Difference between pages "Help:Funtoo Editing Guidelines" and "Install/ru/Partitioning"

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'''Thanks for your interest in contributing to the the Funtoo wiki!'''
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<noinclude>
__NOTOC__
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{{InstallPart|процесс разбиения диска и создания файловых систем}}
=== Types of Edits ===
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</noinclude>
 +
=== Подготовка жесткого диска ===
  
Before we get started, let's review what changes are okay to make, and what changes are not okay:
+
В этой части  мы научимся различным способам установки Funtoo Linux -- и загрузки с -- жесткий диск.
  
{{TableStart}}
+
==== Введение ====
<tr class="active"><th>Type of Change</th><th>Okay?</th></tr>
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<tr><td>Grammar/spelling fixes</td><td>Yes</td></tr>
+
<tr><td>New wiki content</td><td>Yes</td></tr>
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<tr><td>New package information</td><td>Yes</td></tr>
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<tr><td>Adding to existing article</td><td>Maybe -- see below</td></tr>
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<tr><td>Adding missing/incomplete information</td><td>Yes</td></tr>
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<tr><td>Making corrections</td><td>Yes</td></tr>
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<tr class="danger"><td>Adding work-arounds to problems experienced</td><td>No - open bug first on [http://bugs.funtoo.org bug tracker].</td></tr>
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{{TableEnd}}
+
  
{{important|Note that if you experience some problem with Funtoo Linux, during installation or otherwise, the proper course of action is to not add a work-around to our documentation, but to ''open a bug on our bug tracker.'' This is important because the problem you experienced may be a legitimate bug and the solution may be to fix the bug rather than add a work-around to our documentation. We may end up fixing a bug, making a documentation fix, or possibly both.}}
+
В прежние времена существовал лишь один способ загрузить PC-совместимый компьютер. Все наши дектопы и сервера имели стандартный PC BIOS, все наши харды использовали MBR и были разбиты используя схему разбивки MBR. Вот как это все было и нам это нравилось!
  
=== Basics ===
+
Затем появились EFI и UEFI,  встроенные программы нового образца наряду со схемой разбивки GPT, поддерживающая диски размером более 2.2TБ. Неожиданно, нам стали доступны различные способы установки и загрузки Линукс систем . То, что было единым методом, стало чем-то более сложным.
  
Here is a list of basic wiki information that you will need to know to get started:
+
Let's take a moment to review the options available to you for configuring a hard drive to boot Funtoo Linux. This Install Guide uses, and recommends, the old-school method of BIOS booting and using an MBR. It works and (except for rare cases) is universally supported. There's nothing wrong with it. If your system disk is 2TB or smaller in size, it won't prevent you from using all of your disk's capacity, either.
  
* First, to perform edits on the wiki, you must {{CreateAccount}} and log in.
+
But, there are some situations where the old-school method isn't optimal. If you have a system disk >2TB in size, then MBR partitions won't allow you to access all your storage. So that's one reason. Another reason is that there are some so-called "PC" systems out there that don't support BIOS booting anymore, and force you to use UEFI to boot. So, out of compassion for people who fall into this predicament, this Install Guide documents UEFI booting too.
* You can create a new page by navigating to http://www.funtoo.org/New_Page_Name. Underscores are the equivalent of spaces. Then select "Create" under the "Actions" menu.
+
* Whether creating a new page or editing an existing page by clicking "Edit", you will be presented with Web-based text editor that allows you to modify the ''wikitext'' of the page. The wikitext is rendered to produce the document you see when you view the page normally.
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* Another fun thing you can do is click on your name under the "Account" menu once you have logged in. This will bring you to your "User" page. Then click "Create with Form" unde the "Actions" menu and enter your geographic and other information. This will allow you to be displayed on our [[Usermap]] and will also allow your full name to be displayed on [[:Category:Ebuilds|Ebuild pages]] for which you are an author. It's generally a good idea to do this.
+
  
{{tip|The following sections document how to use wikitext and Funtoo templates on the Funtoo wiki.}}
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Our recommendation is still to go old-school unless you have reason not to. The boot loader we will be using to load the Linux kernel in this guide is called GRUB, so we call this method the '''BIOS + GRUB (MBR)''' method. It's the traditional method of setting up a PC-compatible system to boot Linux.
  
=== Paragraphs ===
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If you need to use UEFI to boot, we recommend not using the MBR at all for booting, as some systems support this, but others don't. Instead, we recommend using UEFI to boot GRUB, which in turn will load Linux. We refer to this method as the '''UEFI + GRUB (GPT)''' method.
  
To create a new paragraph, insert a blank line between two lines of text. If a blank line doesn't exist between two lines of wikitext, they will be combined into a single flowing paragraph.
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And yes, there are even more methods, some of which are documented on the [[Boot Methods]] page. We used to recommend a '''BIOS + GRUB (GPT)''' method but it is not consistently supported across a wide variety of hardware.
  
If you leave leading whitespace at the beginning of a line, MediaWiki will render it as pre-formatted text. Beware of this. Here's an example:
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'''The big question is -- which boot method should you use?''' Here's how to tell.
  
foobar
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;Principle 1 - Old School: If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial light blue menu, you are booting the CD using the BIOS, and it's likely that you can thus boot Funtoo Linux using the BIOS. So, go old-school and use BIOS booting, ''unless'' you have some reason to use UEFI, such as having a >2.2TB system disk. In that case, see Principle 2, as your system may also support UEFI booting.
  
This can rear its ugly head when specifying template parameters, so you will get this:
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;Principle 2 - New School: If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial black and white menu -- congratulations, your system is configured to support UEFI booting. This means that you are ready to install Funtoo Linux to boot via UEFI. Your system may still support BIOS booting, but just be trying UEFI first. You can poke around in your BIOS boot configuration and play with this.
  
{{note| ugh!}}
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;What's the Big Difference between Old School and New School?: Here's the deal. If you go with old-school MBR partitions, your <code>/boot</code> partition will be an ext2 filesystem, and you'll use <code>fdisk</code> to create your MBR partitions. If you go with new-school GPT partitions and UEFI booting, your <code>/boot</code> partition will be a vfat filesystem, because this is what UEFI is able to read, and you will use <code>gdisk</code> to create your GPT partitions. And you'll install GRUB a bit differently. That's about all it comes down to, in case you were curious.
  
...instead of this:
+
;Also Note: To install Funtoo Linux to boot via the New School UEFI method, you must boot System Rescue CD using UEFI -- and see an initial black and white screen. Otherwise, UEFI will not be active and you will not be able to set it up!
  
{{note|This looks much better!}}
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{{Note|'''Some motherboards may appear to support UEFI, but don't.''' Do your research. For example, the Award BIOS in my Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD7 rev 1.1 has an option to enable UEFI boot for CD/DVD. '''This is not sufficient for enabling UEFI boot for hard drives and installing Funtoo Linux.''' UEFI must be supported for both removable media (so you can boot System Rescue CD using UEFI) as well as fixed media (so you can boot your new Funtoo Linux installation.) It turns out that later revisions of this board (rev 3.0) have a new BIOS that fully supports UEFI boot.  This may point to a third principle -- know thy hardware.}}
  
=== Page and Section Capitalization ===
+
==== Old-School (BIOS/MBR) Method ====
  
In general, capitalize all words in page names and section heading except:
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{{Note|Use this method if you are booting using your BIOS, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was light blue. If you're going to use the new-school method, [[#New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method|click here to jump down to UEFI/GPT.]]}}
* Articles: a, an, the
+
* Coordinating Conjunctions: and, but, or, for, nor, etc.
+
* Prepositions (fewer than five letters): on, at, to, from, by, etc.
+
  
=== Document Hierarchy ===
+
===== Preparation =====
  
Use section headings to create a document hierarchy for your page. These will define the table of contents that appears at the top of the wiki page. Create chapters, sections and sub-sections as follows:
+
First, it's a good idea to make sure that you've found the correct hard disk to partition. Try this command and verify that <code>/dev/sda</code> is the disk that you want to partition:
  
<pre>= Page Title =
+
<console>
 +
# ##i##fdisk -l /dev/sda
  
== Chapter Title ==
+
Disk /dev/sda: 640.1 GB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
 +
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
 +
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
Disk label type: gpt
  
=== Section Title ===
 
  
==== SubSection Title ====
+
#        Start          End    Size  Type            Name
 +
1        2048  1250263694  596.2G  Linux filesyste Linux filesystem
 +
</console>
  
</pre>
+
Now, it's recommended that you erase any existing MBR or GPT partition tables on the disk, which could confuse the system's BIOS at boot time. We do this using <code>sgdisk</code>:
 +
{{fancywarning|This will make any existing partitions inaccessible! You are '''strongly''' cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.}}
  
{{Note|By default, Table of Contents is disabled on the Funtoo wiki. If you would like to enable the TOC, you can place a <code><nowiki>__TOC__</nowiki></code> on a blank line where you'd like the Table of Contents to appear, or place <code><nowiki>__FORCETOC__</nowiki></code> on a blank line anywhere in the wikitext to force the TOC to appear at the top of the page.}}
+
<console>
 +
# ##i##sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda
  
In general, when creating new documents, it's best to use level-3 (three "="'s) Section Titles to break up content. Level-2 Section Titles are best used for major sections of larger documents. Use them infrequently. Level-1 Section Titles generally do not need to be used.
+
Creating new GPT entries.
 +
GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or
 +
other utilities.
 +
</console>
  
=== Links ===
+
This output is also nothing to worry about, as the command still succeded:
  
Internal links to other wiki pages can be specified as <tt><nowiki>[[pagename]]</nowiki></tt>. To specify an alternate name for the link, use <tt><nowiki>[[pagename|my link name]]</nowiki></tt>.
+
<console>
 +
***************************************************************
 +
Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format
 +
in memory.  
 +
***************************************************************
 +
</console>
  
For external links, use <tt><nowiki>[http://funtoo.org my link]</nowiki></tt> to specify a URL. If you want the URL to appear in the wikitext, you can specify it without brackets: http://forums.funtoo.org.
+
===== Partitioning =====
  
=== Lists ===
+
Now we will use <code>fdisk</code> to create the MBR partition table and partitions:
  
MediaWiki supports a number of list formats:
+
<console>
 +
# ##i##fdisk /dev/sda
 +
</console>
  
* Unordered List
+
Within <code>fdisk</code>, follow these steps:
* Unordered Item 2
+
** Unordered sub-item
+
  
# Ordered List
+
'''Empty the partition table''':
# Ordered Item 2
+
## Ordered sub-item
+
  
;Term: This is called a "definition list". It is used when defining various terms.
+
<console>
 +
Command (m for help): ##i##o ↵
 +
</console>
  
If you need to quote a portion of text from another site, use <tt><nowiki><blockquote></nowiki></tt> as follows:
+
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
  
<blockquote>
+
<console>
Wikipedia (ˌwɪkɨˈpiːdiə/ or wɪkiˈpiːdiə/ wik-i-pee-dee-ə) is a collaboratively edited, multilingual, free-access, free content Internet encyclopedia that is supported and hosted by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Volunteers worldwide collaboratively write Wikipedia's 30 million articles in 287 languages, including over 4.5 million in the English Wikipedia. Anyone who can access the site can edit almost any of its articles, which on the Internet comprise[4] the largest and most popular general reference work.[5][6][7][8][9] In February 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia is ranked fifth globally among all websites stating, "With 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month..., Wikipedia trails just Yahoo, Facebook, Microsoft and Google, the largest with 1.2 billion unique visitors."[10]
+
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
</blockquote>
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Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
 +
Partition number (1-4, default 1): ##i##↵
 +
First sector: ##i##↵
 +
Last sector: ##i##+128M ↵
 +
</console>
  
=== Literal Text and HTML Symbols ===
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'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
  
Here is wikitext for the section above, which I am displaying by placing the literal wikitext between a &#60;pre&#62; and &#60;/pre&#62; tag. If you want to disable wikitext processing for an inline span of text, use &#60;nowiki&#62; and &#60;/nowiki&#62;. If you want to print out a tag literally, use &amp;#60; and &amp;#62; (In the wikitext, I used &amp;amp;#60; and &amp;amp;#62 to display these!)
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<console>
 +
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
 +
Partition type (default p): ##i##
 +
Partition number (2-4, default 2): ##i##↵
 +
First sector: ##i##↵
 +
Last sector: ##i##+2G ↵
 +
Command (m for help): ##i##t ↵
 +
Partition number (1,2, default 2): ##i## ↵
 +
Hex code (type L to list all codes): ##i##82 ↵
 +
</console>
  
<pre>
+
'''Create the root partition:'''
* Unordered List
+
* Unordered Item 2
+
** Unordered sub-item
+
  
# Ordered List
+
<console>
# Ordered Item 2
+
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
## Ordered sub-item
+
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
 +
Partition number (3,4, default 3): ##i##↵
 +
First sector: ##i##↵
 +
Last sector: ##i##↵
 +
</console>
  
;Term: This is called a "definition list". It is used when defining various terms.
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'''Verify the partition table:'''
  
If you need to quote a portion of text from another site, use <tt><nowiki><blockquote></nowiki></tt> as follows:
+
<console>
 +
Command (m for help): ##i##p
  
<blockquote>
+
Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
Wikipedia (ˌwɪkɨˈpiːdiə/ or wɪkiˈpiːdiə/ wik-i-pee-dee-ə) is a collaboratively edited, multilingual, free-access,  
+
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
free content Internet encyclopedia that is supported and hosted by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Volunteers
+
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
worldwide collaboratively write Wikipedia's 30 million articles in 287 languages, including over 4.5 million in the
+
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
English Wikipedia. Anyone who can access the site can edit almost any of its articles, which on the Internet
+
Disklabel type: dos
comprise[4] the largest and most popular general reference work.[5][6][7][8][9] In February 2014, The New York
+
Disk identifier: 0x82abc9a6
Times reported that Wikipedia is ranked fifth globally among all websites stating, "With 18 billion page views
+
and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month..., Wikipedia trails just Yahoo, Facebook, Microsoft and Google,
+
the largest with 1.2 billion unique visitors."[10]
+
</blockquote>
+
</pre>
+
  
=== Linking to Packages ===
+
Device    Boot    Start      End    Blocks  Id System
 +
/dev/sda1          2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
 +
/dev/sda2        264192  4458495  2097152  82 Linux swap / Solaris
 +
/dev/sda3        4458496 625142447 310341976  83 Linux
 +
</console>
  
To link to a package page, use the <code>Package</code> template:
+
'''Write the parition table to disk:'''
  
<pre><nowiki>
+
<console>
{{Package|sys-apps/portage}}
+
Command (m for help): ##i##w
</nowiki></pre>
+
</console>
  
This template will create a link to the official wiki page for sys-apps/portage, and render using the official "English" page name, as follows:
+
Your new MBR partition table will now be written to your system disk.
  
{{Package|sys-apps/portage}}
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{{Note|You're done with partitioning! Now, jump over to [[#Creating filesystems|Creating filesystems]].}}
  
If you specify a yet-to-be-documented ebuild, it will render like this (which is okay -- it will encourage people to document it):
+
==== New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method ====
  
{{Package|sys-foo/undocumented-ebuild}}
+
{{Note|Use this method if you are booting using UEFI, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was black and white. If it was light blue, this method will not work.}}
  
=== Tables ===
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The <tt>gdisk</tt> commands to create a GPT partition table are as follows. Adapt sizes as necessary, although these defaults will work for most users. Start <code>gdisk</code>:
  
Instead of using traditional MediaWiki table wikitext, use the following format:
+
<console>
 +
# ##i##gdisk
 +
</console>
  
<pre>
+
Within <tt>gdisk</tt>, follow these steps:
{{TableStart}}
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<tr class="info"><th>Header 1</th><th>Header 2</th></tr>
+
<tr><td>Value 1</td><td>Value 2</td></tr>
+
<tr><td>Value 3</td><td>Value 4</td></tr>
+
{{TableEnd}}
+
</pre>
+
  
This wil render as follows:
+
'''Create a new empty partition table''' (This ''will'' erase all data on the disk when saved):
  
{{TableStart}}
+
<console>
<tr class="info"><th>Header 1</th><th>Header 2</th></tr>
+
Command: ##i##o ↵
<tr><td>Value 1</td><td>Value 2</td></tr>
+
This option deletes all partitions and creates a new protective MBR.
<tr><td>Value 3</td><td>Value 4</td></tr>
+
Proceed? (Y/N): ##i##y ↵
{{TableEnd}}
+
</console>
  
{{tip|This table syntax has an added benefit of creating a responsive table that renders properly on mobile devices.}}
+
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
  
It is possible to use the following CSS classes with <code>tr</code> (rows) and <code>td/th</code> elements to color them as desired:
+
<console>
 +
Command: ##i##n ↵
 +
Partition Number: ##i##1 ↵
 +
First sector: ##i##↵
 +
Last sector: ##i##+500M ↵
 +
Hex Code: ##i##↵
 +
</console>
  
{{TableStart}}
+
'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
<tr class="active"><td>Class Name</td></tr>
+
<tr class="success"><td>success</td></tr>
+
<tr class="info"><td>info</td></tr>
+
<tr class="warning"><td>warning</td></tr>
+
<tr class="active"><td>active</td></tr>
+
<tr class="danger"><td>danger</td></tr>
+
{{TableEnd}}
+
  
=== Displaying Source Code ===
+
<console>
 +
Command: ##i##n ↵
 +
Partition Number: ##i##2 ↵
 +
First sector: ##i##↵
 +
Last sector: ##i##+4G ↵
 +
Hex Code: ##i##8200 ↵
 +
</console>
  
To display source code, use can use the file template, specifying a <tt>lang=</tt> parameter:
+
'''Create Partition 3''' (root):
  
<pre>
+
<console>
{{file|name=foobar|lang=python|desc=foobarosity|body=
+
Command: ##i##n ↵
import system
+
Partition Number: ##i##3 ↵
}}
+
First sector: ##i##↵
</pre>
+
Last sector: ##i##↵##!i## (for rest of disk)
 +
Hex Code: ##i##↵
 +
</console>
  
This will produce:
+
Along the way, you can type "<tt>p</tt>" and hit Enter to view your current partition table. If you make a mistake, you can type "<tt>d</tt>" to delete an existing partition that you created. When you are satisfied with your partition setup, type "<tt>w</tt>" to write your configuration to disk:
  
{{file|name=foobar|lang=python|desc=foobarosity|body=
+
'''Write Partition Table To Disk''':
import system
+
}}
+
  
The parameters {{c|name}} (filename), {{c|lang}} (language for syntax highlighting) and {{c|desc}} (Description, appearing as a caption) are optional. For a list of supported languages, see [http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Extension:SyntaxHighlight_GeSHi#Supported_languages this list].
+
<console>
 +
Command: ##i##w ↵
 +
Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): ##i##Y ↵
 +
</console>
  
 +
The partition table will now be written to disk and <tt>gdisk</tt> will close.
  
{{important|If you need to display the pipe ("{{!}}") character within the body of a file template, replace each "{{!}}" with <nowiki>{{!}}</nowiki> -- otherwise your file contents will not display properly. This is necessary because <nowiki>{{file}}</nowiki> is a template and the "{{!}}" character is used as a delimiter for arguments to the template.}}
+
Now, your GPT/GUID partitions have been created, and will show up as the following ''block devices'' under Linux:
  
=== Displaying Text File Contents ===
+
* <tt>/dev/sda1</tt>, which will be used to hold the <tt>/boot</tt> filesystem,
 +
* <tt>/dev/sda2</tt>, which will be used for swap space, and
 +
* <tt>/dev/sda3</tt>, which will hold your root filesystem.
  
For displaying the contents of non-programming language text files (like config files), you have two options. You can enclose your lines within <tt>&#60;pre&#62;</tt> tags, or use the new [[Template:File|file template]]. The file template is used like so:
+
==== Creating filesystems ====
  
<pre>
+
{{Note|This section covers both BIOS ''and'' UEFI installs. Don't skip it!}}
{{file|name=/etc/foo.conf|desc=My foo.conf file|body=
+
# /etc/host.conf:
+
# $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/src/patchsets/glibc/extra/etc/host.conf,v 1.1 2006/09/29
+
}}
+
</pre>
+
  
This will produce:
+
Before your newly-created partitions can be used, the block devices need to be initialized with filesystem ''metadata''. This process is known as ''creating a filesystem'' on the block devices. After filesystems are created on the block devices, they can be mounted and used to store files.
  
{{file|name=/etc/foo.conf|desc=My foo.conf file|body=
+
Let's keep this simple. Are you using old-school MBR partitions? If so, let's create an ext2 filesystem on /dev/sda1:
# /etc/host.conf:
+
# $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/src/patchsets/glibc/extra/etc/host.conf,v 1.1 2006/09/29
+
}}
+
 
+
=== Console ===
+
To display console output, use the <tt>&#60;console&#62;</tt> tag:
+
  
For a root console:
 
<pre>
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
###i## run a command as root
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
</console>
+
</pre>
+
Produces:
+
<console>
+
###i## run a command as root
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
For a non-root console:
+
If you're using new-school GPT partitions for UEFI, you'll want to create a vfat filesystem on /dev/sda1, because this is what UEFI is able to read:
<pre>
+
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
$ ##i##run a command as user
+
# ##i##mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1
</console>
+
</pre>
+
Produces:
+
<console>
+
$ ##i##run a command as user
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
{{important|1=
+
Now, let's create a swap partition. This partition will be used as disk-based virtual memory for your Funtoo Linux system.
Note that we use a <tt>#</tt> prompt for <tt>root</tt> and a <tt>$</tt> prompt to denote a non-root user.}}
+
  
{{important|The <tt>##i##</tt> text tags the rest of the line as being ''user input'' ("i" is for "input"). It is then highlighted in a noticeable color so it stands out from text that is not typed in by the user.}}
+
You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, since it is not used to store files. But it is necessary to initialize it using the <code>mkswap</code> command. Then we'll run the <code>swapon</code> command to make your newly-initialized swap space immediately active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process:
  
If you need to end highlighting of user input prior to the end of a line, use <code>##!i##</code> to mark the end of the highlighted area.
+
<console>
 +
# ##i##mkswap /dev/sda2
 +
# ##i##swapon /dev/sda2
 +
</console>
  
The following special character sequences are also available:
+
Now, we need to create a root filesystem. This is where Funtoo Linux will live. We generally recommend ext4 or XFS root filesystems. If you're not sure, choose ext4. Here's how to create a root ext4 filesystem:
* <code>##g##</code> - Green
+
* <code>##y##</code> - Yellow
+
* <code>##bl##</code> - Blue
+
* <code>##r##</code> - Red
+
* <code>##b##</code> - Bold
+
  
Please use the above coloring options sparingly. It is sometimes nice to use them to get wiki console output to match the colors that are displayed on a Linux console. Also note that for every color above, there is a matching <code>##!(colorcode)##</code> option to turn color off prior to end of line.
+
<console>
 
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3
Here is an example of its use:<console>
+
# ##i##bluetoothctl
+
[##g##NEW##!g##] Controller 00:02:72:C9:62:65 antec [default]
+
##bl##[bluetooth]##!bl###power on
+
Changing power on succeeded
+
##bl##[bluetooth]##!bl### ##i##agent on
+
Agent registered
+
##bl##[bluetooth]##!bl### ##i##scan on
+
Discovery started
+
##bl##[bluetooth]##!bl### ##i##devices
+
Device 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75 Logitech K760
+
##bl##[bluetooth]##!bl### ##i##pair 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75
+
Attempting to pair with 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75
+
[##y##CHG##!y##] Device 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75 Connected: yes
+
##r##[agent]##!r## Passkey: 454358
+
##r##[agent]##!r## Passkey: ##i##4##!i##54358
+
##r##[agent]##!r## Passkey: ##i##45##!i##4358
+
##r##[agent]##!r## Passkey: ##i##454##!i##358
+
##r##[agent]##!r## Passkey: ##i##4543##!i##58
+
##r##[agent]##!r## Passkey: ##i##45435##!i##8
+
##r##[agent]##!r## Passkey: ##i##454358##!i##
+
[##y##CHG##!y##] Device 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75 Paired: yes
+
Pairing successful
+
[##y##CHG##!y##] Device 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75 Connected: no
+
##bl##[bluetooth]##!bl### ##i##connect 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75
+
Attempting to connect to 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75
+
[##y##CHG##!y##] Device 00:1F:20:3D:1E:75 Connected: yes
+
Connection successful
+
##bl##[bluetooth]##!bl### ##i##quit
+
[##r##DEL##!r##] Controller 00:02:72:C9:62:65 antec [default]
+
#
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
=== Informational Messages ===
+
...and here's how to create an XFS root filesystem, if you choose to use XFS:
Notes, warnings, tips, and important templates can be used for informational messages that need to be offset from the regular text flow:
+
  
<pre>{{note|this is a note}}</pre>
+
<console>
{{note|this is a note}}
+
# ##i##mkfs.xfs /dev/sda3
 +
</console>
  
<pre>{{important|this is important}}</pre>
+
Your filesystems (and swap) have all now been initialized, so that that can be mounted (attached to your existing directory heirarchy) and used to store files. We are ready to begin installing Funtoo Linux on these brand-new filesystems.
{{important|this is important}}
+
  
<pre>{{warning|this is a warning}}</pre>
+
{{fancywarning|1=
{{warning|this is a warning}}
+
When deploying an OpenVZ host, please use ext4 exclusively. The Parallels development team tests extensively with ext4, and modern versions of <code>openvz-rhel6-stable</code> are '''not''' compatible with XFS, and you may experience kernel bugs.
 
+
<pre>{{tip|this is a tip}}</pre>
+
{{tip|this is a tip}}
+
 
+
Note that these templates used to be called <code>fancynote</code>, <code>fancytip</code>, etc. The "fancy" names have been deprecated but will still be supported for the forseeable future.
+
 
+
=== Kernelop ===
+
To display kernel configuration options, we encourage you to use the <tt>kernelop</tt> template. To use the <tt>kernelop</tt> template, create an entry similar to the following example:
+
<pre>
+
{{kernelop|title=foo,bar|desc=
+
kernel options pasted from "make menuconfig"
+
}}
+
</pre>
+
 
+
{{note|Kernelop is colored blue to slightly resemble the blueish background from <tt>make menuconfig</tt>.}}
+
 
+
Adding this entry will give you the following output:
+
{{kernelop|title=foo,bar|desc=
+
kernel options
+
 
}}
 
}}
  
Here's a more concrete example:
+
==== Mounting filesystems ====
{{kernelop|title=File systems|desc=
+
<M> Second extended fs support         
+
[ ]  Ext2 extended attributes         
+
[ ]  Ext2 execute in place support   
+
<M> Ext3 journalling file system support
+
}}
+
  
Examples of usage:  
+
Mount the newly-created filesystems as follows, creating <code>/mnt/funtoo</code> as the installation mount point:
* [[Package:AMD Catalyst Video Drivers]]
+
* [[Package:ACPI Daemon]]
+
* [[Microcode]]
+
  
=== Discussion Pages ===
+
<console>
 +
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo
 +
# ##i##mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/funtoo
 +
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
 +
# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot
 +
</console>
  
In MediaWiki, every "regular" wiki page has a corresponding "Talk" or "Discussion" page which has a page name prefixed by "Talk:" -- you can get to this page by going to the "Action" menu, and then choosing the "Discussion" menu item. These talk pages are typically used to discuss the edits that are going on in the "main" wiki page. The problem with talk pages is that they are kind of a pain to use. However, we have a way to fix that. If you want to enable a DISQUS-based mini-forum on a talk page, insert the following wikitext on the Talk page:
+
Optionally, if you have a separate filesystem for <code>/home</code> or anything else:
  
<pre>
+
<console>
{{DISQUS}}
+
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/home
</pre>
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/funtoo/home
 +
</console>
  
...and presto! You will now have DISQUS-powered mini-forums to discuss whatever you want about your wiki page.
+
If you have <code>/tmp</code> or <code>/var/tmp</code> on a separate filesystem, be sure to change the permissions of the mount point to be globally-writeable after mounting, as follows:
  
== Marking Pages as Needing Updates ==
+
<console>
 
+
# ##i##chmod 1777 /mnt/funtoo/tmp
If you find outdated wiki content, but you don't have the time or ability to update it, add one of the following templates to the wikitext of the page. This will add the page to the [[:Category:Needs Updates|Needs Updates Category]] so we can identify pages that need updating:
+
</console>
 
+
<pre>
+
{{PageNeedsUpdates}}
+
{{SectionNeedsUpdates}}
+
</pre>
+
 
+
 
+
Examples of usage:
+
* [[UEFI Install Guide]]
+
* [[Package:MediaWiki]]
+
* [[Clang]]
+
 
+
=== Inline Code ===
+
 
+
To emphasize commands, and other technical jargon when they appear inline in a paragraph, use the <nowiki>{{c}}</nowiki> template. When referencing files, use the <nowiki>{{f}}</nowiki> template.
+
 
+
<pre>
+
The {{f|/etc/fstab}} file is an important one. Another important file is {{f|/boot/grub/grub.cfg}}. The {{c|emerge}} command is really nifty.
+
</pre>
+
 
+
This example produces the following output:
+
 
+
The {{f|/etc/fstab}} file is an important one. Another important file is {{f|/boot/grub/grub.cfg}}. The {{c|emerge}} command is really nifty.
+
 
+
{{important|1=
+
The &#60;tt&#62; tag has been deprecated for the purpose of tagging inline code, to conform with HTML5, and the previous use of the &#60;code&#62; tag is discouraged. It is more maintainable to use the <nowiki>{{c}}</nowiki> template. }}
+
 
+
=== Slideshow ===
+
 
+
Any page has the capability of displaying a slideshow. Adding a slideshow to a page involves three steps:
+
 
+
# Upload Images
+
# Define Slides
+
# Add Slideshow to page
+
 
+
==== Upload Images ====
+
 
+
To upload images, head to [[Special:Upload]] and upload a file. It is highly recommended to upload JPEG format images in high resolution -- MediaWiki will handle scaling JPEG automatically, saving bandwidth, but does not do this for PNG. Make sure that all images you upload have the same dimensions. When you upload, make note of the '''Destination Filename''' field -- this is the name that the upload will use when you reference it in your slide. It is recommended that you choose a simple descriptive name ending in ".jpg" for the '''Destination Filename'''.
+
 
+
==== Define Slides ====
+
 
+
Once images have been uploaded, you must define slides. To define slides on a page, you enter special semantic information about the slide on the page that it will be displayed, in the following format:
+
 
+
<pre><nowiki>
+
{{#subobject:|slideIndex=0|slideCaption=
+
== Wikitext Here ==
+
This is a fantastic slide!
+
|slideImage=File:Fruit.jpg|slideLink=PageName}}
+
</nowiki></pre>
+
 
+
Here are some important instructions regarding defining slides:
+
 
+
* <code>slideIndex</code> must be 0 for the first slide, 1 for the second slide, etc. Numbers must be unique and incrementing from zero, and not doing this will result in slideshow display errors (but can be easily fixed by correcting the wikitext.)
+
* <code>slideCaption=</code> can contain wikitext, such as headings and links. The best way to enter <code>slideCaption</code> is as above -- type a literal <code>slideCaption=</code>, followed by enter, then specify your wikitext, and terminate the caption by a single pipe character on the following line. Pipe characters are used to separate arguments from each other.
+
* Specify your image name in the <code>slideImage</code> field. Your slideImage will have a name of <code>File:myname.jpg</code>, where <code>myname.jpg</code> is the '''Destination Filename''' you used when uploading the image.
+
* An optional parameter called <code>slideLink=</code> can be provided to allow the image to be clickable and link to another wiki page. If it is omitted, then the image will not be clickable.
+
 
+
==== Add Slideshow to Page ====
+
 
+
Once the slides have been added to the page, you can add the following text to your page at the point you'd like the slideshow to appear:
+
<pre>
+
{{Slideshow}}
+
</pre>
+
 
+
=== YouTube Videos (Screencasts, etc.) ===
+
 
+
Screencasting is an easy method to explain complex tasks. Take for instance <code>youtu.be/5KDei5mBfSg</code> and chop off the id and insert it into the following syntax to produce a video example.
+
 
+
<pre>{{#widget:YouTube16x9|id=5KDei5mBfSg}}</pre>
+
{{#widget:YouTube16x9|id=5KDei5mBfSg}}
+
 
+
{{tip|The sample video above explains how to create your own screencasts under Funtoo Linux.}}
+
 
+
Most YouTube videos are in 16x9 format and should use the <code>YouTube16x9</code> widget. There is also a <code>YouTube4x3</code> widget for videos with a 4x3 aspect ratio.
+
{{note|These YouTube widgets have been updated to be mobile-friendly.}}
+
 
+
[[Category:Wiki Development]]
+

Revision as of 13:31, January 5, 2015


Note

This is a template that is used as part of the Installation instructions which covers: процесс разбиения диска и создания файловых систем. Templates are being used to allow multiple variant install guides that use most of the same re-usable parts.


Подготовка жесткого диска

В этой части мы научимся различным способам установки Funtoo Linux -- и загрузки с -- жесткий диск.

Введение

В прежние времена существовал лишь один способ загрузить PC-совместимый компьютер. Все наши дектопы и сервера имели стандартный PC BIOS, все наши харды использовали MBR и были разбиты используя схему разбивки MBR. Вот как это все было и нам это нравилось!

Затем появились EFI и UEFI, встроенные программы нового образца наряду со схемой разбивки GPT, поддерживающая диски размером более 2.2TБ. Неожиданно, нам стали доступны различные способы установки и загрузки Линукс систем . То, что было единым методом, стало чем-то более сложным.

Let's take a moment to review the options available to you for configuring a hard drive to boot Funtoo Linux. This Install Guide uses, and recommends, the old-school method of BIOS booting and using an MBR. It works and (except for rare cases) is universally supported. There's nothing wrong with it. If your system disk is 2TB or smaller in size, it won't prevent you from using all of your disk's capacity, either.

But, there are some situations where the old-school method isn't optimal. If you have a system disk >2TB in size, then MBR partitions won't allow you to access all your storage. So that's one reason. Another reason is that there are some so-called "PC" systems out there that don't support BIOS booting anymore, and force you to use UEFI to boot. So, out of compassion for people who fall into this predicament, this Install Guide documents UEFI booting too.

Our recommendation is still to go old-school unless you have reason not to. The boot loader we will be using to load the Linux kernel in this guide is called GRUB, so we call this method the BIOS + GRUB (MBR) method. It's the traditional method of setting up a PC-compatible system to boot Linux.

If you need to use UEFI to boot, we recommend not using the MBR at all for booting, as some systems support this, but others don't. Instead, we recommend using UEFI to boot GRUB, which in turn will load Linux. We refer to this method as the UEFI + GRUB (GPT) method.

And yes, there are even more methods, some of which are documented on the Boot Methods page. We used to recommend a BIOS + GRUB (GPT) method but it is not consistently supported across a wide variety of hardware.

The big question is -- which boot method should you use? Here's how to tell.

Principle 1 - Old School
If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial light blue menu, you are booting the CD using the BIOS, and it's likely that you can thus boot Funtoo Linux using the BIOS. So, go old-school and use BIOS booting, unless you have some reason to use UEFI, such as having a >2.2TB system disk. In that case, see Principle 2, as your system may also support UEFI booting.
Principle 2 - New School
If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial black and white menu -- congratulations, your system is configured to support UEFI booting. This means that you are ready to install Funtoo Linux to boot via UEFI. Your system may still support BIOS booting, but just be trying UEFI first. You can poke around in your BIOS boot configuration and play with this.
What's the Big Difference between Old School and New School?
Here's the deal. If you go with old-school MBR partitions, your /boot partition will be an ext2 filesystem, and you'll use fdisk to create your MBR partitions. If you go with new-school GPT partitions and UEFI booting, your /boot partition will be a vfat filesystem, because this is what UEFI is able to read, and you will use gdisk to create your GPT partitions. And you'll install GRUB a bit differently. That's about all it comes down to, in case you were curious.
Also Note
To install Funtoo Linux to boot via the New School UEFI method, you must boot System Rescue CD using UEFI -- and see an initial black and white screen. Otherwise, UEFI will not be active and you will not be able to set it up!
Note

Some motherboards may appear to support UEFI, but don't. Do your research. For example, the Award BIOS in my Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD7 rev 1.1 has an option to enable UEFI boot for CD/DVD. This is not sufficient for enabling UEFI boot for hard drives and installing Funtoo Linux. UEFI must be supported for both removable media (so you can boot System Rescue CD using UEFI) as well as fixed media (so you can boot your new Funtoo Linux installation.) It turns out that later revisions of this board (rev 3.0) have a new BIOS that fully supports UEFI boot. This may point to a third principle -- know thy hardware.

Old-School (BIOS/MBR) Method

Note

Use this method if you are booting using your BIOS, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was light blue. If you're going to use the new-school method, click here to jump down to UEFI/GPT.

Preparation

First, it's a good idea to make sure that you've found the correct hard disk to partition. Try this command and verify that /dev/sda is the disk that you want to partition:

# fdisk -l /dev/sda

Disk /dev/sda: 640.1 GB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: gpt


#         Start          End    Size  Type            Name
 1         2048   1250263694  596.2G  Linux filesyste Linux filesystem

Now, it's recommended that you erase any existing MBR or GPT partition tables on the disk, which could confuse the system's BIOS at boot time. We do this using sgdisk:

Warning

This will make any existing partitions inaccessible! You are strongly cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.

# sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda

Creating new GPT entries.
GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or
other utilities.

This output is also nothing to worry about, as the command still succeded:

***************************************************************
Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format
in memory. 
***************************************************************
Partitioning

Now we will use fdisk to create the MBR partition table and partitions:

# fdisk /dev/sda

Within fdisk, follow these steps:

Empty the partition table:

Command (m for help): o ↵

Create Partition 1 (boot):

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (1-4, default 1): 
First sector: 
Last sector: +128M ↵

Create Partition 2 (swap):

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (2-4, default 2): 
First sector: 
Last sector: +2G ↵
Command (m for help): t ↵ 
Partition number (1,2, default 2): 
Hex code (type L to list all codes): 82 ↵

Create the root partition:

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (3,4, default 3): 
First sector: 
Last sector: 

Verify the partition table:

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x82abc9a6

Device    Boot     Start       End    Blocks  Id System
/dev/sda1           2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
/dev/sda2         264192   4458495   2097152  82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda3        4458496 625142447 310341976  83 Linux

Write the parition table to disk:

Command (m for help): w

Your new MBR partition table will now be written to your system disk.

Note

You're done with partitioning! Now, jump over to Creating filesystems.

New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method

Note

Use this method if you are booting using UEFI, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was black and white. If it was light blue, this method will not work.

The gdisk commands to create a GPT partition table are as follows. Adapt sizes as necessary, although these defaults will work for most users. Start gdisk:

# gdisk

Within gdisk, follow these steps:

Create a new empty partition table (This will erase all data on the disk when saved):

Command: o ↵
This option deletes all partitions and creates a new protective MBR.
Proceed? (Y/N): y ↵

Create Partition 1 (boot):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 1 ↵
First sector: 
Last sector: +500M ↵
Hex Code: 

Create Partition 2 (swap):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 2 ↵
First sector: 
Last sector: +4G ↵
Hex Code: 8200 ↵

Create Partition 3 (root):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 3 ↵
First sector: 
Last sector:  (for rest of disk)
Hex Code: 

Along the way, you can type "p" and hit Enter to view your current partition table. If you make a mistake, you can type "d" to delete an existing partition that you created. When you are satisfied with your partition setup, type "w" to write your configuration to disk:

Write Partition Table To Disk:

Command: w ↵
Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): Y ↵

The partition table will now be written to disk and gdisk will close.

Now, your GPT/GUID partitions have been created, and will show up as the following block devices under Linux:

  • /dev/sda1, which will be used to hold the /boot filesystem,
  • /dev/sda2, which will be used for swap space, and
  • /dev/sda3, which will hold your root filesystem.

Creating filesystems

Note

This section covers both BIOS and UEFI installs. Don't skip it!

Before your newly-created partitions can be used, the block devices need to be initialized with filesystem metadata. This process is known as creating a filesystem on the block devices. After filesystems are created on the block devices, they can be mounted and used to store files.

Let's keep this simple. Are you using old-school MBR partitions? If so, let's create an ext2 filesystem on /dev/sda1:

# mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1

If you're using new-school GPT partitions for UEFI, you'll want to create a vfat filesystem on /dev/sda1, because this is what UEFI is able to read:

# mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1

Now, let's create a swap partition. This partition will be used as disk-based virtual memory for your Funtoo Linux system.

You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, since it is not used to store files. But it is necessary to initialize it using the mkswap command. Then we'll run the swapon command to make your newly-initialized swap space immediately active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process:

# mkswap /dev/sda2
# swapon /dev/sda2

Now, we need to create a root filesystem. This is where Funtoo Linux will live. We generally recommend ext4 or XFS root filesystems. If you're not sure, choose ext4. Here's how to create a root ext4 filesystem:

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3

...and here's how to create an XFS root filesystem, if you choose to use XFS:

# mkfs.xfs /dev/sda3

Your filesystems (and swap) have all now been initialized, so that that can be mounted (attached to your existing directory heirarchy) and used to store files. We are ready to begin installing Funtoo Linux on these brand-new filesystems.

Warning

When deploying an OpenVZ host, please use ext4 exclusively. The Parallels development team tests extensively with ext4, and modern versions of openvz-rhel6-stable are not compatible with XFS, and you may experience kernel bugs.

Mounting filesystems

Mount the newly-created filesystems as follows, creating /mnt/funtoo as the installation mount point:

# mkdir /mnt/funtoo
# mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/funtoo
# mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot

Optionally, if you have a separate filesystem for /home or anything else:

# mkdir /mnt/funtoo/home
# mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/funtoo/home

If you have /tmp or /var/tmp on a separate filesystem, be sure to change the permissions of the mount point to be globally-writeable after mounting, as follows:

# chmod 1777 /mnt/funtoo/tmp