Difference between pages "Install/fr/BootLoader" and "Virtual Packages"

< Install‎ | fr(Difference between pages)
(Installation du chargeur d'amorçage)
 
 
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=== Installation du chargeur d'amorçage ===
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Virtual packages are special packages that correspond to a feature that can be satisfied by one or more package(s). This Wiki page aims to describe when and how to use them correctly, and what are their implications.
  
Ces instructions d'installation montrent comment utiliser GRUB pour démarrer en utilisant soit BIOS ou  soit UEFI.  Depuis la sortie de <code>boot-update-1.7.2</code>, les étapes sont très similaires.
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== Virtual packages, metapackages and package sets ==
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Virtual packages, metapackages and package sets are similar concepts. However, they have a few important differences that make them fit for different use cases.
  
En premier lieu, vous installez <code>boot-update</code>. Cette installation inclut <code>grub-2</code> et <code>efibootmgr</code> puisque ces paquets en sont dépendants:
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Virtual packages and metapackages are regular Funtoo packages (ebuilds) that install no files. Instead, they cause other packages to be installed by specifying them in their runtime dependencies. They can both be used in any context valid for regular packages. They can have multiple versions, slots and USE flags. They have to be located in an active repository, and once there they can be installed and uninstalled like regular packages.
  
<console>
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Package sets are not packages but special atoms supported by Portage. Package sets can only specify other packages, either via a static list or dynamically (e.g. via running Python code that determines the package list). Package sets can't be versioned and don't have USE flags. Package sets can be used alongside packages in emerge commands and other package sets but they can't be referenced inside regular packages. Package sets can be installed into user's system, located in repositories or created by user in Portage configuration.
(chroot) # ##i##emerge boot-update
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</console>
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Ensuite, éditez <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> avec {{c|nano}} et choisissez "<code>Funtoo Linux genkernel</code>" comme réglage par défaut à la place de <code>"Funtoo Linux"</code>.  
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Virtual packages represent a commonly used feature that can be provided by multiple different providers. Virtuals provide a convenient way of specifying all possible alternatives without having to update multiple ebuilds.
  
Voici un exemple du fichier <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> après modifications:
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Metapackages and package sets are used to represent lists of packages that user may want to install together. They provide a convenience for users, e.g. providing a shortcut to install all packages comprising a desktop environment.
 
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<pre>
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boot {
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generate grub
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default "Funtoo Linux genkernel"
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timeout 3
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}
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#"Funtoo Linux" {
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# kernel bzImage[-v]
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#}
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"Funtoo Linux genkernel" {
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kernel kernel[-v]
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initrd initramfs[-v]
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params += real_root=auto
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}
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#"Funtoo Linux better-initramfs" {
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# kernel vmlinuz[-v]
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# initrd /initramfs.cpio.gz
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#}
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</pre>
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Consultez le manuel sur <code>boot.conf</code>, commande <code>man boot.conf</code>, pour les autres options disponibles, par exemple si vous avez installé et configuré votre propre noyau.
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==== Démarrage (BIOS) MBR ====
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Pour démarrer sur une carte mère BIOS, installez GRUB et créez son fichier de configuration ainsi:
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<console>
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(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --target=i386-pc --no-floppy /dev/sda
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(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
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</console>
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==== Démarrage (UEFI) ====
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Pour démarrer sur une carte mère UEFI,  voici comment installer GRUB et créer son fichier de configuration selon l'architecture:
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Architecture x86-64bit:
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<console>
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(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda
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(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
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</console>
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Architecture x86-32bit:
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<console>
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(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --target=i386-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda
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(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
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</console>
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==== Premier démarrage et ultérieur ====
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Vous n'exécutez <code>grub-install</code> qu'une seule fois, soit lors de l'installation de Funtoo Linux. Par contre, vous devez régénérer le menu GRUB, <code>boot-update</code>, à chaque fois que vous ajoutez un  noyau ou modifiez le fichier <code>/etc/boot.conf</code>.
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[[Category: Installation Guide Parts]]
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Revision as of 12:07, February 7, 2015

Virtual packages are special packages that correspond to a feature that can be satisfied by one or more package(s). This Wiki page aims to describe when and how to use them correctly, and what are their implications.

Virtual packages, metapackages and package sets

Virtual packages, metapackages and package sets are similar concepts. However, they have a few important differences that make them fit for different use cases.

Virtual packages and metapackages are regular Funtoo packages (ebuilds) that install no files. Instead, they cause other packages to be installed by specifying them in their runtime dependencies. They can both be used in any context valid for regular packages. They can have multiple versions, slots and USE flags. They have to be located in an active repository, and once there they can be installed and uninstalled like regular packages.

Package sets are not packages but special atoms supported by Portage. Package sets can only specify other packages, either via a static list or dynamically (e.g. via running Python code that determines the package list). Package sets can't be versioned and don't have USE flags. Package sets can be used alongside packages in emerge commands and other package sets but they can't be referenced inside regular packages. Package sets can be installed into user's system, located in repositories or created by user in Portage configuration.

Virtual packages represent a commonly used feature that can be provided by multiple different providers. Virtuals provide a convenient way of specifying all possible alternatives without having to update multiple ebuilds.

Metapackages and package sets are used to represent lists of packages that user may want to install together. They provide a convenience for users, e.g. providing a shortcut to install all packages comprising a desktop environment.