
Last sector: ##i##+250M ↵
 
Hex Code: ##i##↵
 
</console>
 
 
'''Create Partition 2''' (BIOS Boot Partition):
 
<console>Command: ##i##n ↵
 
Partition Number: ##i##↵
 
First sector: ##i##↵
 
Last sector: ##i##+32M ↵
 
Hex Code: ##i##EF02 ↵
 
</console>
 
 
'''Create Partition 3''' (swap):
 
<console>Command: ##i##n ↵
 
Partition Number: ##i##↵
 
First sector: ##i##↵
 
Last sector: ##i##+4G ↵
 
Hex Code: ##i##8200 ↵
 
</console>
 
 
{{fancynote|'''A rule of thumb for swap size is either 2 x RAM or RAM + 1.'''}}
 
 
'''Create Partition 4''' (ZFS):
 
<console>Command: ##i##n ↵
 
Partition Number: ##i##↵
 
First sector: ##i##↵
 
Last sector: ##i##↵
 
Hex Code: ##i##bf00 ↵
 
 
Command: ##i##p ↵
 
 
Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size      Code  Name 
 
1            2048          514047  250.0 MiB  8300  Linux filesystem 
 
2          514048          579583  32.0 MiB    EF02  BIOS boot partition 
 
3          579584        8968191  4.0 GiB    8200  Linux swap 
 
4        8968192      1048575966  495.7 GiB  BF00  Solaris root
 
 
Command: ##i##w ↵
 
</console>
 
 
=== Format your /boot partition ===
 
 
<console>
 
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 -m 1 /dev/sda1
 
</console>
 
 
=== Encryption (Optional) ===
 
If you want encryption, then create your encrypted vault(s) now by doing the following:
 
 
<console>
 
# ##i##cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/sda4
 
# ##i##cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda4 vault_1
 
</console>
 
 
{{fancywarning|On some machines, a combination of ZFS and LUKS has caused instability and system crashes.}}
 
 
=== Create the zpool ===
 
We will first create the pool. The pool will be named `tank` and the disk will be aligned to 4096 (using ashift=12)
 
<console># ##i##zpool create -f -o ashift=12 -o cachefile= -O compression=on -m none -R /mnt/funtoo tank /dev/sda4</console>
 
 
{{fancyimportant|If you are using encrypted root, change '''/dev/sda4 to /dev/mapper/vault_1'''.}}
 
 
 
'''If you have a previous pool that you would like to import, you can do a: zpool import -f -o cachefile= -R /mnt/funtoo <pool_name>'''
 
 
=== Create the zfs datasets ===
 
We will now create some datasets. For this installation, we will create a small but future proof amount of datasets. We will have a dataset for the OS (/). We will also show you how to create some optional datasets: <tt>/home</tt>, <tt>/var</tt>, <tt>/usr/src</tt>, and <tt>/usr/portage</tt>.
 
 
<console>
 
Create some empty containers for organization purposes, and make the dataset that will hold /
 
# ##i##zfs create -p tank/funtoo
 
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/ tank/funtoo/root
 
 
Optional, but recommended datasets: /home
 
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/home tank/funtoo/home
 
 
Optional datasets: /usr/src, /usr/portage/
 
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/src tank/funtoo/src
 
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage -o compression=off tank/funtoo/portage
 
</console>
 
 
=== Format your swap ===
 
<console>
 
# ##i##mkswap -f /dev/sda3
 
# ##i##swapon /dev/sda3
 
</console>
 
 
Now we will continue to install funtoo.
 
 
== Installing Funtoo ==
 
 
=== Pre-Chroot ===
 
 
<console>
 
Go into the directory that you will chroot into
 
# ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
 
 
Make a boot folder and mount your boot drive
 
# ##i##mkdir boot
 
# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 boot
 
</console>
 
 
[[Funtoo_Linux_Installation|Now download and extract the Funtoo stage3 ...]]
 
 
Once you've extracted the stage3, do a few more preparations and chroot into your new funtoo environment:
 
 
<console>
 
Bind the kernel related directories
 
# ##i##mount -t proc none proc
 
# ##i##mount --rbind /dev dev
 
# ##i##mount --rbind /sys sys
 
 
Copy network settings
 
# ##i##cp -f /etc/resolv.conf etc
 
 
Make the zfs folder in 'etc' and copy your zpool.cache
 
# ##i##mkdir etc/zfs
 
# ##i##cp /etc/zfs/zpool.cache etc/zfs
 
 
Chroot into Funtoo
 
# ##i##env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l
 
</console>
 
 
=== In Chroot ===
 
 
<console>
 
Create a symbolic link to your mountpoints
 
# ##i##ln -sf /proc/mounts /etc/mtab
 
 
Sync your tree
 
# ##i##emerge --sync
 
</console>
 
 
=== Add filesystems to /etc/fstab ===
 
 
Before we continue to compile and or install our kernel in the next step, we will edit the <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> file because if we decide to install our kernel through portage, portage will need to know where our <tt>/boot</tt> is, so that it can place the files in there.
 
 
Edit <tt>/etc/fstab</tt>:
 
 
<pre>
 
# <fs>                  <mountpoint>    <type>          <opts>          <dump/pass>
 
 
/dev/sda1              /boot          ext2            defaults        0 2
 
/dev/sda3              none            swap            sw              0 0
 
</pre>
 
 
== Kernel Configuration ==
 
You can follow the kernel instructions in the [[Funtoo_Linux_Installation#Configuring_and_installing_the_Linux_kernel|normal guide]], or you can install a pre-configured/compiled kernel called '''bliss-kernel'''. This kernel already has the correct configurations for ZFS and a variety of other scenarios. It's a vanilla kernel from kernel.org without any external patches.
 
 
To install {{Package|sys-kernel/bliss-kernel}} type the following:
 
 
<console>
 
# ##i##emerge bliss-kernel
 
</console>
 
 
Now make sure that your <tt>/usr/src/linux symlink</tt> is pointing to this kernel by typing the following:
 
 
<console>
 
# ##i##eselect kernel list
 
Available kernel symlink targets:
 
[1]  linux-3.12.13-KS.02 *
 
</console>
 
 
You should see a star next to the version you installed. In this case it was 3.12.13-KS.02. If it's not set, you can type '''eselect kernel set #'''.
 
 
== Installing the ZFS userspace tools and kernel modules ==
 
Emerge {{Package|sys-fs/zfs}}. This package will bring in {{Package|sys-kernel/spl}}, and {{Package|sys-fs/zfs-kmod}} as its dependencies:
 
 
<console>
 
# ##i##emerge zfs
 
</console>
 
 
Check to make sure that the zfs tools are working. The <code>zpool.cache</code> file that you copied before should be displayed.
 
 
<console>
 
# ##i##zpool status
 
# ##i##zfs list
 
</console>
 
 
If everything worked, continue.
 
 
== Installing & Configuring the Bootloader ==
 
 
=== GRUB 2 (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
 
<console>
 
# ##i##emerge grub
 
</console>
 
 
You can check that grub is version 2.00 by typing the following command:
 
 
<console>
 
# ##i##grub-install --version
 
grub-install (GRUB) 2.00
 
</console>
 
 
Now install grub to the drive itself (not a partition):
 
<console>
 
# ##i##grub-install /dev/sda
 
</console>
 
 
You should receive the following message:
 
 
<console>
 
Installation finished. No error reported.
 
</console>
 
 
You should now see some a grub directory with some files inside your /boot folder:
 
 
<console>
 
# ##i##ls -l /boot/grub
 
total 2520
 
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    1024 Jan  4 16:09 grubenv
 
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    8192 Jan 12 14:29 i386-pc
 
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    4096 Jan 12 14:28 locale
 
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2555597 Feb  4 11:50 unifont.pf2
 
</console>
 
 
=== Extlinux (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
 
To install extlinux, you can follow the guide here: [[Extlinux|Link to Extlinux Guide]].
 
 
=== LILO (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
 
To install lilo you can type the following:
 
 
<console>
 
# ##i##emerge lilo
 
</console>
 
 
=== boot-update ===
 
boot-update comes as a dependency of grub2, so if you already installed grub, it's already on your system!
 
 
==== Genkernel ====
 
If your using genkernel you must add 'real_root=ZFS=<root>' and 'dozfs' to your params.
 
Example entry for <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt>:
 
 
<pre>
 
"Funtoo ZFS" {
 
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
 
        initrd initramfs-genkernel-x86_64[-v]
 
        params real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root
 
        params += dozfs=force
 
        # Also add 'params += crypt_root=/dev/sda4' if you used encryption
 
        # Adjust the above setting to your system if needed
 
}
 
</pre>
 
 
==== Bliss Initramfs Creator ====
 
If you used Bliss Initramfs Creator then all you need to do is add 'root=<root>' to your params.
 
Example entry for <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt>:
 
 
<pre>
 
"Funtoo ZFS" {
 
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
 
        initrd initrd[-v]
 
        params root=tank/funtoo/root quiet
 
        # If you have an encrypted device with a regular passphrase,
 
        # you can add the following line
 
        params += enc_root=/dev/sda4 enc_type=pass
 
}
 
</pre>
 
 
{{fancyimportant|Bliss Initramfs Creator is unable to get the correct 'hostid' value of the machine when it's ran inside of a chroot. Once you reboot your machine, re-run the program so that your initrd will have a good hostid value.}}
 
 
After editing /etc/boot.conf, you just need to run boot-update to update grub.cfg
 
 
<console>
 
###i## boot-update
 
</console>
 
 
=== bliss-boot ===
 
This is a new program that is designed to generate a simple, human-readable/editable, configuration file for a variety of bootloaders. It currently supports grub2, extlinux, and lilo.
 
 
You can install it via the following command:
 
<console>
 
# ##i##emerge bliss-boot
 
</console>
 
 
{{fancyimportant|bliss-boot uses a new /boot kernel directory layout. Make sure you put your desired kernels in their own folders at /boot/kernels/<version of kernel>.}}
 
 
==== Bootloader Configuration ====
 
In order to generate our bootloader configuration file, we will first configure bliss-boot so that it knows what we want. The 'bliss-boot' configuration file is located in '''/etc/bliss-boot/conf.py'''. Open that file and make sure that the following variables are set appropriately:
 
 
<pre>
 
# This should be set to the bootloader you installed earlier: (grub2, extlinux, and lilo are the available options)
 
bootloader = "grub2"
 
 
# This should be set to the kernel you installed earlier
 
default = "3.12.13-KS.02"
 
</pre>
 
 
Scroll all the way down until you find 'kernels'. You will need to add the kernels and the options
 
you want for these kernels here. Below are a few configuration options depending if you are using
 
'''bliss-initramfs''' or '''genkernel'''.
 
 
===== Genkernel =====
 
 
<pre>
 
kernel = {
 
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root dozfs=force quiet',
 
}
 
</pre>
 
 
'''If you are using encryption you can add the crypt_root option:'''
 
 
<pre>
 
kernel = {
 
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root dozfs=force crypt_root=/dev/sda4 quiet',
 
}
 
</pre>
 
 
===== Bliss Initramfs Creator =====
 
<pre>
 
kernel = {
 
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'root=tank/funtoo/root quiet',
 
}
 
</pre>
 
 
'''If you are using encryption then you would let the initramfs know:'''
 
 
#"What type of encryption authentication you want to use? ('''enc_type=''')
 
::* pass = will ask for passphrase directly
 
::* key = a plain unencrypted key file
 
::* key_gpg = an encrypted key file
 
#"Where is the encrypted drive?" ('''enc_root=''')
 
#"Where is the root pool after it has been decrypted?" ('''root=''')
 
 
<pre>
 
kernel = {
 
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'root=tank/funtoo/root enc_root=/dev/sda4 enc_type=pass quiet',
 
}
 
</pre>
 
 
==== Generate the configuration ====
 
Now that we have configure our '''/etc/bliss-boot/conf.py''' file, we can generate our config. Simply run the following command:
 
 
<console>
 
# ##i##bliss-boot
 
</console>
 
 
This will generate a configuration file for the bootloader you specified previously in your current directory. You can check your config file before hand to make sure it doesn't have any errors. Simply open either: grub.cfg, extlinux.conf, or lilo.conf.
 
 
Once you have checked it for errors, place this file in the correct directory:
 
 
* grub2 = /boot/grub/
 
* extlinux = /boot/extlinux/
 
* lilo = /etc/lilo.conf
 
 
=== LILO (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
 
Now that bliss-boot generated the lilo.conf file, move that config file to its appropriate location
 
and install lilo to the MBR:
 
 
<console>
 
# ##i##mv lilo.conf /etc
 
# ##i##lilo
 
 
You should see the following:
 
 
Warning: LBA32 addressing assumed
 
Added Funtoo + *
 
One warning was issued
 
</console>
 
 
== Create the initramfs ==
 
There are two ways to do this, you can use "genkernel" or "bliss-initramfs". Both will be shown.
 
 
=== genkernel ===
 
Install genkernel and run it:
 
<console>
 
# ##i##emerge genkernel
 
 
You only need to add --luks if you used encryption
 
# ##i##genkernel --zfs --luks initramfs
 
</console>
 
 
=== Bliss Initramfs Creator ===
 
If you are encrypting your drives, then add the "luks" use flag to your package.use before emerging:
 
 
<console>
 
# ##i##echo "sys-kernel/bliss-initramfs luks" >> /etc/portage/package.use
 
</console>
 
 
Now install the program and run it:
 
<console>
 
# ##i##emerge bliss-initramfs
 
 
You can either run it without any parameters to get an interactive menu
 
or you can pass the parameters directly. 1 = zfs, 6 = encrypted zfs, and the kernel name.
 
# ##i##bliss-initramfs 1 3.12.13-KS.02
 
</console>
 
 
=== Moving into the correct location ===
 
Place the file that was generated by the above applications into either your /boot folder (If you are using boot-update) or into your /boot/kernels/3.12.13-KS.02 folder (If you are using bliss-boot). For bliss-boot, the file needs to be called 'initrd' rather than 'initrd-3.12.13-KS.02'.
 
 
==== boot-update ====
 
<console>
 
# ##i##mv initrd-3.12.13-KS.02 /boot
 
</console>
 
 
==== bliss-boot ====
 
<console>
 
# ##i##mv initrd-3.12.13-KS.02 /boot/kernels/3.12.13-KS.02/initrd
 
</console>
 
 
== Final configuration ==
 
=== Add the zfs tools to openrc ===
 
<console># ##i##rc-update add zfs boot</console>
 
 
=== Clean up and reboot ===
 
We are almost done, we are just going to clean up, '''set our root password''', and unmount whatever we mounted and get out.
 
 
<console>
 
Delete the stage3 tarball that you downloaded earlier so it doesn't take up space.
 
# ##i##cd /
 
# ##i##rm stage3-latest.tar.xz
 
 
Set your root password
 
 
# ##i##passwd
 
# ##i##passwd
>> Enter your password, you won't see what you are writing (for security reasons), but it is there!
+
New password: ##i##********
 
+
Retype new password: ##i##********
Get out of the chroot environment
+
passwd: password updated successfully
# ##i##exit
+
#
 
+
Unmount all the kernel filesystem stuff and boot (if you have a separate /boot)
+
# ##i##umount -l proc dev sys boot
+
 
+
Turn off the swap
+
# ##i##swapoff /dev/sda3
+
 
+
Reboot
+
# ##i##reboot
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
{{fancywarning|'''Do not export the zpool. Just reboot. ZFS's zpool.cache file is shared between reboots and exporting the pool will cause problems. Exporting the pool is only meant when you want to move the zpool from one machine to another.'''}}
+
После введения пароля, Вам необходимо определить ай-пи адрес System Rescue CD, далее Вы можете ипользовать <code>ssh</code> для коннекта. Определить ай-пи используемый System Rescue CD,  можно коммандой <code>ifconfig</code>:
  
{{fancyimportant|'''Don't forget to set your root password as stated above before exiting chroot and rebooting. If you don't set the root password, you won't be able to log into your new system.'''}}
 
 
and that should be enough to get your system to boot on ZFS.
 
 
== After reboot ==
 
 
=== Forgot to reset password? ===
 
==== System Rescue CD ====
 
If you aren't using bliss-initramfs, then you can reboot back into your sysresccd and reset through there by mounting your drive, chrooting, and then typing passwd.
 
 
Example:
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##zpool import -f -o cachefile= -R /mnt/funtoo tank
+
# ##i##ifconfig
# ##i##chroot /mnt/funtoo bash -l
+
# ##i##passwd
+
# ##i##exit
+
# ##i##reboot
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
==== Using bliss-initramfs ====
+
Один из сетевых интерфейсов должен иметь ай-пи адрес (перечисленый как <code>inet addr:</code>) в Вашей сети. Вы можете законнектиться удаленно, из другого компютера в Вашей сети к  System Rescue CD, и осуществить шаги по установке пользуясь комфортабельным окружением уже рабочей операционной системы. On your remote system, type the following, replacing <code>1.2.3.4</code> with the IP address of System Rescue CD. Connecting from an existing Linux or MacOS system would look something like this:
If you forgot to reset your password and are using '''bliss-initramfs''', you can add the '''su''' option to your bootloader parameters and the initramfs will throw you into the rootfs of your drive. In there you can run 'passwd' and then type 'exit'. Once you type 'exit', the initramfs will continue to boot your system as normal.
+
 
+
=== Create initial ZFS Snapshot ===
+
Continue to set up anything you need in terms of /etc configurations. Once you have everything the way you like it, take a snapshot of your system. You will be using this snapshot to revert back to this state if anything ever happens to your system down the road. The snapshots are cheap, and almost instant.  
+
 
+
To take the snapshot of your system, type the following:
+
<console># ##i##zfs snapshot -r tank@install</console>
+
 
+
To see if your snapshot was taken, type:
+
<console># ##i##zfs list -t snapshot</console>
+
 
+
If your machine ever fails and you need to get back to this state, just type (This will only revert your / dataset while keeping the rest of your data intact):
+
<console># ##i##zfs rollback tank/funtoo/root@install</console>
+
 
+
{{fancyimportant|'''For a detailed overview, presentation of ZFS' capabilities, as well as usage examples, please refer to the [[ZFS_Fun|ZFS Fun]] page.'''}}
+
 
+
== Troubleshooting ==
+
 
+
=== Starting from scratch ===
+
If your installation has gotten screwed up for whatever reason and you need a fresh restart, you can do the following from sysresccd to start fresh:
+
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
Destroy the pool and any snapshots and datasets it has
+
(remote system) $ ##i##ssh root@1.2.3.4
# ##i##zpool destroy -R -f tank
+
Password: ##i##**********
 
+
This deletes the files from /dev/sda1 so that even after we zap, recreating the drive in the exact sector
+
position and size will not give us access to the old files in this partition.
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
+
# ##i##sgdisk -Z /dev/sda
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Now start the guide again :).
+
{{Note|If you'd like to connect remotely from an existing Microsoft Windows system, you'll need to download an SSH client for Windows, such as [http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/ PuTTY].}}
 
+
[[Category:HOWTO]]
+
[[Category:Filesystems]]
+
[[Category:Featured]]
+
  
__NOTITLE__
+
After you've logged in via SSH, you're now connected remotely to System Rescue CD and can perform the installation steps.

Revision as of 15:29, December 31, 2014


Note

This is a template that is used as part of the Installation instructions which covers: начальный обзор процесса установки, включая скачивние LiveCD и инструкцию по загрузке.. Templates are being used to allow multiple variant install guides that use most of the same re-usable parts.


Обзор Установки

Общий обзор по установке Funtoo:

  1. Скачивание и загрузка живого диска.
  2. Подготовка диска.
  3. Создание и монтирование файловых систем.
  4. Установка архива Funtoo stage по Вашему выбору.
  5. Изменение корневого каталога в новую систему.
  6. Скачивние дерева Portage.
  7. Настройка вашей системы и сети.
  8. Установка ядра.
  9. Установка загрузчика.
  10. Заключительные шаги.
  11. Перегрузка системы.

Загрузочный Диск

Funtoo не предоставляет оффициального загрузочного диска Funtoo Live CD. Мы рекомендуем основанный на Gentoo- System Rescue CD. Он содержит множество полезных программ и утилит и поддерживает 32-битные и 64-битные системы соответственно. Скачайте диск по следующей ссылке:

http://www.sysresccd.org/Download

Note

Если Вы используете старую версию System Rescue CD, убедитесь, что Вы выбрали rescue64 ядро в меню загрузки, если Вы устанавливаете 64-битную систему. По-умолчанию, System Rescue CD ранее загружался в 32-битном режиме, хотя последние версии пытаются автоматически распознать 64-битные процессоры.

Доступ к интернету

Загрузившись с System Rescue CD, проверьте если доступ к Интернет. Доступ к Интернет необходим для установки Funtoo Linux:

# ping www.google.com
PING www.google.com (216.58.217.36) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from den03s10-in-f4.1e100.net (216.58.217.36): icmp_seq=1 ttl=57 time=30.1 ms

Если пинг успешен ( Вы видите 64 bytes сообщения как показано выше) значит Ваша сеть настроена. Нажмите Control-C для остановки комманды ping.

Если Вам необходимо настроить Wi-Fi для доступа к Интернет, то необходимо включить графический интерфейс System Rescue CD. Для этого запустите startx

# startx

Далее, используйте NetworkManager апплет (иконка в правом нижнем углу) для подключения к доступной сети Wi-Fi. Затем, откройте консоль для осуществления последующих шагов по установке.

Удаленная установка

Как вариант, Вы можете использовать System Rescue CD удаленно по сети посредством SSH и осуществить установку используя другой компютер, и это может быть более удобным способом установки Funtoo Linux.

Если Вы желаете провести установку удаленно примите во внимание следующие шаги. Во-первых, Вы должны убедиться что System Rescue CD имеет настроенную сеть. Во-вторых, Вам необходимо создать пароль суперпользователя для System Rescue CD:

# passwd
New password: ********
Retype new password: ********
passwd: password updated successfully
#

После введения пароля, Вам необходимо определить ай-пи адрес System Rescue CD, далее Вы можете ипользовать ssh для коннекта. Определить ай-пи используемый System Rescue CD, можно коммандой ifconfig:

# ifconfig

Один из сетевых интерфейсов должен иметь ай-пи адрес (перечисленый как inet addr:) в Вашей сети. Вы можете законнектиться удаленно, из другого компютера в Вашей сети к System Rescue CD, и осуществить шаги по установке пользуясь комфортабельным окружением уже рабочей операционной системы. On your remote system, type the following, replacing 1.2.3.4 with the IP address of System Rescue CD. Connecting from an existing Linux or MacOS system would look something like this:

(remote system) $ ssh root@1.2.3.4
Password: **********
Note

If you'd like to connect remotely from an existing Microsoft Windows system, you'll need to download an SSH client for Windows, such as PuTTY.

After you've logged in via SSH, you're now connected remotely to System Rescue CD and can perform the installation steps.