Difference between pages "Wim42gnu's-setup" and "Install/pt-br/BootLoader"

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(Instalar um Bootloader)
 
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WIM42GNU's Funtoo Setup
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=== Instalar um Bootloader ===
  
This is for everybody who might have seen my funtoo setup and liked it!
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Estas instruções de instalação the mostra como usar o GRUB para o boot utilizando BIOS (moda antiga) ou UEFI (moderno). Como no boot-update-1.7.2, agora no Portage, os passos são muito similares.
This is also for myself to keep track on my system. I have used most of the Linux distributions out there and I am currently most happy with funtoo.  
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My reasons are:
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# Gentoo/Funtoo is a rolling release distribution, meaning you only have to install it once and update it frequently.
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# Gentoo/Funtoo is only what you make out of it, no unnesecary rubish like in Ubuntu, OpenSuse or Fedora will be installed by default. In the mean time being aware that Gentoo/Funtoo is for advanced users not careing that much about GUIs for Settings or Configs.
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# Gentoo/Funtoo runs fast due to multiple reasons. (Compiling your own software,USE-Flags,...)
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# Philosophy, one would think that Slackware would suite me most (KISS,Unix) but the fact is that these distributions require you more energy and time to work with. I want to get my jobs done, not careing to much about the system. It is okay to have tools that do things for you as long they are designed well - like in funtoo.
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 +
Primeiro, emerge <code>boot-update</code>. Isso também causará que o <code>grub-2</code> e o {{c|efibootmgr}} sejam emergidos (merged), desde que eles são dependências:
  
'''1. Install Funtoo (not complete yet - I will update this part when I install funtoo the next time)'''
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<console>
 +
(chroot) # ##i##emerge boot-update
 +
</console>
  
''Follow the install instructions and setup a minimal system.''http://www.funtoo.org/Funtoo_Linux_Installation
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Depois, edite <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> utilizando {{c|nano}} e especifique "<code>Funtoo Linux genkernel</code>" como a configuração <code>default</code> no topo do arquivo, substituindo <code>"Funtoo Linux"</code>.
  
Notice you will need to create/edit some configs in the installation prozess. Here are some of mine customizations:
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<code>/etc/boot.conf</code> deve agora parecer como isso:
  
a) <code>/etc/portage/make.conf</code>:
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<pre>
  CFLAGS="-O2 -march=native -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
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boot {
  CXXFLAGS="${CFLAGS}"
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generate grub
  CPU_FLAGS_X86="aes avx fma4 mmx mmxext popcnt sse sse2 sse3 sse4_1 sse4_2 sse4a ssse3 xop"
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default "Funtoo Linux genkernel"  
 +
timeout 3
 +
}
  
''for the CPU Flags checkout:'' http://www.funtoo.org/News:CPU_FLAGS_X86
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"Funtoo Linux" {
 +
kernel bzImage[-v]
 +
}
  
  USE="qt3support theora libkms xa cdr dvd dvdr alsa ffmpeg -gnome gtk -qt4 -kde lm_sensors mp3 mp4 mozilla multilib png python sound udev usb unicode static-libs hddtemp -bluetooth  nvidia X pulseaudio udisks"
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"Funtoo Linux genkernel" {
 +
kernel kernel[-v]
 +
initrd initramfs[-v]
 +
params += real_root=auto
 +
}
  
  EMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS="--keep-going"
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"Funtoo Linux better-initramfs" {
  FEATURES="-collision-protect ccache"
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kernel vmlinuz[-v]
  CCACHE_SIZE="1G"
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initrd /initramfs.cpio.gz
  PORTAGE_NICENESS=20
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}
  PORTAGE_IONICE_COMMAND="ionice -c 3 -p \${PID}"
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</pre>
  #EMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS="--jobs=12"
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  MAKEOPTS="-j12" ''<--- Number of CPU cores *2 in my case works best.''
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  LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
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Se você estiver inicializando um kernel personalisado ou não padrão, por favor leia <code>man boot.conf</code> para informações nas várias opções disponíveis para você.
  LINGUAS="de" 
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  ACCEPT_LICENSE="* -@EULA"
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  INPUT_DEVICES="evdev"
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  VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia"
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 +
==== Moda Antiga (BIOS) MBR ====
  
b) <code>/etc/fstab</code>
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Quando utilizar inicialização "a moda antiga (old school)" pela BIOS, execute o seguinte comando para instalar o GRUB no seu MBR, e gere o arquivo de configuração {{c|/boot/grub/grub.cfg}} que o GRUB utilizará para a inicialização:
  
  # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
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<console>
  #
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(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --target=i386-pc --no-floppy /dev/sda
  # The root filesystem should have a pass number of either 0 or 1.
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(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
  # All other filesystems should have a pass number of 0 or greater than 1.
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</console>
  #
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  # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
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  #
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  # See the manpage fstab(5) for more information.
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  #
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  # <fs> <mountpoint> <type> <opts> <dump/pass>
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  /dev/sda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
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==== New School (UEFI) Boot Entry ====
  #/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,ro 0 0
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  /dev/mapper/vg-swap    none          swap      sw                              0 0
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  /dev/mapper/vg-root    /            ext4      noatime,nodiratime,defaults    0 1
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  /dev/sr0                /mnt/cdrom    auto      noauto,ro                      0 0
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  /dev/mapper/vg-home    /home        ext4      noatime,nodiratime              0 0
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''' tmpfs /var/tmp/portage tmpfs uid=portage,gid=portage,mode=0775,size=16048M,noatime 0 0'''
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for tmpfs see: http://www.funtoo.org/Funtoo_Filesystem_Guide,_Part_3
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If you're using "new school" UEFI booting, one run of the following sets of commands, depending on whether you are installing a 64-bit or 32-bit system. This will add GRUB as a UEFI boot entry.
  
c) Since I have an encrypted LVM, one needs an initramfs. I prefer the genkernel method.
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For x86-64bit systems:
    genkernel --kernel-config=/path/to/your/custom-kernel-config --no-mrproper --makeopts=-j5 --install --lvm --luks all
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more here: http://www.funtoo.org/Rootfs_over_encrypted_lvm or use better-initramfs: http://www.funtoo.org/Initramfs
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d) My Funtoo Profiles:
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<console>
  eselect profile show
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(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda
 
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(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
  Currently set profiles:
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</console>
    arch: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit
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    build: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current
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  flavor: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/desktop
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  mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/audio
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  mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/console-extras
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  mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd
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  mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media
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  mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/X
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  Automatically enabled profiles:
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  mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/print
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  mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/X
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  mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/audio
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  mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd
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  mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media
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  mix-ins: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/console-extras
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 +
For x86-32bit systems:
  
'''2. Install your WindowManager or DesktopEnviroment'''
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<console>
 
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(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --target=i386-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda
''My favourite Window Manager at the time is i3 followed by xfce and openbox.''
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(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
''Details about i3 & funtoo → http://www.funtoo.org/Package:I3_(Window_Manager) ''
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'''i3 setup:'''
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1) install these packages:
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<console> emerge --ask i3 i3status dmenu lxappeareance
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</console>
 
</console>
'' If you want to know what these packages are research them. I use lxappeareance to install and select gtk-themes.''
 
 
Config files:
 
 
'''1.''' xinitrc at <code>~/.xinitrc </code>
 
  exec ck-launch-session i3
 
''You only need --force-xinerama if you do have a nvidia grafics card that do not work without it. For more <code>startx</code> magic → https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/xinitrc''
 
 
'''2.'''  <code>~/.i3/config</code>
 
 
''specify window colors at the top of the file:''
 
  # class                border  backgr. text    indicator
 
  client.focused          #333333 #000000 #ffffff #000000
 
  client.focused_inactive #333333 #5f676a #ffffff #484e50
 
  client.unfocused        #333333 #222222 #888888 #292d2e
 
  client.urgent          #333333 #900000 #ffffff #900000
 
 
''specify the bar/workspace colors at the bottom of the file:''
 
 
 
  bar {
 
          status_command i3status
 
          # Bar color settings
 
          colors{
 
                  #background #000000
 
                  #statusline #ffffff
 
                  #separator  #666666
 
                  # Type            border  background font
 
                  focused_workspace  #008fff #007fff #ffffff
 
                  active_workspace  #333333 #5f676a #ffffff
 
                  inactive_workspace #333333 #222222 #888888
 
                  urgent_workspace  #aa0000 #990000 #ffffff
 
          }
 
  }
 
 
 
Do not forget the keymap setting at <code>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</code> otherwise you need to use <code>setxkbmap</code>
 
  Section "InputClass"
 
    Identifier        "keyboard-all"
 
    Driver            "evdev"
 
    MatchIsKeyboard    "on"
 
  ''' Option        "XkbLayout" "de"'''
 
  EndSection
 
 
'''3. '''Display Power Management Signaling
 
 
a) You can either use XScreenSaver(https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/XScreenSaver):
 
  emerge -a xscreensaver
 
 
and add <code>/usr/bin/xscreensaver -no-splash &</code> to your <code>~/.xinitrc</code> file:
 
 
 
  xscreensaver -no-splash &        # starts screensaver daemon
 
  exec ck-launch-session i3 --force-xinerama
 
 
or b) modifi your Xorg server (https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Display_Power_Management_Signaling).
 
 
'''4. '''Note: I login without a login manager using <code>startx</code> to start my Window Manager, you can end/exit your i3 wm via <code>alt or windows key + shift + e</code>
 
 
'''5.''' Background Image Viewer
 
 
a) Feh
 
<console> emerge -a feh</console>
 
<code>~/.xinitrc</code>:
 
  feh --bg-center <path>/<image>.png
 
 
b) Nitrogen(GUI Programm)
 
<console> emerge -a nitrogen</console>
 
<code>~/.xinitrc</code>:
 
  exec --no-startup-id nitrogen --restore
 
'''additional software:'''
 
 
1) File Manager:
 
<console> emerge --ask thunar </console>
 
''thunar - filemanager that supports automounting''
 
''Make sure you create this rule: <code> /etc/polkit-1/rules.d/10-drives.rules</code>
 
  polkit.addRule(function(action, subject) {
 
  if (action.id.indexOf("org.freedesktop.udisks2.") == 0){
 
  return polkit.Result.YES;
 
  }
 
  }
 
  );
 
 
''Also you should have <code>udisk</code> installed''
 
 
2)
 
 
'''media-video/smplayer:'''
 
 
''allow smplayer always to floate, just add''
 
  for_window [class="smplayer" instance="smplayer"] floating enable
 
''to your <code>~/.i3/config</code>''
 
  
app-arch/file-roller
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==== First Boot, and in the future... ====
app-editors/bluefish
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app-emulation/wine
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app-misc/freemind
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app-office/libreoffice
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app-portage/eix
+
mail-client/thunderbird
+
media-gfx/blender
+
media-gfx/gimp
+
media-sound/audacity
+
media-video/kdenlive
+
  
 +
OK -- you are ready to boot!
  
media-video/vlc
+
You only need to run <code>grub-install</code> when you first install Funtoo Linux, but you need to re-run <code>boot-update</code> every time you modify your <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> file or add new kernels to your system. This will regenerate {{c|/boot/grub/grub.cfg}} so that you will have new kernels available in your GRUB boot menu, the next time you reboot.
net-analyzer/wireshark
+
net-ftp/filezilla
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sys-apps/lm_sensors
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virtual/jre
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www-client/chromium
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app-text/evince
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app-text/calibre
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app-emulation/virtualbox
+

Revision as of 18:20, February 27, 2015

Instalar um Bootloader

Estas instruções de instalação the mostra como usar o GRUB para o boot utilizando BIOS (moda antiga) ou UEFI (moderno). Como no boot-update-1.7.2, agora no Portage, os passos são muito similares.

Primeiro, emerge boot-update. Isso também causará que o grub-2 e o efibootmgr sejam emergidos (merged), desde que eles são dependências:

(chroot) # emerge boot-update

Depois, edite /etc/boot.conf utilizando nano e especifique "Funtoo Linux genkernel" como a configuração default no topo do arquivo, substituindo "Funtoo Linux".

/etc/boot.conf deve agora parecer como isso:

boot {
	generate grub
	default "Funtoo Linux genkernel" 
	timeout 3 
}

"Funtoo Linux" {
	kernel bzImage[-v]
}

"Funtoo Linux genkernel" {
	kernel kernel[-v]
	initrd initramfs[-v]
	params += real_root=auto 
} 

"Funtoo Linux better-initramfs" {
	kernel vmlinuz[-v]
	initrd /initramfs.cpio.gz
}

Se você estiver inicializando um kernel personalisado ou não padrão, por favor leia man boot.conf para informações nas várias opções disponíveis para você.

Moda Antiga (BIOS) MBR

Quando utilizar inicialização "a moda antiga (old school)" pela BIOS, execute o seguinte comando para instalar o GRUB no seu MBR, e gere o arquivo de configuração /boot/grub/grub.cfg que o GRUB utilizará para a inicialização:

(chroot) # grub-install --target=i386-pc --no-floppy /dev/sda
(chroot) # boot-update

New School (UEFI) Boot Entry

If you're using "new school" UEFI booting, one run of the following sets of commands, depending on whether you are installing a 64-bit or 32-bit system. This will add GRUB as a UEFI boot entry.

For x86-64bit systems:

(chroot) # grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda
(chroot) # boot-update

For x86-32bit systems:

(chroot) # grub-install --target=i386-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda
(chroot) # boot-update

First Boot, and in the future...

OK -- you are ready to boot!

You only need to run grub-install when you first install Funtoo Linux, but you need to re-run boot-update every time you modify your /etc/boot.conf file or add new kernels to your system. This will regenerate /boot/grub/grub.cfg so that you will have new kernels available in your GRUB boot menu, the next time you reboot.