Difference between pages "Install/pt-br/Chroot" and "Install/Stage3"

< Install‎ | pt-br(Difference between pages)
(Chroot no Funtoo)
 
(Removed page from translation)
 
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=== Chroot no Funtoo ===
 
Antes de iniciar o chroot no seu novo sistema, há algumas coisas que precisam ser feitas antes. Vcê precisará montar /proc e /dev dentro do seu novo sistema. Utilize os seguintes comandos:
 
<console>
 
# ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
 
# ##i##mount -t proc none proc
 
# ##i##mount --rbind /sys sys
 
# ##i##mount --rbind /dev dev
 
</console>
 
 
 
<noinclude>
 
<noinclude>
{{Note|Esse é um template que é utilizado como parte das instruções de instalação, para descrever o processo de inicialização do chroot no stage3. Templates estão sendo utilizados para permitir múltiplos guias de instalação variantes que utilizam a maioria das mesmas pates reutilizáveis.}}
+
{{InstallPart|the process of installing the Stage3 tarball}}
</noinclude>
+
</noinclude>==== Setting the Date ====
 +
 
 +
{{Important|If your system's date and time are too far off (typically by months or years,) then it may prevent Portage from properly downloading source tarballs. This is because some of our sources are downloaded via HTTPS, which use SSL certificates and are marked with an activation and expiration date. However, if your system time is relatively close to correct, you can probably skip this step for now.}}
 +
 
 +
Now is a good time to verify the date and time are correctly set to UTC. Use the {{c|date}} command to verify the date and time:
 +
 
 +
{{console|body=
 +
###i## date
 +
Fri Jul 15 19:47:18 UTC 2011
 +
}}
 +
If the date and/or time need to be corrected, do so using {{c|date MMDDhhmmYYYY}}, keeping in mind {{c|hhmm}} are in 24-hour format. The example below changes the date and time to "July 16th, 2011 @ 8:00PM" UTC:
 +
 
 +
{{console|body=
 +
###i## date 071620002011
 +
Fri Jul 16 20:00:00 UTC 2011
 +
}}
 +
Once you have set the system clock, it's a very good idea to copy the time to the hardware clock, so it persists across reboots:
 +
 
 +
{{console|body=###i## hwclock --systohc}}
 +
 
 +
=== Installing the Stage 3 tarball ===
 +
 
 +
Now that filesystems are created and your hardware and system clock are set, the next step is downloading the initial Stage 3 tarball. The Stage 3 is a pre-compiled system used as a starting point to install Funtoo Linux.  Notice: if you're using virtual machines (like Vbox) generic stage3 images are preferred rather than cpu-optimized ones.
 +
 
 +
To download the correct build of Funtoo Linux for your system, head over to the [[Subarches]] page. Subarches are builds of Funtoo Linux that are designed to run on a particular type of CPU, to offer the best possible performance. They also take advantage of the instruction sets available for each CPU.
 +
 
 +
The [[Subarches]] page lists all CPU-optimized versions of Funtoo Linux. Find the one that is appropriate for the type of CPU that your system has, and then click on its name in the first column (such as {{c|corei7}}, for example.) You will then go to a page dedicated to that subarch, and the available stage3's available for download will be listed.
 +
 
 +
For most subarches, you will have several stage3's available to choose from. This next section will help you understand which one to pick.
 +
 
 +
==== Which Build? ====
 +
 
 +
'''If you're not sure, pick {{c|funtoo-current}}.'''
 +
 
 +
Funtoo Linux has various different 'builds':
 +
 
 +
{{TableStart}}
 +
<tr><th class="info">Build</th><th class="info">Description</th></tr>
 +
<tr><td>{{c|funtoo-current}}</td><td>The most commonly-selected build of Funtoo Linux. Receives rapid updates and preferred by desktop users.</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>{{c|funtoo-stable}}</td><td>Emphasizes less-frequent package updates and trusted, reliable versions of packages over the latest versions.</td></tr>
 +
{{TableEnd}}
 +
 
 +
==== Which Variant? ====
 +
 
 +
'''If you're not sure, pick {{c|standard}}.'''
  
Você também precisará copiar no <code>resolv.conf</code> a fim de ter uma resolução de nome de DNS adequado de dentro do chroot:
+
Our "regular" stage3's are listed with a variant of {{c|standard}}. The following variant builds are available:
<console>
+
# ##i##cp /etc/resolv.conf etc
+
</console>
+
  
Agora você pode iniciar o chroot no seu novo sistema. Utilize <code>env</code> antes de iniciar o <code>chroot</code> para asegura-se de que nenhuma variáveis de ambiente da mídia  de instalação sejam utilizadas pelo seu sistema:
+
{{TableStart}}
 +
<tr><th class="info">Variant</th><th class="info">Description</th></tr>
 +
<tr><td>{{c|standard}}</td><td>The "standard" version of Funtoo Linux</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>{{c|pure64}}</td><td>A 64-bit build that drops multilib (32-bit compatibility) support. Can be ideal for server systems.</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>{{c|hardened}}</td><td>Includes PIE/SSP toolchain for enhanced security. PIE does require the use of PaX in the kernel, while SSP works with any kernel, and provides enhanced security in user-space to avoid stack-based exploits. For expert users.</td></tr>
 +
{{TableEnd}}
  
<console>
+
==== Download the Stage3 ====
# ##i##env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l
+
</console>
+
  
{{fancynote|Users of live CDs with 64-bit kernels installing 32-bit systems: Some software may use <code>uname -r</code> to check whether the system is 32 or 64-bit. You may want append linux32 to the chroot command as a workaround, but it's generally not needed.}}
+
Once you have found the stage3 that you would like to download, use {{c|wget}} to download the Stage 3 tarball you have chosen to use as the basis for your new Funtoo Linux system. It should be saved to the {{f|/mnt/funtoo}} directory as follows:
{{fancyimportant|If you receive the error "<code>chroot: failed to run command `/bin/bash': Exec format error</code>", it is probably because you are running a 32-bit kernel and trying to execute 64-bit code. SystemRescueCd boots with a 32-bit kernel by default.}}
+
  
It's also a good idea to change the default command prompt while inside the chroot. This will avoid confusion if you have to change terminals. Use this command:
+
{{console|body=
<console>
+
###i## cd /mnt/funtoo
# ##i##export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"
+
###i## wget http://build.funtoo.org/funtoo-current/x86-64bit/generic_64/stage3-latest.tar.xz
</console>
+
}}
 +
Note that 64-bit systems can run 32-bit or 64-bit stages, but 32-bit systems can only run 32-bit stages. Make sure that you select a Stage 3 build that is appropriate for your CPU. If you are not certain, it is a safe bet to choose the {{c|generic_64}} or {{c|generic_32}} stage. Consult the [[Subarches]] page for more information.
  
Congratulations! You are now chrooted inside a Funtoo Linux system. Now it's time to get Funtoo Linux properly configured so that Funtoo Linux will boot successfully when your system is restarted.
+
Once the stage is downloaded, extract the contents with the following command, substituting in the actual name of your stage 3 tarball:
 +
{{console|body=
 +
###i## tar xpf stage3-latest.tar.xz
 +
}}
 +
{{Important|It is very important to use {{c|tar's}} "{{c|'''p'''}}" option when extracting the Stage 3 tarball - it tells {{c|tar}} to ''preserve'' any permissions and ownership that exist within the archive. Without this option, your Funtoo Linux filesystem permissions will be incorrect.}}

Latest revision as of 20:34, July 16, 2015


Note

This is a template that is used as part of the Installation instructions which covers: the process of installing the Stage3 tarball. Templates are being used to allow multiple variant install guides that use most of the same re-usable parts.

Setting the Date

Important

If your system's date and time are too far off (typically by months or years,) then it may prevent Portage from properly downloading source tarballs. This is because some of our sources are downloaded via HTTPS, which use SSL certificates and are marked with an activation and expiration date. However, if your system time is relatively close to correct, you can probably skip this step for now.

Now is a good time to verify the date and time are correctly set to UTC. Use the date command to verify the date and time:

# date
Fri Jul 15 19:47:18 UTC 2011

If the date and/or time need to be corrected, do so using date MMDDhhmmYYYY, keeping in mind hhmm are in 24-hour format. The example below changes the date and time to "July 16th, 2011 @ 8:00PM" UTC:

# date 071620002011
Fri Jul 16 20:00:00 UTC 2011

Once you have set the system clock, it's a very good idea to copy the time to the hardware clock, so it persists across reboots:

# hwclock --systohc


Installing the Stage 3 tarball

Now that filesystems are created and your hardware and system clock are set, the next step is downloading the initial Stage 3 tarball. The Stage 3 is a pre-compiled system used as a starting point to install Funtoo Linux. Notice: if you're using virtual machines (like Vbox) generic stage3 images are preferred rather than cpu-optimized ones.

To download the correct build of Funtoo Linux for your system, head over to the Subarches page. Subarches are builds of Funtoo Linux that are designed to run on a particular type of CPU, to offer the best possible performance. They also take advantage of the instruction sets available for each CPU.

The Subarches page lists all CPU-optimized versions of Funtoo Linux. Find the one that is appropriate for the type of CPU that your system has, and then click on its name in the first column (such as corei7, for example.) You will then go to a page dedicated to that subarch, and the available stage3's available for download will be listed.

For most subarches, you will have several stage3's available to choose from. This next section will help you understand which one to pick.

Which Build?

If you're not sure, pick funtoo-current.

Funtoo Linux has various different 'builds':

BuildDescription
funtoo-currentThe most commonly-selected build of Funtoo Linux. Receives rapid updates and preferred by desktop users.
funtoo-stableEmphasizes less-frequent package updates and trusted, reliable versions of packages over the latest versions.

Which Variant?

If you're not sure, pick standard.

Our "regular" stage3's are listed with a variant of standard. The following variant builds are available:

VariantDescription
standardThe "standard" version of Funtoo Linux
pure64A 64-bit build that drops multilib (32-bit compatibility) support. Can be ideal for server systems.
hardenedIncludes PIE/SSP toolchain for enhanced security. PIE does require the use of PaX in the kernel, while SSP works with any kernel, and provides enhanced security in user-space to avoid stack-based exploits. For expert users.

Download the Stage3

Once you have found the stage3 that you would like to download, use wget to download the Stage 3 tarball you have chosen to use as the basis for your new Funtoo Linux system. It should be saved to the /mnt/funtoo directory as follows:

# cd /mnt/funtoo
# wget http://build.funtoo.org/funtoo-current/x86-64bit/generic_64/stage3-latest.tar.xz

Note that 64-bit systems can run 32-bit or 64-bit stages, but 32-bit systems can only run 32-bit stages. Make sure that you select a Stage 3 build that is appropriate for your CPU. If you are not certain, it is a safe bet to choose the generic_64 or generic_32 stage. Consult the Subarches page for more information.

Once the stage is downloaded, extract the contents with the following command, substituting in the actual name of your stage 3 tarball:

# tar xpf stage3-latest.tar.xz
Important

It is very important to use tar's "p" option when extracting the Stage 3 tarball - it tells tar to preserve any permissions and ownership that exist within the archive. Without this option, your Funtoo Linux filesystem permissions will be incorrect.