Difference between pages "LVM Install Guide" and "User:Mtew"

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== Introduction ==
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{{Person
 
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|Geoloc=35.9940329, -78.898619
{{fancynote|This tutorial will show you how to install Funtoo, including the rootfs, on logical volumes. This guide is meant to complement the regular [[Funtoo_Linux_Installation|Funtoo Installation Guide]]. It is recommended that you open it in another tab/window and follow along with it as we will only be documenting the steps that are different or in addition to the regular guide.}}
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|Location name=Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
 
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|Blogs=
LVM (Logical Volume Management) offers a much more flexible way of managing your storage devices. Not only does it allow you to resize your volumes
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== Live CD ==
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+
Please read the [[Funtoo Linux Installation#Live CD|Live CD]] section in the regular guide. The only thing you need in addition to the [[Requirements|requirements]] it mentions is the sys-fs/lvm2 package or equivalent. If you use [http://www.sysresccd.org/ System Rescue CD], it includes the lvm2 package.
+
 
+
== Prepare the drives and partitions ==
+
 
+
{{fancynote|For this guide, we are assuming you are using MBR, that you have a /dev/sda1 (a boot drive) and /dev/sdb1 (a system drive), and that you are only using LVM with one drive, even though LVM supports adding multiple hard disks and partitions to a volume group. Please adapt these instructions to suit your needs.}}
+
 
+
Preparing the hard disk for an LVM install isn't much different from a normal install except that we won't be creating a bunch of partitions as we are going to use logical volumes instead.
+
 
+
Find the disk:
+
 
+
<console>
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# fdisk -l
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</console>
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+
Verify the disk:
+
 
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<console>
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# fdisk -l /dev/sdb
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</console>
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+
Zap the disk:
+
 
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<console>
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# sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sdb
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</console>
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Create the partition table:
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{{fancynote|If you are using MBR, review paritioning [[Funtoo_Linux_Installation#Partitioning_Using_fdisk_.28MBR.29|Partitioning Using fdisk]] and if you are using GPT, review [[Partitioning using gdisk]]. The basic idea is to create what ncessary and then allocate the rest for LVM.}}
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+
For MBR, this is the boot partition (if you want it on the system drive), every else goes to LVM like so:
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+
<console>
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# fdisk /dev/sdb
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</console>
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+
<pre>
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Disk /dev/sdb: 596.2 GiB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
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Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
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Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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Disklabel type: dos
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Disk identifier: 0xaa6abfe1
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+
Device    Boot    Start        End    Blocks  Id System
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/dev/sdb1          2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
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/dev/sdb2        264192 1250263727 624999768  83 Linux
+
</pre>
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+
For GPT, this is the  BIOS boot partion and the boot partition (if you want them on the system drive), every else goes to LVM like so:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# gdisk /dev/sdb
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</console>
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<pre>
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Disk /dev/sdb: 596.2 GiB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
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Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
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Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
+
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
+
Disklabel type: dos
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Disk identifier: 0x6ba8799c
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+
Device    Boot    Start        End    Blocks  Id System
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/dev/sdb1          2048      6143      2048  ef EFI (FAT-12/16/32)
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/dev/sdb2          6144    268287    131072  83 Linux
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/dev/sdb3        268288 1250263727 624997720  83 Linux
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</pre>
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+
You'll notice in both cases that a swap partition wasn't created. This is becasue if one is desired, it can be done in LVM.
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+
Create the physical volume:
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+
{{fancynote|As a remindiner, for this guide, we are assuming you are using MBR, that you have a /dev/sda1 (a boot drive) and /dev/sdb1 (a system drive), and that you are only using LVM with one drive. Change this to suit your purposes.}}
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+
Our first step is to create a physical volume which basically just tells the lvm where to write the data to.
+
 
+
<console>
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# pvcreate -f -f /dev/sdb1
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</console>
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+
<pre>
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  Physical volume "/dev/sdb1" successfully created
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</pre>
+
 
+
Display the physical volume:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# pvdisplay
+
</console>
+
 
+
<pre>
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  "/dev/sdb1" is a new physical volume of "596.17 GiB"
+
  --- NEW Physical volume ---
+
  PV Name              /dev/sdb1
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  VG Name             
+
  PV Size              596.17 GiB
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  Allocatable          NO
+
  PE Size              0 
+
  Total PE              0
+
  Free PE              0
+
  Allocated PE          0
+
  PV UUID              IDDrWr-t3PD-7t31-fRQ3-pay2-eMGy-1NgrD0
+
</pre>
+
 
+
Create the volume group:
+
 
+
Now that we have a place to store our data we need to create a volume group for it. A volume group is simply a named group of at least one physical volume. This allows multiple physical volumes to be used to store data. In our simple example we only have one physical volume so we'll create a volume group and add our physical volume to it in one command. We are going to call our volume group "funtoo" but you can name it anything you want.
+
 
+
<console>
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# vgcreate funtoo /dev/sdb1
+
</console>
+
 
+
<pre>
+
  Volume group "funtoo" successfully created
+
</pre>
+
 
+
Display the volume group:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# vgdisplay
+
</console>
+
 
+
<pre>
+
  --- Volume group ---
+
  VG Name              funtoo
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  System ID           
+
  Format                lvm2
+
  Metadata Areas        1
+
  Metadata Sequence No  1
+
  VG Access            read/write
+
  VG Status            resizable
+
  MAX LV                0
+
  Cur LV                0
+
  Open LV              0
+
  Max PV                0
+
  Cur PV                1
+
  Act PV                1
+
  VG Size              596.17 GiB
+
  PE Size              4.00 MiB
+
  Total PE              152619
+
  Alloc PE / Size      0 / 0 
+
  Free  PE / Size      152619 / 596.17 GiB
+
  VG UUID              jFubWA-SGaa-w3C7-Zrst-9Hqo-mWPZ-9JqYZ4
+
</pre>
+
 
+
Create the logical volumes:
+
 
+
We now come to the heart of using LVM, logical volumes. Here we get to create logical volumes to store our data. Remember that the best part of LVM is the ability to resize volumes later on the fly so keep that in mind when deciding how big to make volumes. No need to allocate all your space right away. Also keep in mind when choosing a file system type that it must support resizing in order to take advantage of LVM's resizing features.
+
 
+
For our simple example we are only going to create 4 logical volumes and use them for: (SWAP) /(ROOT), /home/my and /home/my/media.
+
 
+
<console>
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# lvcreate -L 32G -n SWAP funtoo
+
</console>
+
 
+
<pre>
+
  Logical volume "SWAP" created
+
</pre>
+
 
+
<console>
+
# lvcreate -L 64G -n ROOT funtoo
+
</console>
+
 
+
<pre>
+
  Logical volume "ROOT" created
+
</pre>
+
 
+
<console>
+
# lvcreate -L 128G -n home_my funtoo
+
</console>
+
 
+
<pre>
+
  Logical volume "home_my" created
+
</pre>
+
 
+
<console>
+
# lvcreate -L 256G -n home_my_media funtoo
+
</console>
+
 
+
<pre>
+
  Logical volume "home_my_media" created
+
</pre>
+
 
+
Display the logical volumes:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# lvdisplay
+
</console>
+
 
+
<pre>
+
  --- Logical volume ---
+
  LV Path                /dev/funtoo/SWAP
+
  LV Name                SWAP
+
  VG Name                funtoo
+
  LV UUID                VkdEAk-Jshp-qcQ0-jU7m-m7f4-fyG6-1FZJlh
+
  LV Write Access        read/write
+
  LV Creation host, time funtoo, 2014-07-24 04:39:19 -0400
+
  LV Status              available
+
  # open                0
+
  LV Size                32.00 GiB
+
  Current LE            8192
+
  Segments              1
+
  Allocation            inherit
+
  Read ahead sectors    auto
+
  - currently set to    256
+
  Block device          253:1
+
 
+
  --- Logical volume ---
+
  LV Path                /dev/funtoo/ROOT
+
  LV Name                ROOT
+
  VG Name                funtoo
+
  LV UUID                2WE7dL-R5BN-dM78-eMx5-hwS8-SjWJ-mUjzL4
+
  LV Write Access        read/write
+
  LV Creation host, time funtoo, 2014-07-24 04:39:24 -0400
+
  LV Status              available
+
  # open                0
+
  LV Size                64.00 GiB
+
  Current LE            16384
+
  Segments              1
+
  Allocation            inherit
+
  Read ahead sectors    auto
+
  - currently set to    256
+
  Block device          253:2
+
 
+
  --- Logical volume ---
+
  LV Path                /dev/funtoo/home_my
+
  LV Name                home_my
+
  VG Name                funtoo
+
  LV UUID                OJnpYM-399Y-8pa3-iMTY-Nle3-IyK1-keDtng
+
  LV Write Access        read/write
+
  LV Creation host, time funtoo, 2014-07-24 04:40:16 -0400
+
  LV Status              available
+
  # open                0
+
  LV Size                128.00 GiB
+
  Current LE            32768
+
  Segments              1
+
  Allocation            inherit
+
  Read ahead sectors    auto
+
  - currently set to    256
+
  Block device          253:3
+
 
+
  --- Logical volume ---
+
  LV Path                /dev/funtoo/home_my_media
+
  LV Name                home_my_media
+
  VG Name                funtoo
+
  LV UUID                tt7cin-igC4-VD85-fDKV-J692-fV3F-auJYcU
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  LV Write Access        read/write
+
  LV Creation host, time funtoo, 2014-07-24 04:40:30 -0400
+
  LV Status              available
+
  # open                0
+
  LV Size                256.00 GiB
+
  Current LE            65536
+
  Segments              1
+
  Allocation            inherit
+
  Read ahead sectors    auto
+
  - currently set to    256
+
  Block device          253:4
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</pre>
+
 
+
Activate swap:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# mkswap /dev/mapper/funtoo-SWAP
+
</console>
+
 
+
<pre>
+
Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 33554428 KiB
+
no label, UUID=ccc83857-28da-4508-a393-84e974e0eeb1
+
</pre>
+
 
+
<console>
+
# swapon /dev/mapper/funtoo-SWAP
+
</console>
+
 
+
Create the filesystems:
+
 
+
{{fancynote|Before proceeding you should read through the brief section [[Funtoo Linux Installation#Creating filesystems|Creating filesystems]] in the install guide and decide what type of filesystem you would like to use. Do not actually create any file systems though, we will cover that below.}}
+
 
+
<console>
+
# mkfs.ext2      /dev/sda1
+
</console>
+
 
+
<pre>
+
[...]
+
</pre>
+
 
+
<console>
+
# mkfs.ext4      /dev/mapper/funtoo-ROOT
+
</console>
+
 
+
<pre>
+
mke2fs 1.42.10 (18-May-2014)
+
Creating filesystem with 16777216 4k blocks and 4194304 inodes
+
Filesystem UUID: 0ab8f9ab-e824-4d69-a9c4-201d4ccd99ac
+
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
+
32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
+
4096000, 7962624, 11239424
+
 
+
Allocating group tables: done                           
+
Writing inode tables: done                           
+
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
+
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done 
+
</pre>
+
 
+
<console>
+
# mkfs.ext4      /dev/mapper/funtoo-home_my
+
</console>
+
 
+
<pre>
+
mke2fs 1.42.10 (18-May-2014)
+
Creating filesystem with 33554432 4k blocks and 8388608 inodes
+
Filesystem UUID: 46e394c1-3635-4f13-ba51-10c537d2b5ed
+
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
+
32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
+
4096000, 7962624, 11239424, 20480000, 23887872
+
 
+
Allocating group tables: done                           
+
Writing inode tables: done                           
+
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
+
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done   
+
</pre>
+
 
+
<console>
+
# mkfs.xfs        /dev/mapper/funtoo-home_my_media
+
</console>
+
 
+
<pre>
+
meta-data=/dev/mapper/funtoo-home_my_media isize=256    agcount=4, agsize=16777216 blks
+
        =                      sectsz=512  attr=2, projid32bit=0
+
data    =                      bsize=4096  blocks=67108864, imaxpct=25
+
        =                      sunit=0      swidth=0 blks
+
naming  =version 2              bsize=4096  ascii-ci=0
+
log      =internal log          bsize=4096  blocks=32768, version=2
+
        =                      sectsz=512  sunit=0 blks, lazy-count=1
+
realtime =none                  extsz=4096  blocks=0, rtextents=0
+
</pre>
+
 
+
Label the filesystems:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# e2label /dev/sda1 boot
+
</console>
+
 
+
== Prepare for chroot ==
+
 
+
Activiate the volumes:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# vgscan
+
# vgchange -a y
+
</console>
+
 
+
Mount the filesystems:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# mkdir -p /mnt/funtoo
+
# mount /dev/mapper/funtoo-ROOT /mnt/funtoo
+
# mkdir -p /mnt/funtoo/boot
+
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot
+
# mkdir -p /mnt/funtoo/home/my
+
# mount /dev/mapper/funtoo-home_my /mnt/funtoo/home/my
+
# mkdir -p /mnt/funtoo/home/my/media
+
# mount /dev/mapper/funtoo-home_my_media /mnt/funtoo/home/my/media
+
</console>
+
 
+
Install the bootloader:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# grub-install /dev/sda1
+
</console>
+
 
+
== Resume from Funtoo Linux Installation ==
+
 
+
You may safely resume from [http://www.funtoo.org/Funtoo_Linux_Installation#Installing_the_Stage_3_tarball Installing the Stage 3 tarball] with few exceptions:
+
 
+
=== fstab ===
+
 
+
<pre>
+
# <filesystem>                  <mountpoint>        <type>      <opts>      <dump>      <pass>
+
/dev/funtoo/SWAP                none                swap        sw          0          0
+
/dev/funtoo/ROOT                /                  ext4        noatime    0          1
+
LABEL=boot                      /boot              ext2        noatime    0          0
+
/dev/funtoo/home_my            /home/my            ext4        noatime    0          2
+
/dev/funtoo/home_my_media      /home/my/media      xfs        noatime    0          2
+
</pre>
+
 
+
=== kernel ===
+
 
+
Enable kernel options:
+
{{kernelop
+
|title=
+
|desc=
+
General setup --->
+
      [*] Initial RAM filesystem and RAM disk (initramfs/initrd) support
+
 
}}
 
}}
{{kernelop
 
|title=
 
|desc=
 
Device Drivers --->
 
      Generic Driver Options --->
 
      [*] Maintain a devtmpfs filesystem to mount at /dev
 
}}
 
{{kernelop
 
|title=
 
|desc=
 
Device Drivers --->
 
      [*] Multiple devices driver support --->
 
      <*>Device Mapper Support
 
}}
 
 
Build initramfs (genkernel):
 
 
{{fancynote|This builds only an initramfs with lvm support. It does not build the whole kernel so you still have to do that.}}
 
 
<console>
 
# genkernel --lvm initramfs
 
</console>
 
 
=== boot-update ===
 
 
<pre>
 
boot {
 
  generate grub
 
  default "Funtoo Linux"
 
  timeout 3
 
}
 
 
"Funtoo Linux" {
 
  kernel kernel-genkernel-x86_64-3.14.13
 
  initrd initramfs-genkernel-x86_64-3.14.13
 
  params += dolvm real_root=/dev/mapper/funtoo-ROOT rootfstype=ext4 resume=swap:/dev/mapper/funtoo-SWAP quiet
 
}
 
</pre>
 
 
=== software ===
 
 
<console>
 
# emerge -va lvm2
 
</console>
 
 
For the most part, LVM "just works" without any additional configuration. This is especially true for versions below 2.02.107. If you are using >=sys-fs/lvm2-2.02.107 with Funtoo, there are two features be desired that are turned off by default:
 
 
The Metadata Daemon ([https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/Logical_Volume_Manager_Administration/metadatadaemon.html lvmetad])
 
 
Thinly-Provisioned Logical Volumes ([https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/Logical_Volume_Manager_Administration/thinprovisioned_volumes.html Thin Volumes])
 
 
Enabling either is simply a matter of enabling their USE flags.
 
 
== Cleaning up ==
 
 
<console>
 
# exit
 
# cd /
 
# cat /proc/mounts | grep funtoo | awk '{print $2}' | grep "^$MOUNTPOINT" | sort -r | xargs umount
 
# umount /mnt/funtoo
 
# swapoff -v /dev/mapper/funtoo-SWAP
 
# vgchange -a n
 
# init 0
 
</console>
 
 
== Special notes ==
 
 
=== Resizing ===
 
 
{{fancynote|Resizing is filesystem specific. Most can be grown but cannot be shrunk.}}
 
 
==== Growing /home/my by 8G ====
 
 
<console>
 
# lvextend -L+8G /dev/mapper/funtoo-home_my
 
</console>
 
 
===== ext2/ext3/ext4 =====
 
 
<console>
 
# resize2fs /mnt/funtoo/home/my
 
</console>
 
 
===== xfs =====
 
 
<console>
 
# xfs_growfs /mnt/funtoo/home/my
 
</console>
 
 
==== Shrinking /home/my by 8G ====
 
 
{{fancynote|You generally need to umount first.}}
 
 
===== ext2/ext3/ext4 =====
 
 
<console>
 
# umount /mnt/funtoo/home/my
 
# lvreduce -r -L -8G /dev/mapper/funtoo-home_my
 
</console>
 
 
===== xfs =====
 
 
XFS cannot be shrunk.
 
 
== Beyond the basics ==
 
 
The [[LVM Fun]] page may be of interest.
 
 
As well as these pages from Red Hat: [https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/Logical_Volume_Manager_Administration/snapshot_command.html Creating Snapshot Volumes]
 
[https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/Logical_Volume_Manager_Administration/thinly_provisioned_volume_creation.html Creating Thinly-Provionsed Logical Volumes]
 
[https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/Logical_Volume_Manager_Administration/mirror_create.html Creating Mirrored Volumes]
 
 
[[Category:HOWTO]]
 
[[Category:Install]]
 
[[Category:Official Documentation]]
 

Latest revision as of 05:33, July 31, 2014


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