Difference between pages "OpenStack Architecture" and "Install/ru/Partitioning"

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(Введение)
 
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This page exists to document [http://www.openstack.org OpenStack] configuration.
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<noinclude>
 +
{{InstallPart|процесс разбиения диска и создания файловых систем}}
 +
</noinclude>
 +
=== Подготовка жесткого диска ===
  
Note that the current approach is to use devstack, which is not a good way to learn OpenStack. So much of this document will be about doing a devstack-like configuration for Funtoo.
+
В этой части  мы научимся различным способам установки Funtoo Linux -- и загрузки с -- жесткий диск.
  
This document will split OpenStack configuration into each architectural component, describing configuration steps for each component separately.
+
==== Введение ====
  
== SQL Database ==
+
В прежние времена существовал лишь один способ загрузить PC-совместимый компьютер. Все наши дектопы и сервера имели стандартный PC BIOS, все наши харды использовали MBR и были разбиты используя схему разбивки MBR.  Вот как это все было и нам это нравилось!
  
A number of OpenStack services use a SQL back-end for storing various bits of data.
+
Затем появились EFI и UEFI,  встроенные программы нового образца наряду со схемой разбивки GPT, поддерживающая диски размером более 2.2TБ. Неожиданно, нам стали доступны различные способы установки и загрузки Линукс систем . То, что было единым методом, стало чем-то более сложным.
  
While DevStack uses MySQL for its SQL deployment, multiple database back-ends are actually supported thanks to [http://sqlalchemy.org SQLAlchemy] being used behind the scenes, which is a re-targetable Python database API. Thus, it should be possible to use Postgres, etc, by simply using different connection strings. A list of SQLAlchemy connection types can be found on [http://docs.sqlalchemy.org/en/latest/core/engines.html this SQLAlchemy documentation page.]
+
Let's take a moment to review the options available to you for configuring a hard drive to boot Funtoo Linux. This Install Guide uses, and recommends, the old-school method of BIOS booting and using an MBR. It works and (except for rare cases) is universally supported. There's nothing wrong with it. If your system disk is 2TB or smaller in size, it won't prevent you from using all of your disk's capacity, either.
  
Using a single root database user account for all services is not a good policy for production deployment. Ideally, each service should have its own restricted user account with only the ability to access its own database.
+
But, there are some situations where the old-school method isn't optimal. If you have a system disk >2TB in size, then MBR partitions won't allow you to access all your storage. So that's one reason. Another reason is that there are some so-called "PC" systems out there that don't support BIOS booting anymore, and force you to use UEFI to boot. So, out of compassion for people who fall into this predicament, this Install Guide documents UEFI booting too.
  
Let's look at how each service is configured in regards to SQL:
+
Our recommendation is still to go old-school unless you have reason not to. The boot loader we will be using to load the Linux kernel in this guide is called GRUB, so we call this method the '''BIOS + GRUB (MBR)''' method. It's the traditional method of setting up a PC-compatible system to boot Linux.
  
=== nova ===
+
If you need to use UEFI to boot, we recommend not using the MBR at all for booting, as some systems support this, but others don't. Instead, we recommend using UEFI to boot GRUB, which in turn will load Linux. We refer to this method as the '''UEFI + GRUB (GPT)''' method.
  
Here's how to set up a MySQL database back-end for nova and tell nova to initialize its database tables:
+
And yes, there are even more methods, some of which are documented on the [[Boot Methods]] page. We used to recommend a '''BIOS + GRUB (GPT)''' method but it is not consistently supported across a wide variety of hardware.
 +
 
 +
'''The big question is -- which boot method should you use?''' Here's how to tell.
 +
 
 +
;Principle 1 - Old School: If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial light blue menu, you are booting the CD using the BIOS, and it's likely that you can thus boot Funtoo Linux using the BIOS. So, go old-school and use BIOS booting, ''unless'' you have some reason to use UEFI, such as having a >2.2TB system disk. In that case, see Principle 2, as your system may also support UEFI booting.
 +
 
 +
;Principle 2 - New School: If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial black and white menu -- congratulations, your system is configured to support UEFI booting. This means that you are ready to install Funtoo Linux to boot via UEFI. Your system may still support BIOS booting, but just be trying UEFI first. You can poke around in your BIOS boot configuration and play with this.
 +
 
 +
;What's the Big Difference between Old School and New School?: Here's the deal. If you go with old-school MBR partitions, your <code>/boot</code> partition will be an ext2 filesystem, and you'll use <code>fdisk</code> to create your MBR partitions. If you go with new-school GPT partitions and UEFI booting, your <code>/boot</code> partition will be a vfat filesystem, because this is what UEFI is able to read, and you will use <code>gdisk</code> to create your GPT partitions. And you'll install GRUB a bit differently. That's about all it comes down to, in case you were curious.
 +
 
 +
;Also Note: To install Funtoo Linux to boot via the New School UEFI method, you must boot System Rescue CD using UEFI -- and see an initial black and white screen. Otherwise, UEFI will not be active and you will not be able to set it up!
 +
 
 +
{{Note|'''Some motherboards may appear to support UEFI, but don't.''' Do your research. For example, the Award BIOS in my Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD7 rev 1.1 has an option to enable UEFI boot for CD/DVD. '''This is not sufficient for enabling UEFI boot for hard drives and installing Funtoo Linux.''' UEFI must be supported for both removable media (so you can boot System Rescue CD using UEFI) as well as fixed media (so you can boot your new Funtoo Linux installation.) It turns out that later revisions of this board (rev 3.0) have a new BIOS that fully supports UEFI boot.  This may point to a third principle -- know thy hardware.}}
 +
 
 +
==== Old-School (BIOS/MBR) Method ====
 +
 
 +
{{Note|Use this method if you are booting using your BIOS, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was light blue. If you're going to use the new-school method, [[#New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method|click here to jump down to UEFI/GPT.]]}}
 +
 
 +
===== Preparation =====
 +
 
 +
First, it's a good idea to make sure that you've found the correct hard disk to partition. Try this command and verify that <code>/dev/sda</code> is the disk that you want to partition:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
mysql> ##i##create database nova character set latin1;
+
# ##i##fdisk -l /dev/sda
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.02 sec)
+
  
mysql> ##i##grant all privileges on nova.* to nova@localhost identified by 'foobar';
+
Disk /dev/sda: 640.1 GB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
+
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
 +
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
Disk label type: gpt
 +
 
 +
 
 +
#        Start          End    Size  Type            Name
 +
1        2048  1250263694  596.2G  Linux filesyste Linux filesystem
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Now set the following connection string in <tt>/etc/nova/nova.conf</tt>:
+
Now, it's recommended that you erase any existing MBR or GPT partition tables on the disk, which could confuse the system's BIOS at boot time. We do this using <code>sgdisk</code>:
 +
{{fancywarning|This will make any existing partitions inaccessible! You are '''strongly''' cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.}}
  
<pre>
+
<console>
--sql_connection=mysql://nova:foobar@localhost/nova
+
# ##i##sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda
</pre>
+
  
Note the use of the latin1 character set when we created the tables in MySQL. This is so the following command will not cause an error due to the default UTF-8 character set creating indexes that are too big for MySQL to handle:
+
Creating new GPT entries.
 +
GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or
 +
other utilities.
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
This output is also nothing to worry about, as the command still succeded:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##nova-manage db sync
+
***************************************************************
2012-03-02 21:31:14 DEBUG nova.utils [-] backend <module 'nova.db.sqlalchemy.migration' from '/usr/lib64/python2.7/site-packages/nova/db/sqlalchemy/migration.pyc'> from (pid=17779) __get_b
+
Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format
ackend /usr/lib64/python2.7/site-packages/nova/utils.py:602
+
in memory.  
 +
***************************************************************
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
After running the command above, you should now have all the relevant database tables created:
+
===== Partitioning =====
 +
 
 +
Now we will use <code>fdisk</code> to create the MBR partition table and partitions:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
xdev var # ##i##mysql -u root -p nova
+
# ##i##fdisk /dev/sda
Enter password:
+
</console>
Reading table information for completion of table and column names
+
You can turn off this feature to get a quicker startup with -A
+
  
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
+
Within <code>fdisk</code>, follow these steps:
Your MySQL connection id is 16
+
Server version: 5.1.61-log Gentoo Linux mysql-5.1.61
+
  
Copyright (c) 2000, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+
'''Empty the partition table''':
  
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
+
<console>
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
+
Command (m for help): ##i##o ↵
owners.
+
</console>
  
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
+
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
  
mysql> ##i##show tables;
+
<console>
+-------------------------------------+
+
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
| Tables_in_nova                      |
+
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
+-------------------------------------+
+
Partition number (1-4, default 1): ##i##↵
| agent_builds                        |
+
First sector: ##i##↵
| aggregate_hosts                    |
+
Last sector: ##i##+128M ↵
| aggregate_metadata                  |
+
| aggregates                          |
+
| auth_tokens                        |
+
| block_device_mapping                |
+
| bw_usage_cache                      |
+
| certificates                        |
+
| compute_nodes                      |
+
| console_pools                      |
+
...
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
You have now validated that nova is connecting to your MySQL database correctly.
+
'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
  
=== glance ===
+
<console>
 +
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
 +
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
 +
Partition number (2-4, default 2): ##i##↵
 +
First sector: ##i##↵
 +
Last sector: ##i##+2G ↵
 +
Command (m for help): ##i##t ↵
 +
Partition number (1,2, default 2): ##i## ↵
 +
Hex code (type L to list all codes): ##i##82 ↵
 +
</console>
  
From glance.openstack.org:
+
'''Create the root partition:'''
  
<blockquote>The Glance project provides services for discovering, registering, and retrieving virtual machine images. Glance has a RESTful API that allows querying of VM image metadata as well as retrieval of the actual image.</blockquote>
+
<console>
 +
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
 +
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
 +
Partition number (3,4, default 3): ##i##↵
 +
First sector: ##i##↵
 +
Last sector: ##i##↵
 +
</console>
  
Glance typically uses a MySQL database called <tt>glance</tt>, although the name is configurable in the connection string.
+
'''Verify the partition table:'''
  
SQL connection settings might be stored in a glance configuration file located at <tt>/opt/stack/glance/etc/glance-registry.conf</tt>. In the devstack installation process, <tt>/opt/stack/glance</tt> contains a git checkout of the glance software.
+
<console>
 +
Command (m for help): ##i##p
  
The SQL connection configuration string might look something like this:
+
Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
 +
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
 +
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
Disklabel type: dos
 +
Disk identifier: 0x82abc9a6
  
<pre>
+
Device    Boot    Start      End    Blocks  Id System
sql_connection = mysql://glance:yourpassword@192.168.206.130/glance
+
/dev/sda1          2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
</pre>
+
/dev/sda2        264192  4458495  2097152  82 Linux swap / Solaris
 +
/dev/sda3        4458496 625142447 310341976  83 Linux
 +
</console>
  
More info on glance configuration is available [http://docs.openstack.org/diablo/openstack-compute/install/content/glance-registry-conf-file.html here].
+
'''Write the parition table to disk:'''
  
=== keystone ===
+
<console>
 +
Command (m for help): ##i##w
 +
</console>
  
Keystone, the OpenStack identity service, also uses SQL. <tt>etc/keystone.conf</tt> keystone install/git repo directory is used to store the SQL configuration:
+
Your new MBR partition table will now be written to your system disk.
  
<pre>
+
{{Note|You're done with partitioning! Now, jump over to [[#Creating filesystems|Creating filesystems]].}}
sql_connection = %SQL_CONN%
+
</pre>
+
  
As everything else, the SQL connection string uses SQLAlchemy syntax.
+
==== New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method ====
  
=== Quantum and Open VSwitch ===
+
{{Note|Use this method if you are booting using UEFI, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was black and white. If it was light blue, this method will not work.}}
  
<blockquote>Quantum is an incubated OpenStack project to provide "network connectivity as a service" between interface devices (e.g., vNICs) managed by other Openstack services (e.g., nova).</blockquote>
+
The <tt>gdisk</tt> commands to create a GPT partition table are as follows. Adapt sizes as necessary, although these defaults will work for most users. Start <code>gdisk</code>:
  
[http://openvswitch.org Open VSwitch] is described as:
+
<console>
 +
# ##i##gdisk
 +
</console>
  
<blockquote>Open vSwitch is a production quality, multilayer virtual switch licensed under the open source Apache 2.0 license. It is designed to enable massive network automation through programmatic extension, while still supporting standard management interfaces and protocols (e.g. NetFlow, sFlow, SPAN, RSPAN, CLI, LACP, 802.1ag). In addition, it is designed to support distribution across multiple physical servers similar to VMware's vNetwork distributed vswitch or Cisco's Nexus 1000V. </blockquote>
+
Within <tt>gdisk</tt>, follow these steps:
  
There is an [http://openvswitch.org/openstack/documentation/ Open VSwitch Plug-in for OpenStack Quantum] which can be set up by DevStack. This plug-in uses SQL storage. The SQLAlchemy connection string is stored in (relative to git/install root) <tt>etc/quantum/plugins/openvswitch/ovs_quantum_plugin.ini</tt>. Similarly to everything but nova, the SQL connection string is stored in <tt>sql_connection =</tt> format.
+
'''Create a new empty partition table''' (This ''will'' erase all data on the disk when saved):
  
If the plugin is enabled, the following settings are added to nova.conf:
+
<console>
 +
Command: ##i##o ↵
 +
This option deletes all partitions and creates a new protective MBR.
 +
Proceed? (Y/N): ##i##y ↵
 +
</console>
  
<pre>
+
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
--libvirt_vif_type=ethernet
+
--libvirt_vif_driver=nova.virt.libvirt.vif.LibvirtOpenVswitchDriver
+
--linuxnet_interface_driver=nova.network.linux_net.LinuxOVSInterfaceDriver
+
--quantum_use_dhcp
+
</pre>
+
  
=== Melange ===
+
<console>
 +
Command: ##i##n ↵
 +
Partition Number: ##i##1 ↵
 +
First sector: ##i##↵
 +
Last sector: ##i##+500M ↵
 +
Hex Code: ##i##↵
 +
</console>
  
From the Melange site:
+
'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
  
<blockquote>
+
<console>
Melange is intended to provide network information services for use across OpenStack services. The initial focus will be on IP address management (IPAM) and address discovery (DHCP/dnsmasq) functionality. Melange is intended to be a standalone service with it's own API. However, the initial use case will be to decouple existing IP management and VM address discovery from Nova and support the existing Nova networking capabilities.
+
Command: ##i##n ↵
</blockquote>
+
Partition Number: ##i##2 ↵
 +
First sector: ##i##↵
 +
Last sector: ##i##+4G ↵
 +
Hex Code: ##i##8200 ↵
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
'''Create Partition 3''' (root):
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
Command: ##i##n ↵
 +
Partition Number: ##i##3 ↵
 +
First sector: ##i##↵
 +
Last sector: ##i##↵##!i## (for rest of disk)
 +
Hex Code: ##i##↵
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Along the way, you can type "<tt>p</tt>" and hit Enter to view your current partition table. If you make a mistake, you can type "<tt>d</tt>" to delete an existing partition that you created. When you are satisfied with your partition setup, type "<tt>w</tt>" to write your configuration to disk:
 +
 
 +
'''Write Partition Table To Disk''':
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
Command: ##i##w ↵
 +
Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): ##i##Y ↵
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
The partition table will now be written to disk and <tt>gdisk</tt> will close.
 +
 
 +
Now, your GPT/GUID partitions have been created, and will show up as the following ''block devices'' under Linux:
  
Melange also uses a <tt>sql_connection =</tt> string stored in its <tt>etc/melange/melange.conf</tt> (relative to install/git root).
+
* <tt>/dev/sda1</tt>, which will be used to hold the <tt>/boot</tt> filesystem,
 +
* <tt>/dev/sda2</tt>, which will be used for swap space, and
 +
* <tt>/dev/sda3</tt>, which will hold your root filesystem.
  
== RabbitMQ ==
+
==== Creating filesystems ====
  
RabbitMQ  is a reliable messaging framework used by OpenStack. Currently, it looks like only nova uses it. Nova is configured to connect to rabbitmq by setting the following lines in <tt>/etc/nova/nova.conf</tt>:
+
{{Note|This section covers both BIOS ''and'' UEFI installs. Don't skip it!}}
  
<pre>
+
Before your newly-created partitions can be used, the block devices need to be initialized with filesystem ''metadata''. This process is known as ''creating a filesystem'' on the block devices. After filesystems are created on the block devices, they can be mounted and used to store files.
--rabbit_host=$RABBIT_HOST
+
--rabbit_password=$RABBIT_PASSWORD
+
</pre>
+
  
Rabbit's password is configured using the following command, as root:
+
Let's keep this simple. Are you using old-school MBR partitions? If so, let's create an ext2 filesystem on /dev/sda1:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##rabbitmqctl change_password guest $RABBIT_PASSWORD
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
I am not yet completely sure how RabbitMQ fits into the OpenStack architecture. It may be that the supporting services expect it to be running locally, and that Nova compute nodes need to hook into a Nova instance, which would typically be running remotely. (Thus the ability for DevStack to target a remote RabbitMQ host.)
+
If you're using new-school GPT partitions for UEFI, you'll want to create a vfat filesystem on /dev/sda1, because this is what UEFI is able to read:
  
== Virtualization Technology ==
+
<console>
 +
# ##i##mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1
 +
</console>
  
DevStack defaults to configuring OpenStack to use libvirt with [[KVM]], and will fall back to basic [[QEMU]] support if the <tt>kvm</tt> kernel module is not available. It also has support for using libvirt with [[LXC]], in addition to using [[Xen]] Server directly (bypassing libvirt.)
+
Now, let's create a swap partition. This partition will be used as disk-based virtual memory for your Funtoo Linux system.
  
 +
You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, since it is not used to store files. But it is necessary to initialize it using the <code>mkswap</code> command. Then we'll run the <code>swapon</code> command to make your newly-initialized swap space immediately active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process:
  
[[Category:Virtualization]]
+
<console>
[[Category:OpenStack]]
+
# ##i##mkswap /dev/sda2
 +
# ##i##swapon /dev/sda2
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Now, we need to create a root filesystem. This is where Funtoo Linux will live. We generally recommend ext4 or XFS root filesystems. If you're not sure, choose ext4. Here's how to create a root ext4 filesystem:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
...and here's how to create an XFS root filesystem, if you choose to use XFS:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##mkfs.xfs /dev/sda3
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Your filesystems (and swap) have all now been initialized, so that that can be mounted (attached to your existing directory heirarchy) and used to store files. We are ready to begin installing Funtoo Linux on these brand-new filesystems.
 +
 
 +
{{fancywarning|1=
 +
When deploying an OpenVZ host, please use ext4 exclusively. The Parallels development team tests extensively with ext4, and modern versions of <code>openvz-rhel6-stable</code> are '''not''' compatible with XFS, and you may experience kernel bugs.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
==== Mounting filesystems ====
 +
 
 +
Mount the newly-created filesystems as follows, creating <code>/mnt/funtoo</code> as the installation mount point:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo
 +
# ##i##mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/funtoo
 +
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
 +
# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Optionally, if you have a separate filesystem for <code>/home</code> or anything else:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/home
 +
# ##i##mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/funtoo/home
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
If you have <code>/tmp</code> or <code>/var/tmp</code> on a separate filesystem, be sure to change the permissions of the mount point to be globally-writeable after mounting, as follows:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##chmod 1777 /mnt/funtoo/tmp
 +
</console>

Revision as of 13:31, January 5, 2015


Note

This is a template that is used as part of the Installation instructions which covers: процесс разбиения диска и создания файловых систем. Templates are being used to allow multiple variant install guides that use most of the same re-usable parts.


Подготовка жесткого диска

В этой части мы научимся различным способам установки Funtoo Linux -- и загрузки с -- жесткий диск.

Введение

В прежние времена существовал лишь один способ загрузить PC-совместимый компьютер. Все наши дектопы и сервера имели стандартный PC BIOS, все наши харды использовали MBR и были разбиты используя схему разбивки MBR. Вот как это все было и нам это нравилось!

Затем появились EFI и UEFI, встроенные программы нового образца наряду со схемой разбивки GPT, поддерживающая диски размером более 2.2TБ. Неожиданно, нам стали доступны различные способы установки и загрузки Линукс систем . То, что было единым методом, стало чем-то более сложным.

Let's take a moment to review the options available to you for configuring a hard drive to boot Funtoo Linux. This Install Guide uses, and recommends, the old-school method of BIOS booting and using an MBR. It works and (except for rare cases) is universally supported. There's nothing wrong with it. If your system disk is 2TB or smaller in size, it won't prevent you from using all of your disk's capacity, either.

But, there are some situations where the old-school method isn't optimal. If you have a system disk >2TB in size, then MBR partitions won't allow you to access all your storage. So that's one reason. Another reason is that there are some so-called "PC" systems out there that don't support BIOS booting anymore, and force you to use UEFI to boot. So, out of compassion for people who fall into this predicament, this Install Guide documents UEFI booting too.

Our recommendation is still to go old-school unless you have reason not to. The boot loader we will be using to load the Linux kernel in this guide is called GRUB, so we call this method the BIOS + GRUB (MBR) method. It's the traditional method of setting up a PC-compatible system to boot Linux.

If you need to use UEFI to boot, we recommend not using the MBR at all for booting, as some systems support this, but others don't. Instead, we recommend using UEFI to boot GRUB, which in turn will load Linux. We refer to this method as the UEFI + GRUB (GPT) method.

And yes, there are even more methods, some of which are documented on the Boot Methods page. We used to recommend a BIOS + GRUB (GPT) method but it is not consistently supported across a wide variety of hardware.

The big question is -- which boot method should you use? Here's how to tell.

Principle 1 - Old School
If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial light blue menu, you are booting the CD using the BIOS, and it's likely that you can thus boot Funtoo Linux using the BIOS. So, go old-school and use BIOS booting, unless you have some reason to use UEFI, such as having a >2.2TB system disk. In that case, see Principle 2, as your system may also support UEFI booting.
Principle 2 - New School
If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial black and white menu -- congratulations, your system is configured to support UEFI booting. This means that you are ready to install Funtoo Linux to boot via UEFI. Your system may still support BIOS booting, but just be trying UEFI first. You can poke around in your BIOS boot configuration and play with this.
What's the Big Difference between Old School and New School?
Here's the deal. If you go with old-school MBR partitions, your /boot partition will be an ext2 filesystem, and you'll use fdisk to create your MBR partitions. If you go with new-school GPT partitions and UEFI booting, your /boot partition will be a vfat filesystem, because this is what UEFI is able to read, and you will use gdisk to create your GPT partitions. And you'll install GRUB a bit differently. That's about all it comes down to, in case you were curious.
Also Note
To install Funtoo Linux to boot via the New School UEFI method, you must boot System Rescue CD using UEFI -- and see an initial black and white screen. Otherwise, UEFI will not be active and you will not be able to set it up!
Note

Some motherboards may appear to support UEFI, but don't. Do your research. For example, the Award BIOS in my Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD7 rev 1.1 has an option to enable UEFI boot for CD/DVD. This is not sufficient for enabling UEFI boot for hard drives and installing Funtoo Linux. UEFI must be supported for both removable media (so you can boot System Rescue CD using UEFI) as well as fixed media (so you can boot your new Funtoo Linux installation.) It turns out that later revisions of this board (rev 3.0) have a new BIOS that fully supports UEFI boot. This may point to a third principle -- know thy hardware.

Old-School (BIOS/MBR) Method

Note

Use this method if you are booting using your BIOS, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was light blue. If you're going to use the new-school method, click here to jump down to UEFI/GPT.

Preparation

First, it's a good idea to make sure that you've found the correct hard disk to partition. Try this command and verify that /dev/sda is the disk that you want to partition:

# fdisk -l /dev/sda

Disk /dev/sda: 640.1 GB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: gpt


#         Start          End    Size  Type            Name
 1         2048   1250263694  596.2G  Linux filesyste Linux filesystem

Now, it's recommended that you erase any existing MBR or GPT partition tables on the disk, which could confuse the system's BIOS at boot time. We do this using sgdisk:

Warning

This will make any existing partitions inaccessible! You are strongly cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.

# sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda

Creating new GPT entries.
GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or
other utilities.

This output is also nothing to worry about, as the command still succeded:

***************************************************************
Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format
in memory. 
***************************************************************
Partitioning

Now we will use fdisk to create the MBR partition table and partitions:

# fdisk /dev/sda

Within fdisk, follow these steps:

Empty the partition table:

Command (m for help): o ↵

Create Partition 1 (boot):

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (1-4, default 1): 
First sector: 
Last sector: +128M ↵

Create Partition 2 (swap):

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (2-4, default 2): 
First sector: 
Last sector: +2G ↵
Command (m for help): t ↵ 
Partition number (1,2, default 2): 
Hex code (type L to list all codes): 82 ↵

Create the root partition:

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (3,4, default 3): 
First sector: 
Last sector: 

Verify the partition table:

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x82abc9a6

Device    Boot     Start       End    Blocks  Id System
/dev/sda1           2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
/dev/sda2         264192   4458495   2097152  82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda3        4458496 625142447 310341976  83 Linux

Write the parition table to disk:

Command (m for help): w

Your new MBR partition table will now be written to your system disk.

Note

You're done with partitioning! Now, jump over to Creating filesystems.

New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method

Note

Use this method if you are booting using UEFI, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was black and white. If it was light blue, this method will not work.

The gdisk commands to create a GPT partition table are as follows. Adapt sizes as necessary, although these defaults will work for most users. Start gdisk:

# gdisk

Within gdisk, follow these steps:

Create a new empty partition table (This will erase all data on the disk when saved):

Command: o ↵
This option deletes all partitions and creates a new protective MBR.
Proceed? (Y/N): y ↵

Create Partition 1 (boot):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 1 ↵
First sector: 
Last sector: +500M ↵
Hex Code: 

Create Partition 2 (swap):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 2 ↵
First sector: 
Last sector: +4G ↵
Hex Code: 8200 ↵

Create Partition 3 (root):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 3 ↵
First sector: 
Last sector:  (for rest of disk)
Hex Code: 

Along the way, you can type "p" and hit Enter to view your current partition table. If you make a mistake, you can type "d" to delete an existing partition that you created. When you are satisfied with your partition setup, type "w" to write your configuration to disk:

Write Partition Table To Disk:

Command: w ↵
Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): Y ↵

The partition table will now be written to disk and gdisk will close.

Now, your GPT/GUID partitions have been created, and will show up as the following block devices under Linux:

  • /dev/sda1, which will be used to hold the /boot filesystem,
  • /dev/sda2, which will be used for swap space, and
  • /dev/sda3, which will hold your root filesystem.

Creating filesystems

Note

This section covers both BIOS and UEFI installs. Don't skip it!

Before your newly-created partitions can be used, the block devices need to be initialized with filesystem metadata. This process is known as creating a filesystem on the block devices. After filesystems are created on the block devices, they can be mounted and used to store files.

Let's keep this simple. Are you using old-school MBR partitions? If so, let's create an ext2 filesystem on /dev/sda1:

# mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1

If you're using new-school GPT partitions for UEFI, you'll want to create a vfat filesystem on /dev/sda1, because this is what UEFI is able to read:

# mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1

Now, let's create a swap partition. This partition will be used as disk-based virtual memory for your Funtoo Linux system.

You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, since it is not used to store files. But it is necessary to initialize it using the mkswap command. Then we'll run the swapon command to make your newly-initialized swap space immediately active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process:

# mkswap /dev/sda2
# swapon /dev/sda2

Now, we need to create a root filesystem. This is where Funtoo Linux will live. We generally recommend ext4 or XFS root filesystems. If you're not sure, choose ext4. Here's how to create a root ext4 filesystem:

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3

...and here's how to create an XFS root filesystem, if you choose to use XFS:

# mkfs.xfs /dev/sda3

Your filesystems (and swap) have all now been initialized, so that that can be mounted (attached to your existing directory heirarchy) and used to store files. We are ready to begin installing Funtoo Linux on these brand-new filesystems.

Warning

When deploying an OpenVZ host, please use ext4 exclusively. The Parallels development team tests extensively with ext4, and modern versions of openvz-rhel6-stable are not compatible with XFS, and you may experience kernel bugs.

Mounting filesystems

Mount the newly-created filesystems as follows, creating /mnt/funtoo as the installation mount point:

# mkdir /mnt/funtoo
# mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/funtoo
# mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot

Optionally, if you have a separate filesystem for /home or anything else:

# mkdir /mnt/funtoo/home
# mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/funtoo/home

If you have /tmp or /var/tmp on a separate filesystem, be sure to change the permissions of the mount point to be globally-writeable after mounting, as follows:

# chmod 1777 /mnt/funtoo/tmp