Difference between pages "Zope HOWTO" and "Install/ru/Partitioning"

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(Введение)
 
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This page documents how to use Zope with Funtoo Experimental, which currently has good Zope support thanks to [[Progress Overlay Python]] integration.
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<noinclude>
 +
{{InstallPart|процесс разбиения диска и создания файловых систем}}
 +
</noinclude>
 +
=== Подготовка жесткого диска ===
  
== About Zope ==
+
В этой части  мы научимся различным способам установки Funtoo Linux -- и загрузки с -- жесткий диск.
  
Zope is an Open Source application server framework written in Python. It has an interesting history which you should familiarize yourself with before starting Zope development, as it contains several interesting twists and turns.
+
==== Введение ====
  
=== Zope History ===
+
В прежние времена существовал лишь один способ загрузить PC-совместимый компьютер. Все наши дектопы и сервера имели стандартный PC BIOS, все наши харды использовали MBR и были разбиты используя схему разбивки MBR.  Вот как это все было и нам это нравилось!
  
{{fancynote| This HOWTO targets Zope 2.13, which includes Five. It is typically the version you should be using for new Zope projects.}}
+
Затем появились EFI и UEFI,  встроенные программы нового образца наряду со схемой разбивки GPT, поддерживающая диски размером более 2.2TБ. Неожиданно, нам стали доступны различные способы установки и загрузки Линукс систем . То, что было единым методом, стало чем-то более сложным.
  
* There are two versions of Zope: Zope 2 and Zope 3. One might assume that Zope 3 is the version that people should use for new software development projects by default, but this is not the case. Most Zope-based projects continue to use Zope 2. Zope 3 was an attempt to redesign Zope 2 from scratch, and is completely different from Zope 2, but it was not adopted by the community.
+
Let's take a moment to review the options available to you for configuring a hard drive to boot Funtoo Linux. This Install Guide uses, and recommends, the old-school method of BIOS booting and using an MBR. It works and (except for rare cases) is universally supported. There's nothing wrong with it. If your system disk is 2TB or smaller in size, it won't prevent you from using all of your disk's capacity, either.
  
* There is also something called [http://codespeak.net/z3/five/ Five] (named because it is "2 + 3") that backports many of the new features of Zope 3 into the Zope 2 framework. Several projects will use Zope 2 plus Five in order to use some of the newer features in Zope. Five was merged into mainline Zope 2 in early 2010, and first appeared in Zope 2.8.
+
But, there are some situations where the old-school method isn't optimal. If you have a system disk >2TB in size, then MBR partitions won't allow you to access all your storage. So that's one reason. Another reason is that there are some so-called "PC" systems out there that don't support BIOS booting anymore, and force you to use UEFI to boot. So, out of compassion for people who fall into this predicament, this Install Guide documents UEFI booting too.
  
* You can learn more about the history of Zope 2, 3 and Five in the [http://svn.zope.org/Zope/trunk/src/Products/Five/README.txt?view=markup Five README].
+
Our recommendation is still to go old-school unless you have reason not to. The boot loader we will be using to load the Linux kernel in this guide is called GRUB, so we call this method the '''BIOS + GRUB (MBR)''' method. It's the traditional method of setting up a PC-compatible system to boot Linux.
  
* To make things even more interesting, work on [http://docs.zope.org/zope2/releases/4.0/ Zope 4] is underway, and it will be based on 2.13 rather than 3.x. It includes a number of [http://docs.zope.org/zope2/releases/4.0/CHANGES.html#restructuring incompatible changes] with prior versions.
+
If you need to use UEFI to boot, we recommend not using the MBR at all for booting, as some systems support this, but others don't. Instead, we recommend using UEFI to boot GRUB, which in turn will load Linux. We refer to this method as the '''UEFI + GRUB (GPT)''' method.
=== Zope Resources ===
+
  
Now that you understand what version of Zope you should be targeting (2.13), we can point you towards the correct documentation :)
+
And yes, there are even more methods, some of which are documented on the [[Boot Methods]] page. We used to recommend a '''BIOS + GRUB (GPT)''' method but it is not consistently supported across a wide variety of hardware.
  
; '''[http://docs.zope.org/zope2/zope2book/ The Zope 2 Book]'''
+
'''The big question is -- which boot method should you use?''' Here's how to tell.
: This book provides a general introduction to Zope concepts and ZMI. It is a good place to start, but doesn't provide a direct introduction to Zope development. It's recommended that you skim through this book to familiarize yourself with Zope. It generally does not assume much prior knowledge about Web development or Python.
+
; '''[http://docs.zope.org/zope2/zdgbook/ Zope Developer's Guide]'''
+
: This guide will give you a better introduction to Zope development. It assumes you already know Python. Skip chapters 1 and 2 and start in [http://docs.zope.org/zope2/zdgbook/ComponentsAndInterfaces.html chapter 3], which covers components and interfaces. [http://docs.zope.org/zope2/zdgbook/Products.html Chapter 5] covers the creation of your first product.
+
; '''[http://codespeak.net/z3/five/manual.html The Five Manual]'''
+
: We're not done yet. There is a bunch of stuff in Zope 2.13 that is not in the official documentation. Namely, the stuff in Five.
+
; '''[http://docs.zope.org/ztkpackages.html ZTK Documentation]'''
+
: ZTK 
+
; '''ZCA'''
+
: [http://www.muthukadan.net/docs/zca.html A Comprehensive Guide to Zope Component Architecture] offers a good introduction to the programming concepts of ZCA. We also have a new page on [[Zope Component Architecture]] which will help you to understand the big picture of ZCA and why it is useful. ZCML ("Z-camel") is a part of ZCA and  was introduced in Zope 3, so typically you will find ZCML documented within Zope 3 documentation and book.
+
; '''Content Components'''
+
: Views and Viewlets: [http://docs.zope.org/zope.viewlet/index.html This tutorial on viewlets] also contains some viewlet-related ZCML examples near the end. The "Content Component way" of developing in Zope seems to be a Zope 3 thing and tied to ZCML. Chapter 13+ of Stephan Richter's ''Zope 3 Developer's Handbook'' (book) seems to cover this quite well. You will probably also want to check out Philipp Weitershausen's ''Web Component Development with Zope 3'' (book).
+
; '''[http://wiki.zope.org/zope2/Zope2Wiki Zope 2 Wiki]'''
+
: Main wiki page for all things related to Zope 2.
+
; '''[http://docs.zope.org docs.zope.org]'''
+
: This is the main site for Zope documentation.
+
  
== First Steps ==
+
;Principle 1 - Old School: If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial light blue menu, you are booting the CD using the BIOS, and it's likely that you can thus boot Funtoo Linux using the BIOS. So, go old-school and use BIOS booting, ''unless'' you have some reason to use UEFI, such as having a >2.2TB system disk. In that case, see Principle 2, as your system may also support UEFI booting.
 +
 
 +
;Principle 2 - New School: If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial black and white menu -- congratulations, your system is configured to support UEFI booting. This means that you are ready to install Funtoo Linux to boot via UEFI. Your system may still support BIOS booting, but just be trying UEFI first. You can poke around in your BIOS boot configuration and play with this.
 +
 
 +
;What's the Big Difference between Old School and New School?: Here's the deal. If you go with old-school MBR partitions, your <code>/boot</code> partition will be an ext2 filesystem, and you'll use <code>fdisk</code> to create your MBR partitions. If you go with new-school GPT partitions and UEFI booting, your <code>/boot</code> partition will be a vfat filesystem, because this is what UEFI is able to read, and you will use <code>gdisk</code> to create your GPT partitions. And you'll install GRUB a bit differently. That's about all it comes down to, in case you were curious.
 +
 
 +
;Also Note: To install Funtoo Linux to boot via the New School UEFI method, you must boot System Rescue CD using UEFI -- and see an initial black and white screen. Otherwise, UEFI will not be active and you will not be able to set it up!
 +
 
 +
{{Note|'''Some motherboards may appear to support UEFI, but don't.''' Do your research. For example, the Award BIOS in my Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD7 rev 1.1 has an option to enable UEFI boot for CD/DVD. '''This is not sufficient for enabling UEFI boot for hard drives and installing Funtoo Linux.''' UEFI must be supported for both removable media (so you can boot System Rescue CD using UEFI) as well as fixed media (so you can boot your new Funtoo Linux installation.) It turns out that later revisions of this board (rev 3.0) have a new BIOS that fully supports UEFI boot.  This may point to a third principle -- know thy hardware.}}
 +
 
 +
==== Old-School (BIOS/MBR) Method ====
 +
 
 +
{{Note|Use this method if you are booting using your BIOS, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was light blue. If you're going to use the new-school method, [[#New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method|click here to jump down to UEFI/GPT.]]}}
 +
 
 +
===== Preparation =====
 +
 
 +
First, it's a good idea to make sure that you've found the correct hard disk to partition. Try this command and verify that <code>/dev/sda</code> is the disk that you want to partition:
  
First, you will need to emerge {{Package|net-zope/zope}}:
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
###i## emerge zope
+
# ##i##fdisk -l /dev/sda
 +
 
 +
Disk /dev/sda: 640.1 GB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
 +
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
 +
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
Disk label type: gpt
 +
 
 +
 
 +
#        Start          End    Size  Type            Name
 +
1        2048  1250263694  596.2G  Linux filesyste Linux filesystem
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Zope is now installed.
+
Now, it's recommended that you erase any existing MBR or GPT partition tables on the disk, which could confuse the system's BIOS at boot time. We do this using <code>sgdisk</code>:
 +
{{fancywarning|This will make any existing partitions inaccessible! You are '''strongly''' cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.}}
  
== Project Skeleton ==
+
<console>
 +
# ##i##sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda
 +
 
 +
Creating new GPT entries.
 +
GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or
 +
other utilities.
 +
</console>
  
{{fancynote| Zope should be run by a regular user account, not as the root user.}}
+
This output is also nothing to worry about, as the command still succeded:
  
The first step in using Zope is to ensure that you are using a regular user account. As a regular user, create a new directory called <tt>zope_test</tt>:
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
$##i## cd
+
***************************************************************
$##i## mkdir zope_test
+
Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format
 +
in memory.
 +
***************************************************************
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Now, enter the directory, and create an "instance", which is a set of files and directories that are used to contain a Zope project:
+
===== Partitioning =====
 +
 
 +
Now we will use <code>fdisk</code> to create the MBR partition table and partitions:
 +
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
$##i## cd zope_test
+
# ##i##fdisk /dev/sda
$##i## /usr/lib/zope-2.13/bin/mkzopeinstance
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
You will see the following output and will be prompted to answer a few questions:
+
Within <code>fdisk</code>, follow these steps:
 +
 
 +
'''Empty the partition table''':
 +
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
Please choose a directory in which you'd like to install
+
Command (m for help): ##i##o ↵
Zope "instance home" files such as database files, configuration
+
</console>
files, etc.
+
  
Directory: instance
+
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
Please choose a username and password for the initial user.
+
These will be the credentials you use to initially manage
+
your new Zope instance.
+
  
Username: admin
+
<console>
Password: ****
+
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
Verify password: ****
+
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
 +
Partition number (1-4, default 1): ##i##↵
 +
First sector: ##i##↵
 +
Last sector: ##i##+128M ↵
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Now, we will start our Zope instance:
+
'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
 +
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
$##i## cd instance
+
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
$##i## bin/runzope
+
Partition type (default p): ##i##
 +
Partition number (2-4, default 2): ##i##↵
 +
First sector: ##i##↵
 +
Last sector: ##i##+2G ↵
 +
Command (m for help): ##i##t ↵
 +
Partition number (1,2, default 2): ##i## ↵
 +
Hex code (type L to list all codes): ##i##82 ↵
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Now that Zope is functional, you can go to the <tt>localhost:8080/manage</tt> URL in your web browser: you will be prompted to log in. Enter the username and password you specified. You are now logged in to the ZMI (Zope Management Interface.)
+
'''Create the root partition:'''
  
You can stop your application by pressing Control-C. In the future, you can start and stop your Zope instance using the following commands:
+
<console>
 +
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
 +
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
 +
Partition number (3,4, default 3): ##i##↵
 +
First sector: ##i##↵
 +
Last sector: ##i##↵
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
'''Verify the partition table:'''
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
$##i## zopectl start
+
Command (m for help): ##i##p
$##i## zopectl stop
+
 
 +
Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
 +
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
 +
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
Disklabel type: dos
 +
Disk identifier: 0x82abc9a6
 +
 
 +
Device    Boot    Start      End    Blocks  Id System
 +
/dev/sda1          2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
 +
/dev/sda2        264192  4458495  2097152  82 Linux swap / Solaris
 +
/dev/sda3        4458496 625142447 310341976  83 Linux
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
{{fancynote| <tt>zopectl start</tt> will cause your instance to run in the background rather than consuming a shell console.}}
+
'''Write the parition table to disk:'''
  
== First Project ==
+
<console>
 +
Command (m for help): ##i##w
 +
</console>
  
We will create a single, very primitive Zope package, consisting of an Interface for a TODO class, and a TODO class.
+
Your new MBR partition table will now be written to your system disk.
  
Create the following files and directories relative to your project root:
+
{{Note|You're done with partitioning! Now, jump over to [[#Creating filesystems|Creating filesystems]].}}
  
* Create the directory <tt>lib/python/example</tt>.
+
==== New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method ====
* Create the file <tt>lib/python/example/__init__.py</tt> by typing <tt>touch lib/python/example/__init__.py</tt>.
+
* Create these files:
+
  
=== <tt>example-configure.zcml</tt> ===
+
{{Note|Use this method if you are booting using UEFI, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was black and white. If it was light blue, this method will not work.}}
  
This file registers the <tt>example</tt> directory you created in <tt>lib/python</tt> as a ''package'', so that it is seen by Zope. Edit <code>/etc/package-includes/example-configure.zcml</code>:
+
The <tt>gdisk</tt> commands to create a GPT partition table are as follows. Adapt sizes as necessary, although these defaults will work for most users. Start <code>gdisk</code>:
  
<pre>
+
<console>
<include package="example" />
+
# ##i##gdisk
</pre>
+
</console>
  
=== <tt>interfaces.py</tt> ===
+
Within <tt>gdisk</tt>, follow these steps:
  
The following file defines the <tt>ITODO</tt> interface, and also uses some Zope Schema functions to define what kind of data we expect to store in objects that implement <tt>ITODO</tt>. Edit <code>/lib/python/example/interfaces.py</code> with your favorite text editor:
+
'''Create a new empty partition table''' (This ''will'' erase all data on the disk when saved):
  
<syntaxhighlight lang="python">
+
<console>
from zope.interface import Interface
+
Command: ##i##o ↵
from zope.schema import List, Text, TextLine, Int
+
This option deletes all partitions and creates a new protective MBR.
 +
Proceed? (Y/N): ##i##y ↵
 +
</console>
  
class ITODO(Interface):
+
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
    name = TextLine(title=u'Name', required=True)
+
    todo = List(title=u"TODO Items", required=True, value_type=TextLine(title=u'TODO'))
+
    daysleft = Int(title=u'Days left to complete', required=True)
+
    description = Text(title=u'Description', required=True)
+
</syntaxhighlight>
+
  
=== <tt>TODO.py</tt> ===
+
<console>
 +
Command: ##i##n ↵
 +
Partition Number: ##i##1 ↵
 +
First sector: ##i##↵
 +
Last sector: ##i##+500M ↵
 +
Hex Code: ##i##↵
 +
</console>
  
Now, we define <tt>TODO</tt> to be a ''persistent'' object, meaning it can be stored in the ZODB. We specify that it implements our previously-defined <tt>ITODO</tt> interface, and provide reasonable defaults for all values when we create a new TODO object. Edit <code>/lib/python/example/TODO.py<code> using your favorite text editor:
+
'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
<syntaxhighlight lang="python">
+
from persistent import Persistent
+
from zope.interface import implements
+
from example.interfaces import ITODO
+
  
class TODO(Persistent):
+
<console>
    implements(ITODO)
+
Command: ##i##n ↵
    name = u''
+
Partition Number: ##i##2 ↵
    todo = []
+
First sector: ##i##↵
    daysleft = 0
+
Last sector: ##i##+4G ↵
    description = u''
+
Hex Code: ##i##8200 ↵
</syntaxhighlight>
+
</console>
  
=== <tt>configure.zcml</tt> ===
+
'''Create Partition 3''' (root):
  
Create the <tt>/lib/python/example/configure.zcml</tt> configuration file:
+
<console>
<syntaxhighlight lang="xml">
+
Command: ##i##n ↵
<configure xmlns="http://namespaces.zope.org/zope"
+
Partition Number: ##i##3 ↵
    xmlns:five="http://namespaces.zope.org/five"
+
First sector: ##i##↵
    xmlns:browser="http://namespaces.zope.org/browser">
+
Last sector: ##i##↵##!i## (for rest of disk)
</configure>
+
Hex Code: ##i##↵
</syntaxhighlight>
+
</console>
  
== Debug Mode ==
+
Along the way, you can type "<tt>p</tt>" and hit Enter to view your current partition table. If you make a mistake, you can type "<tt>d</tt>" to delete an existing partition that you created. When you are satisfied with your partition setup, type "<tt>w</tt>" to write your configuration to disk:
 +
 
 +
'''Write Partition Table To Disk''':
  
We can test our first project by entering debug mode:
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
$##i## bin/zopectl debug
+
Command: ##i##w ↵
Starting debugger (the name "app" is bound to the top-level Zope object)
+
Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): ##i##Y ↵
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Now, let's try creating a new TODO object and writing it out to a ZODB database:
+
The partition table will now be written to disk and <tt>gdisk</tt> will close.
 +
 
 +
Now, your GPT/GUID partitions have been created, and will show up as the following ''block devices'' under Linux:
 +
 
 +
* <tt>/dev/sda1</tt>, which will be used to hold the <tt>/boot</tt> filesystem,
 +
* <tt>/dev/sda2</tt>, which will be used for swap space, and  
 +
* <tt>/dev/sda3</tt>, which will hold your root filesystem.
 +
 
 +
==== Creating filesystems ====
 +
 
 +
{{Note|This section covers both BIOS ''and'' UEFI installs. Don't skip it!}}
 +
 
 +
Before your newly-created partitions can be used, the block devices need to be initialized with filesystem ''metadata''. This process is known as ''creating a filesystem'' on the block devices. After filesystems are created on the block devices, they can be mounted and used to store files.
 +
 
 +
Let's keep this simple. Are you using old-school MBR partitions? If so, let's create an ext2 filesystem on /dev/sda1:
 +
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
>>> from ZODB import FileStorage, DB
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
>>> storage = FileStorage.FileStorage('mydatabase.fs')
+
>>> db = DB(storage)
+
>>> connection = db.open()
+
>>> import transaction
+
>>> root = connection.root()
+
>>> from example.TODO import TODO
+
>>> a = TODO
+
>>> a.name = u'My TODOs'
+
>>> a.TODOS = [ u'Do Laundry', u'Wash Dishes' ]
+
>>> a.daysleft = 1
+
>>> a.description = u'Things I need to do today.'
+
>>> root[u'today'] = a
+
>>> transaction.commit()
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
[[Category:HOWTO]]
+
If you're using new-school GPT partitions for UEFI, you'll want to create a vfat filesystem on /dev/sda1, because this is what UEFI is able to read:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Now, let's create a swap partition. This partition will be used as disk-based virtual memory for your Funtoo Linux system.
 +
 
 +
You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, since it is not used to store files. But it is necessary to initialize it using the <code>mkswap</code> command. Then we'll run the <code>swapon</code> command to make your newly-initialized swap space immediately active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##mkswap /dev/sda2
 +
# ##i##swapon /dev/sda2
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Now, we need to create a root filesystem. This is where Funtoo Linux will live. We generally recommend ext4 or XFS root filesystems. If you're not sure, choose ext4. Here's how to create a root ext4 filesystem:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
...and here's how to create an XFS root filesystem, if you choose to use XFS:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##mkfs.xfs /dev/sda3
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Your filesystems (and swap) have all now been initialized, so that that can be mounted (attached to your existing directory heirarchy) and used to store files. We are ready to begin installing Funtoo Linux on these brand-new filesystems.
 +
 
 +
{{fancywarning|1=
 +
When deploying an OpenVZ host, please use ext4 exclusively. The Parallels development team tests extensively with ext4, and modern versions of <code>openvz-rhel6-stable</code> are '''not''' compatible with XFS, and you may experience kernel bugs.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
==== Mounting filesystems ====
 +
 
 +
Mount the newly-created filesystems as follows, creating <code>/mnt/funtoo</code> as the installation mount point:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo
 +
# ##i##mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/funtoo
 +
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
 +
# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Optionally, if you have a separate filesystem for <code>/home</code> or anything else:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/home
 +
# ##i##mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/funtoo/home
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
If you have <code>/tmp</code> or <code>/var/tmp</code> on a separate filesystem, be sure to change the permissions of the mount point to be globally-writeable after mounting, as follows:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##chmod 1777 /mnt/funtoo/tmp
 +
</console>

Revision as of 13:31, January 5, 2015


Note

This is a template that is used as part of the Installation instructions which covers: процесс разбиения диска и создания файловых систем. Templates are being used to allow multiple variant install guides that use most of the same re-usable parts.


Подготовка жесткого диска

В этой части мы научимся различным способам установки Funtoo Linux -- и загрузки с -- жесткий диск.

Введение

В прежние времена существовал лишь один способ загрузить PC-совместимый компьютер. Все наши дектопы и сервера имели стандартный PC BIOS, все наши харды использовали MBR и были разбиты используя схему разбивки MBR. Вот как это все было и нам это нравилось!

Затем появились EFI и UEFI, встроенные программы нового образца наряду со схемой разбивки GPT, поддерживающая диски размером более 2.2TБ. Неожиданно, нам стали доступны различные способы установки и загрузки Линукс систем . То, что было единым методом, стало чем-то более сложным.

Let's take a moment to review the options available to you for configuring a hard drive to boot Funtoo Linux. This Install Guide uses, and recommends, the old-school method of BIOS booting and using an MBR. It works and (except for rare cases) is universally supported. There's nothing wrong with it. If your system disk is 2TB or smaller in size, it won't prevent you from using all of your disk's capacity, either.

But, there are some situations where the old-school method isn't optimal. If you have a system disk >2TB in size, then MBR partitions won't allow you to access all your storage. So that's one reason. Another reason is that there are some so-called "PC" systems out there that don't support BIOS booting anymore, and force you to use UEFI to boot. So, out of compassion for people who fall into this predicament, this Install Guide documents UEFI booting too.

Our recommendation is still to go old-school unless you have reason not to. The boot loader we will be using to load the Linux kernel in this guide is called GRUB, so we call this method the BIOS + GRUB (MBR) method. It's the traditional method of setting up a PC-compatible system to boot Linux.

If you need to use UEFI to boot, we recommend not using the MBR at all for booting, as some systems support this, but others don't. Instead, we recommend using UEFI to boot GRUB, which in turn will load Linux. We refer to this method as the UEFI + GRUB (GPT) method.

And yes, there are even more methods, some of which are documented on the Boot Methods page. We used to recommend a BIOS + GRUB (GPT) method but it is not consistently supported across a wide variety of hardware.

The big question is -- which boot method should you use? Here's how to tell.

Principle 1 - Old School
If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial light blue menu, you are booting the CD using the BIOS, and it's likely that you can thus boot Funtoo Linux using the BIOS. So, go old-school and use BIOS booting, unless you have some reason to use UEFI, such as having a >2.2TB system disk. In that case, see Principle 2, as your system may also support UEFI booting.
Principle 2 - New School
If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial black and white menu -- congratulations, your system is configured to support UEFI booting. This means that you are ready to install Funtoo Linux to boot via UEFI. Your system may still support BIOS booting, but just be trying UEFI first. You can poke around in your BIOS boot configuration and play with this.
What's the Big Difference between Old School and New School?
Here's the deal. If you go with old-school MBR partitions, your /boot partition will be an ext2 filesystem, and you'll use fdisk to create your MBR partitions. If you go with new-school GPT partitions and UEFI booting, your /boot partition will be a vfat filesystem, because this is what UEFI is able to read, and you will use gdisk to create your GPT partitions. And you'll install GRUB a bit differently. That's about all it comes down to, in case you were curious.
Also Note
To install Funtoo Linux to boot via the New School UEFI method, you must boot System Rescue CD using UEFI -- and see an initial black and white screen. Otherwise, UEFI will not be active and you will not be able to set it up!
Note

Some motherboards may appear to support UEFI, but don't. Do your research. For example, the Award BIOS in my Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD7 rev 1.1 has an option to enable UEFI boot for CD/DVD. This is not sufficient for enabling UEFI boot for hard drives and installing Funtoo Linux. UEFI must be supported for both removable media (so you can boot System Rescue CD using UEFI) as well as fixed media (so you can boot your new Funtoo Linux installation.) It turns out that later revisions of this board (rev 3.0) have a new BIOS that fully supports UEFI boot. This may point to a third principle -- know thy hardware.

Old-School (BIOS/MBR) Method

Note

Use this method if you are booting using your BIOS, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was light blue. If you're going to use the new-school method, click here to jump down to UEFI/GPT.

Preparation

First, it's a good idea to make sure that you've found the correct hard disk to partition. Try this command and verify that /dev/sda is the disk that you want to partition:

# fdisk -l /dev/sda

Disk /dev/sda: 640.1 GB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: gpt


#         Start          End    Size  Type            Name
 1         2048   1250263694  596.2G  Linux filesyste Linux filesystem

Now, it's recommended that you erase any existing MBR or GPT partition tables on the disk, which could confuse the system's BIOS at boot time. We do this using sgdisk:

Warning

This will make any existing partitions inaccessible! You are strongly cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.

# sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda

Creating new GPT entries.
GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or
other utilities.

This output is also nothing to worry about, as the command still succeded:

***************************************************************
Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format
in memory. 
***************************************************************
Partitioning

Now we will use fdisk to create the MBR partition table and partitions:

# fdisk /dev/sda

Within fdisk, follow these steps:

Empty the partition table:

Command (m for help): o ↵

Create Partition 1 (boot):

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (1-4, default 1): 
First sector: 
Last sector: +128M ↵

Create Partition 2 (swap):

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (2-4, default 2): 
First sector: 
Last sector: +2G ↵
Command (m for help): t ↵ 
Partition number (1,2, default 2): 
Hex code (type L to list all codes): 82 ↵

Create the root partition:

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (3,4, default 3): 
First sector: 
Last sector: 

Verify the partition table:

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x82abc9a6

Device    Boot     Start       End    Blocks  Id System
/dev/sda1           2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
/dev/sda2         264192   4458495   2097152  82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda3        4458496 625142447 310341976  83 Linux

Write the parition table to disk:

Command (m for help): w

Your new MBR partition table will now be written to your system disk.

Note

You're done with partitioning! Now, jump over to Creating filesystems.

New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method

Note

Use this method if you are booting using UEFI, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was black and white. If it was light blue, this method will not work.

The gdisk commands to create a GPT partition table are as follows. Adapt sizes as necessary, although these defaults will work for most users. Start gdisk:

# gdisk

Within gdisk, follow these steps:

Create a new empty partition table (This will erase all data on the disk when saved):

Command: o ↵
This option deletes all partitions and creates a new protective MBR.
Proceed? (Y/N): y ↵

Create Partition 1 (boot):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 1 ↵
First sector: 
Last sector: +500M ↵
Hex Code: 

Create Partition 2 (swap):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 2 ↵
First sector: 
Last sector: +4G ↵
Hex Code: 8200 ↵

Create Partition 3 (root):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 3 ↵
First sector: 
Last sector:  (for rest of disk)
Hex Code: 

Along the way, you can type "p" and hit Enter to view your current partition table. If you make a mistake, you can type "d" to delete an existing partition that you created. When you are satisfied with your partition setup, type "w" to write your configuration to disk:

Write Partition Table To Disk:

Command: w ↵
Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): Y ↵

The partition table will now be written to disk and gdisk will close.

Now, your GPT/GUID partitions have been created, and will show up as the following block devices under Linux:

  • /dev/sda1, which will be used to hold the /boot filesystem,
  • /dev/sda2, which will be used for swap space, and
  • /dev/sda3, which will hold your root filesystem.

Creating filesystems

Note

This section covers both BIOS and UEFI installs. Don't skip it!

Before your newly-created partitions can be used, the block devices need to be initialized with filesystem metadata. This process is known as creating a filesystem on the block devices. After filesystems are created on the block devices, they can be mounted and used to store files.

Let's keep this simple. Are you using old-school MBR partitions? If so, let's create an ext2 filesystem on /dev/sda1:

# mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1

If you're using new-school GPT partitions for UEFI, you'll want to create a vfat filesystem on /dev/sda1, because this is what UEFI is able to read:

# mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1

Now, let's create a swap partition. This partition will be used as disk-based virtual memory for your Funtoo Linux system.

You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, since it is not used to store files. But it is necessary to initialize it using the mkswap command. Then we'll run the swapon command to make your newly-initialized swap space immediately active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process:

# mkswap /dev/sda2
# swapon /dev/sda2

Now, we need to create a root filesystem. This is where Funtoo Linux will live. We generally recommend ext4 or XFS root filesystems. If you're not sure, choose ext4. Here's how to create a root ext4 filesystem:

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3

...and here's how to create an XFS root filesystem, if you choose to use XFS:

# mkfs.xfs /dev/sda3

Your filesystems (and swap) have all now been initialized, so that that can be mounted (attached to your existing directory heirarchy) and used to store files. We are ready to begin installing Funtoo Linux on these brand-new filesystems.

Warning

When deploying an OpenVZ host, please use ext4 exclusively. The Parallels development team tests extensively with ext4, and modern versions of openvz-rhel6-stable are not compatible with XFS, and you may experience kernel bugs.

Mounting filesystems

Mount the newly-created filesystems as follows, creating /mnt/funtoo as the installation mount point:

# mkdir /mnt/funtoo
# mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/funtoo
# mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot

Optionally, if you have a separate filesystem for /home or anything else:

# mkdir /mnt/funtoo/home
# mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/funtoo/home

If you have /tmp or /var/tmp on a separate filesystem, be sure to change the permissions of the mount point to be globally-writeable after mounting, as follows:

# chmod 1777 /mnt/funtoo/tmp