Difference between pages "Zope HOWTO" and "Repository Configuration"

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(Undo revision 9202 by Duncan.britton (talk))
 
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This page documents how to use Zope with Funtoo Experimental, which currently has good Zope support thanks to [[Progress Overlay Python]] integration.
+
{{Warning|This article is a work-in-progress referring to a future Portage version. It does not apply to the current Funtoo Portage version. Please do not update your configuration yet.}}
  
== About Zope ==
+
Starting with Portage-2.3.8, a switch to a new repository configuration framework is complete and users may want to update their configuration files. This document aims to describe the goals for the new framework and how to use it.
  
Zope is an Open Source application server framework written in Python. It has an interesting history which you should familiarize yourself with before starting Zope development, as it contains several interesting twists and turns.
+
== Multiple repository layout ==
 +
One of the most important changes is the switch from the old ''overlay'' layout to a new cleaner ''repository'' system. The new layout is more flexible and more predictable. For example, repositories can now use resources (eclasses, for example) provided by other repositories.
  
=== Zope History ===
+
The old layout was based on the concept of one ''main tree'' and optionally a number of overlays. The main tree provided base system ebuilds, eclasses, profiles, while overlays mostly were able to provide their own ebuilds. The ebuild provided by overlays overrode the ebuilds in main tree to the extend of making it impossible to install the main tree version. Overlays could also provide eclasses for their own ebuilds and package.* entries that applied to all overlays and to the main tree. The Package Manager is responsible for updating the main tree, while overlays are managed externally.
  
{{fancynote| This HOWTO targets Zope 2.13, which includes Five. It is typically the version you should be using for new Zope projects.}}
+
The new layout is based on the concept of one or more configurable repositories. Each repository can either be stand-alone or depend upon other repositories. The distribution provides a repository called ''funtoo'' (a drop-in replacement for Gentoo's ''gentoo'' repository). Users can install more repositories at they will, the repositories providing their own ebuilds, eclasses and profiles as necessary and/or using them from other repositories. Users can explicitly choose the repository they want to install packages from. The Package Manager can update all repositories.
  
* There are two versions of Zope: Zope 2 and Zope 3. One might assume that Zope 3 is the version that people should use for new software development projects by default, but this is not the case. Most Zope-based projects continue to use Zope 2. Zope 3 was an attempt to redesign Zope 2 from scratch, and is completely different from Zope 2, but it was not adopted by the community.
+
== Portage configuration ==
 +
=== New repository layout ===
 +
The repository configuration should be stored in <code>/etc/portage/repos.conf</code>. It can be either a single file or a directory containing one or more ''.conf'' files.
  
* There is also something called [http://codespeak.net/z3/five/ Five] (named because it is "2 + 3") that backports many of the new features of Zope 3 into the Zope 2 framework. Several projects will use Zope 2 plus Five in order to use some of the newer features in Zope. Five was merged into mainline Zope 2 in early 2010, and first appeared in Zope 2.8.
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The default configuration is installed as <code>/usr/share/portage/config/repos.conf</code>. This file is internal configuration file installed with portage ebuild and should '''not''' be modified. Instead, the configuration in <code>/etc/portage/repos.conf</code> can override the defaults specified there.
  
* You can learn more about the history of Zope 2, 3 and Five in the [http://svn.zope.org/Zope/trunk/src/Products/Five/README.txt?view=markup Five README].
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The configuration uses format similar to Windows .ini files. Each section heading (repository name in square brackets) signifies a single repository, followed by one or more key-value option pairs. For example, the following file copies default configuration for Funtoo repository:
  
* To make things even more interesting, work on [http://docs.zope.org/zope2/releases/4.0/ Zope 4] is underway, and it will be based on 2.13 rather than 3.x. It includes a number of [http://docs.zope.org/zope2/releases/4.0/CHANGES.html#restructuring incompatible changes] with prior versions.
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{{file|name=/etc/portage/repos.conf/funtoo.conf|desc=Example configuration override for Funtoo repository to move it to non-standard location|body=
=== Zope Resources ===
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[funtoo]
 +
# moved to non-standard location!
 +
location = /var/db/repos/funtoo
 +
sync-type = git
 +
sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git
 +
auto-sync = yes
 +
}}
  
Now that you understand what version of Zope you should be targeting (2.13), we can point you towards the correct documentation :)
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The most useful repository configuration options are listed below:
 +
;location: ''Obligatory.'' Specifies the directory where repository is/will be stored. If Portage knows how to sync the repository and the location does not exist, it will be created on next ''emerge --sync''. Otherwise, the directory must exist.
 +
;priority: Specifies the priority used for ordering ebuilds from different repositories. If two repositories provide an ebuild with matching versions, the repository with higher priority will be used.
 +
;auto-sync: Specifies whether ''emerge --sync'' should update the repository. Defaults to ''yes'' if ''sync-type'' is specified, ''no'' otherwise.
 +
;sync-depth: Specifies ''--depth'' for git clone. Used only on initial sync. Defaults to 1. Can be set to 0 to force full clone (not pass ''--depth'' at all).
 +
;sync-type: Specifies syncing/update method. Can be one of: ''cvs'', ''git'', ''rsync'', ''svn''.
 +
;sync-umask: Specifies the umask used when updating/syncing the repository.
 +
;sync-uri: Specifies remote URI from which the repository will be cloned/synced. Can use any syntax valid for a particular syncing method.
 +
;sync-user: Specifies the user[:group] used to update/sync the repository. If ''FEATURES=usersync'' is used, defaults to the credentials of directory owner.
  
; '''[http://docs.zope.org/zope2/zope2book/ The Zope 2 Book]'''
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Additionally a <code>[DEFAULT]</code> section may be specified. Options in this section are used as defaults for all repositories.
: This book provides a general introduction to Zope concepts and ZMI. It is a good place to start, but doesn't provide a direct introduction to Zope development. It's recommended that you skim through this book to familiarize yourself with Zope. It generally does not assume much prior knowledge about Web development or Python.
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; '''[http://docs.zope.org/zope2/zdgbook/ Zope Developer's Guide]'''
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: This guide will give you a better introduction to Zope development. It assumes you already know Python. Skip chapters 1 and 2 and start in [http://docs.zope.org/zope2/zdgbook/ComponentsAndInterfaces.html chapter 3], which covers components and interfaces. [http://docs.zope.org/zope2/zdgbook/Products.html Chapter 5] covers the creation of your first product.
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; '''[http://codespeak.net/z3/five/manual.html The Five Manual]'''
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: We're not done yet. There is a bunch of stuff in Zope 2.13 that is not in the official documentation. Namely, the stuff in Five.
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; '''[http://docs.zope.org/ztkpackages.html ZTK Documentation]'''
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: ZTK 
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; '''ZCA'''
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: [http://www.muthukadan.net/docs/zca.html A Comprehensive Guide to Zope Component Architecture] offers a good introduction to the programming concepts of ZCA. We also have a new page on [[Zope Component Architecture]] which will help you to understand the big picture of ZCA and why it is useful. ZCML ("Z-camel") is a part of ZCA and  was introduced in Zope 3, so typically you will find ZCML documented within Zope 3 documentation and book.
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; '''Content Components'''
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: Views and Viewlets: [http://docs.zope.org/zope.viewlet/index.html This tutorial on viewlets] also contains some viewlet-related ZCML examples near the end. The "Content Component way" of developing in Zope seems to be a Zope 3 thing and tied to ZCML. Chapter 13+ of Stephan Richter's ''Zope 3 Developer's Handbook'' (book) seems to cover this quite well. You will probably also want to check out Philipp Weitershausen's ''Web Component Development with Zope 3'' (book).
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; '''[http://wiki.zope.org/zope2/Zope2Wiki Zope 2 Wiki]'''
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: Main wiki page for all things related to Zope 2.
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; '''[http://docs.zope.org docs.zope.org]'''
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: This is the main site for Zope documentation.
+
  
== First Steps ==
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=== Migrating existing configurations ===
 +
The new configuration format provides replacement for existing configuration done through <code>/etc/portage/make.conf</code> and environment variables. While the variables are still supported for backwards compatibility, users are recommended to move to the new configuration scheme. Funtoo portage ebuild is planned to  make the migration unattended (repos.conf installed automatically to ease the config steps) with the following file:
 +
 +
{{file|name=/etc/portage/repos.conf/funtoo.conf|body=
 +
[funtoo]
 +
location = /usr/portage
 +
sync-type = git
 +
sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git
 +
auto-sync = yes
 +
}}
 +
The following replacements are provided for existing variables:
 +
;PORTDIR: Used to specify main tree location. Replaced by ''location'' key in the section corresponding to the default repository (<code>[funtoo]</code> by default).
 +
;PORTDIR_OVERLAY: Used to specify locations of overlays. Each of the paths needs to be replaced with a separate repository section, with the path placed in ''location'' key. Additionally, ''priority'' may be used to force specific ordering of ebuild overrides.
 +
;SYNC: Used to specify URI for syncing the main repository, also implied a protocol for doing that. Replaced by the ''sync-uri'' and ''sync-type'' keys in the default repository section.
 +
;SYNC_UMASK: Used to specify umask for syncing repositories. Replaced by ''sync-umask'' key in repository configuration. Can be specified in <code>[DEFAULT]</code> section to apply to all repositories.
 +
;SYNC_USER: Used to specify user credentials for syncing repositories. Replaced by ''sync-user'' key in repository configuration. Can be specified in <code>[DEFAULT]</code> section to apply to all repositories.
  
First, you will need to emerge {{Package|net-zope/zope}}:
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{{file|name=/etc/portage/make.conf|desc=Example old make.conf file|body=
<console>
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# user changed PORTDIR location
###i## emerge zope
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PORTDIR="/var/db/repos/funtoo"
</console>
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PORTDIR_OVERLAY="/var/db/repos/foo /var/db/repos/bar"
  
Zope is now installed.
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SYNC="git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git"
 +
SYNC_USER="oleg"
 +
SYNC_UMASK="022"
 +
}}
  
== Project Skeleton ==
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{{file|name=/etc/portage/repos.conf|desc=Replacement repos.conf file|body=
 +
[DEFAULT]
 +
sync-user = oleg
 +
sync-umask = 022
  
{{fancynote| Zope should be run by a regular user account, not as the root user.}}
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[funtoo]
 +
location = /var/db/repos/funtoo
 +
sync-type = git
 +
sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git
  
The first step in using Zope is to ensure that you are using a regular user account. As a regular user, create a new directory called <tt>zope_test</tt>:
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[foo]
<console>
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location = /var/db/repos/foo
$##i## cd
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priority = 1
$##i## mkdir zope_test
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</console>
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Now, enter the directory, and create an "instance", which is a set of files and directories that are used to contain a Zope project:
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[bar]
<console>
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location = /var/db/repos/bar
$##i## cd zope_test
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priority = 2
$##i## /usr/lib/zope-2.13/bin/mkzopeinstance
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}}
</console>
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You will see the following output and will be prompted to answer a few questions:
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The <code>repos.conf</code> configuration can be further extended with ''sync-type'' and ''sync-uri'' for overlays to get ''emerge --sync'' updating them automatically.
<console>
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Please choose a directory in which you'd like to install
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Zope "instance home" files such as database files, configuration
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files, etc.
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Directory: instance
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let's see a real example of tree and overlays added.  
Please choose a username and password for the initial user.
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{{file|name=/etc/portage/repos.conf|desc=Replacement repos.conf file|body=
These will be the credentials you use to initially manage
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your new Zope instance.
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Username: admin
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[gentoo]
Password: ****
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location = /usr/portage
Verify password: ****
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sync-type = git
</console>
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sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012.git
 
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Now, we will start our Zope instance:
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[funtoo-overlay]
<console>
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location = /root/git/funtoo-overlay
$##i## cd instance
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$##i## bin/runzope
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[funtoo-gnome]
</console>
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location = /root/git/funtoo-gnome-overlay
 
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}}
Now that Zope is functional, you can go to the <tt>localhost:8080/manage</tt> URL in your web browser: you will be prompted to log in. Enter the username and password you specified. You are now logged in to the ZMI (Zope Management Interface.)
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funtoo-overlay and funtoo-gnome-overlay are an overlays added on top of regular portage tree.
 
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[[Category:Portage]]
You can stop your application by pressing Control-C. In the future, you can start and stop your Zope instance using the following commands:
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<console>
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$##i## zopectl start
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$##i## zopectl stop
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</console>
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{{fancynote| <tt>zopectl start</tt> will cause your instance to run in the background rather than consuming a shell console.}}
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== First Project ==
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We will create a single, very primitive Zope package, consisting of an Interface for a TODO class, and a TODO class.
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Create the following files and directories relative to your project root:
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* Create the directory <tt>lib/python/example</tt>.
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* Create the file <tt>lib/python/example/__init__.py</tt> by typing <tt>touch lib/python/example/__init__.py</tt>.
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* Create these files:
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=== <tt>example-configure.zcml</tt> ===
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This file registers the <tt>example</tt> directory you created in <tt>lib/python</tt> as a ''package'', so that it is seen by Zope. Edit <code>/etc/package-includes/example-configure.zcml</code>:
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<pre>
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<include package="example" />
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</pre>
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=== <tt>interfaces.py</tt> ===
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The following file defines the <tt>ITODO</tt> interface, and also uses some Zope Schema functions to define what kind of data we expect to store in objects that implement <tt>ITODO</tt>. Edit <code>/lib/python/example/interfaces.py</code> with your favorite text editor:
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<syntaxhighlight lang="python">
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from zope.interface import Interface
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from zope.schema import List, Text, TextLine, Int
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class ITODO(Interface):
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    name = TextLine(title=u'Name', required=True)
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    todo = List(title=u"TODO Items", required=True, value_type=TextLine(title=u'TODO'))
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    daysleft = Int(title=u'Days left to complete', required=True)
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    description = Text(title=u'Description', required=True)
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</syntaxhighlight>
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=== <tt>TODO.py</tt> ===
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Now, we define <tt>TODO</tt> to be a ''persistent'' object, meaning it can be stored in the ZODB. We specify that it implements our previously-defined <tt>ITODO</tt> interface, and provide reasonable defaults for all values when we create a new TODO object. Edit <code>/lib/python/example/TODO.py<code> using your favorite text editor:
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<syntaxhighlight lang="python">
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from persistent import Persistent
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from zope.interface import implements
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from example.interfaces import ITODO
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class TODO(Persistent):
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    implements(ITODO)
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    name = u''
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    todo = []
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    daysleft = 0
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    description = u''
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</syntaxhighlight>
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=== <tt>configure.zcml</tt> ===
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Create the <tt>/lib/python/example/configure.zcml</tt> configuration file:
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<syntaxhighlight lang="xml">
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<configure xmlns="http://namespaces.zope.org/zope"
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    xmlns:five="http://namespaces.zope.org/five"
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    xmlns:browser="http://namespaces.zope.org/browser">
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</configure>
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</syntaxhighlight>
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== Debug Mode ==
+
 
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We can test our first project by entering debug mode:
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<console>
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$##i## bin/zopectl debug
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Starting debugger (the name "app" is bound to the top-level Zope object)
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</console>
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Now, let's try creating a new TODO object and writing it out to a ZODB database:
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<console>
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>>> from ZODB import FileStorage, DB
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>>> storage = FileStorage.FileStorage('mydatabase.fs')
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>>> db = DB(storage)
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>>> connection = db.open()
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>>> import transaction
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>>> root = connection.root()
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>>> from example.TODO import TODO
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>>> a = TODO
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>>> a.name = u'My TODOs'
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>>> a.TODOS = [ u'Do Laundry', u'Wash Dishes' ]
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>>> a.daysleft = 1
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>>> a.description = u'Things I need to do today.'
+
>>> root[u'today'] = a
+
>>> transaction.commit()
+
</console>
+
 
+
[[Category:HOWTO]]
+

Revision as of 04:52, February 27, 2015

Warning

This article is a work-in-progress referring to a future Portage version. It does not apply to the current Funtoo Portage version. Please do not update your configuration yet.

Starting with Portage-2.3.8, a switch to a new repository configuration framework is complete and users may want to update their configuration files. This document aims to describe the goals for the new framework and how to use it.

Multiple repository layout

One of the most important changes is the switch from the old overlay layout to a new cleaner repository system. The new layout is more flexible and more predictable. For example, repositories can now use resources (eclasses, for example) provided by other repositories.

The old layout was based on the concept of one main tree and optionally a number of overlays. The main tree provided base system ebuilds, eclasses, profiles, while overlays mostly were able to provide their own ebuilds. The ebuild provided by overlays overrode the ebuilds in main tree to the extend of making it impossible to install the main tree version. Overlays could also provide eclasses for their own ebuilds and package.* entries that applied to all overlays and to the main tree. The Package Manager is responsible for updating the main tree, while overlays are managed externally.

The new layout is based on the concept of one or more configurable repositories. Each repository can either be stand-alone or depend upon other repositories. The distribution provides a repository called funtoo (a drop-in replacement for Gentoo's gentoo repository). Users can install more repositories at they will, the repositories providing their own ebuilds, eclasses and profiles as necessary and/or using them from other repositories. Users can explicitly choose the repository they want to install packages from. The Package Manager can update all repositories.

Portage configuration

New repository layout

The repository configuration should be stored in /etc/portage/repos.conf. It can be either a single file or a directory containing one or more .conf files.

The default configuration is installed as /usr/share/portage/config/repos.conf. This file is internal configuration file installed with portage ebuild and should not be modified. Instead, the configuration in /etc/portage/repos.conf can override the defaults specified there.

The configuration uses format similar to Windows .ini files. Each section heading (repository name in square brackets) signifies a single repository, followed by one or more key-value option pairs. For example, the following file copies default configuration for Funtoo repository:

/etc/portage/repos.conf/funtoo.conf - Example configuration override for Funtoo repository to move it to non-standard location
[funtoo]
# moved to non-standard location!
location = /var/db/repos/funtoo
sync-type = git
sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git
auto-sync = yes

The most useful repository configuration options are listed below:

location
Obligatory. Specifies the directory where repository is/will be stored. If Portage knows how to sync the repository and the location does not exist, it will be created on next emerge --sync. Otherwise, the directory must exist.
priority
Specifies the priority used for ordering ebuilds from different repositories. If two repositories provide an ebuild with matching versions, the repository with higher priority will be used.
auto-sync
Specifies whether emerge --sync should update the repository. Defaults to yes if sync-type is specified, no otherwise.
sync-depth
Specifies --depth for git clone. Used only on initial sync. Defaults to 1. Can be set to 0 to force full clone (not pass --depth at all).
sync-type
Specifies syncing/update method. Can be one of: cvs, git, rsync, svn.
sync-umask
Specifies the umask used when updating/syncing the repository.
sync-uri
Specifies remote URI from which the repository will be cloned/synced. Can use any syntax valid for a particular syncing method.
sync-user
Specifies the user[:group] used to update/sync the repository. If FEATURES=usersync is used, defaults to the credentials of directory owner.

Additionally a [DEFAULT] section may be specified. Options in this section are used as defaults for all repositories.

Migrating existing configurations

The new configuration format provides replacement for existing configuration done through /etc/portage/make.conf and environment variables. While the variables are still supported for backwards compatibility, users are recommended to move to the new configuration scheme. Funtoo portage ebuild is planned to make the migration unattended (repos.conf installed automatically to ease the config steps) with the following file:

/etc/portage/repos.conf/funtoo.conf
[funtoo]
location = /usr/portage
sync-type = git
sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git
auto-sync = yes

The following replacements are provided for existing variables:

PORTDIR
Used to specify main tree location. Replaced by location key in the section corresponding to the default repository ([funtoo] by default).
PORTDIR_OVERLAY
Used to specify locations of overlays. Each of the paths needs to be replaced with a separate repository section, with the path placed in location key. Additionally, priority may be used to force specific ordering of ebuild overrides.
SYNC
Used to specify URI for syncing the main repository, also implied a protocol for doing that. Replaced by the sync-uri and sync-type keys in the default repository section.
SYNC_UMASK
Used to specify umask for syncing repositories. Replaced by sync-umask key in repository configuration. Can be specified in [DEFAULT] section to apply to all repositories.
SYNC_USER
Used to specify user credentials for syncing repositories. Replaced by sync-user key in repository configuration. Can be specified in [DEFAULT] section to apply to all repositories.
/etc/portage/make.conf - Example old make.conf file
# user changed PORTDIR location
PORTDIR="/var/db/repos/funtoo"
PORTDIR_OVERLAY="/var/db/repos/foo /var/db/repos/bar"

SYNC="git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git"
SYNC_USER="oleg"
SYNC_UMASK="022"
/etc/portage/repos.conf - Replacement repos.conf file
[DEFAULT]
sync-user = oleg
sync-umask = 022

[funtoo]
location = /var/db/repos/funtoo
sync-type = git
sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git

[foo]
location = /var/db/repos/foo
priority = 1

[bar]
location = /var/db/repos/bar
priority = 2

The repos.conf configuration can be further extended with sync-type and sync-uri for overlays to get emerge --sync updating them automatically.

let's see a real example of tree and overlays added.

/etc/portage/repos.conf - Replacement repos.conf file
[gentoo]
location = /usr/portage
sync-type = git
sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012.git
 
[funtoo-overlay]
location = /root/git/funtoo-overlay
 
[funtoo-gnome]
location = /root/git/funtoo-gnome-overlay

funtoo-overlay and funtoo-gnome-overlay are an overlays added on top of regular portage tree.