Difference between pages "Windows 7 Virtualization with KVM" and "Repository Configuration"

(Difference between pages)
 
(Undo revision 9202 by Duncan.britton (talk))
 
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This page describes how to set up Funtoo Linux to run Windows 7 Professional 32-bit within a KVM virtual machine. KVM is suitable for running Windows 7 for general desktop application use. It does not provide 3D support, but offers a nice, high-performance virtualization solution for day-to-day productivity applications. It is also very easy to set up.
+
{{Warning|This article is a work-in-progress referring to a future Portage version. It does not apply to the current Funtoo Portage version. Please do not update your configuration yet.}}
  
== Introduction ==
+
Starting with Portage-2.3.8, a switch to a new repository configuration framework is complete and users may want to update their configuration files. This document aims to describe the goals for the new framework and how to use it.
  
KVM is a hardware-accelerated full-machine hypervisor and virtualization solution included as part of kernel 2.6.20 and later. It allows you to create and start hardware-accelerated virtual machines under Linux using the QEMU tools.
+
== Multiple repository layout ==
 +
One of the most important changes is the switch from the old ''overlay'' layout to a new cleaner ''repository'' system. The new layout is more flexible and more predictable. For example, repositories can now use resources (eclasses, for example) provided by other repositories.
  
[[File:Windows7virt.png|400px|Windows 7 Professional 32-bit running within qemu-kvm]]
+
The old layout was based on the concept of one ''main tree'' and optionally a number of overlays. The main tree provided base system ebuilds, eclasses, profiles, while overlays mostly were able to provide their own ebuilds. The ebuild provided by overlays overrode the ebuilds in main tree to the extend of making it impossible to install the main tree version. Overlays could also provide eclasses for their own ebuilds and package.* entries that applied to all overlays and to the main tree. The Package Manager is responsible for updating the main tree, while overlays are managed externally.
  
== KVM Setup ==
+
The new layout is based on the concept of one or more configurable repositories. Each repository can either be stand-alone or depend upon other repositories. The distribution provides a repository called ''funtoo'' (a drop-in replacement for Gentoo's ''gentoo'' repository). Users can install more repositories at they will, the repositories providing their own ebuilds, eclasses and profiles as necessary and/or using them from other repositories. Users can explicitly choose the repository they want to install packages from. The Package Manager can update all repositories.
  
You will need KVM to be set up on the machine that will be running the virtual machine. This can be a local Linux system, or if you are using SPICE (see [[#SPICE (Accelerated Remote Connection)|SPICE]]), a local or remote system. See the SPICE section for tweaks that you will need to make to these instructions if you plan to run Windows 7 on a Funtoo Linux system that you will connect to remotely.
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== Portage configuration ==
 +
=== New repository layout ===
 +
The repository configuration should be stored in <code>/etc/portage/repos.conf</code>. It can be either a single file or a directory containing one or more ''.conf'' files.
  
Follow these steps for the system that will be running the virtual machine.
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The default configuration is installed as <code>/usr/share/portage/config/repos.conf</code>. This file is internal configuration file installed with portage ebuild and should '''not''' be modified. Instead, the configuration in <code>/etc/portage/repos.conf</code> can override the defaults specified there.
  
If you are using an automatically-built kernel, it is likely that kernel support for KVM is already available.
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The configuration uses format similar to Windows .ini files. Each section heading (repository name in square brackets) signifies a single repository, followed by one or more key-value option pairs. For example, the following file copies default configuration for Funtoo repository:
  
If you build your kernel from scratch, please see [[KVM|the KVM page]] for detailed instructions on how to enable KVM. These instructions also cover the process of emerging qemu, which is also necessary. [[KVM|Do this first, as described on the KVM page]] -- then come back here.
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{{file|name=/etc/portage/repos.conf/funtoo.conf|desc=Example configuration override for Funtoo repository to move it to non-standard location|body=
 +
[funtoo]
 +
# moved to non-standard location!
 +
location = /var/db/repos/funtoo
 +
sync-type = git
 +
sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git
 +
auto-sync = yes
 +
}}
  
{{fancyimportant|Before using KVM, be sure that your user account is in the <tt>kvm</tt> group so that <tt>qemu</tt> can access <tt>/dev/kvm</tt>. You will need to use a command such as <tt>vigr</tt> as root to do this, and then log out and log back in for this to take effect.}}
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The most useful repository configuration options are listed below:
 +
;location: ''Obligatory.'' Specifies the directory where repository is/will be stored. If Portage knows how to sync the repository and the location does not exist, it will be created on next ''emerge --sync''. Otherwise, the directory must exist.
 +
;priority: Specifies the priority used for ordering ebuilds from different repositories. If two repositories provide an ebuild with matching versions, the repository with higher priority will be used.
 +
;auto-sync: Specifies whether ''emerge --sync'' should update the repository. Defaults to ''yes'' if ''sync-type'' is specified, ''no'' otherwise.
 +
;sync-depth: Specifies ''--depth'' for git clone. Used only on initial sync. Defaults to 1. Can be set to 0 to force full clone (not pass ''--depth'' at all).
 +
;sync-type: Specifies syncing/update method. Can be one of: ''cvs'', ''git'', ''rsync'', ''svn''.
 +
;sync-umask: Specifies the umask used when updating/syncing the repository.
 +
;sync-uri: Specifies remote URI from which the repository will be cloned/synced. Can use any syntax valid for a particular syncing method.
 +
;sync-user: Specifies the user[:group] used to update/sync the repository. If ''FEATURES=usersync'' is used, defaults to the credentials of directory owner.
  
Prior to using KVM, modprobe the appropriate accelerated driver for Intel or AMD, as root:
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Additionally a <code>[DEFAULT]</code> section may be specified. Options in this section are used as defaults for all repositories.
  
<console>
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=== Migrating existing configurations ===
# ##i##modprobe kvm_intel
+
The new configuration format provides replacement for existing configuration done through <code>/etc/portage/make.conf</code> and environment variables. While the variables are still supported for backwards compatibility, users are recommended to move to the new configuration scheme. Funtoo portage ebuild is planned to  make the migration unattended (repos.conf installed automatically to ease the config steps) with the following file:
</console>
+
 +
{{file|name=/etc/portage/repos.conf/funtoo.conf|body=
 +
[funtoo]
 +
location = /usr/portage
 +
sync-type = git
 +
sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git
 +
auto-sync = yes
 +
}}
 +
The following replacements are provided for existing variables:
 +
;PORTDIR: Used to specify main tree location. Replaced by ''location'' key in the section corresponding to the default repository (<code>[funtoo]</code> by default).
 +
;PORTDIR_OVERLAY: Used to specify locations of overlays. Each of the paths needs to be replaced with a separate repository section, with the path placed in ''location'' key. Additionally, ''priority'' may be used to force specific ordering of ebuild overrides.
 +
;SYNC: Used to specify URI for syncing the main repository, also implied a protocol for doing that. Replaced by the ''sync-uri'' and ''sync-type'' keys in the default repository section.
 +
;SYNC_UMASK: Used to specify umask for syncing repositories. Replaced by ''sync-umask'' key in repository configuration. Can be specified in <code>[DEFAULT]</code> section to apply to all repositories.
 +
;SYNC_USER: Used to specify user credentials for syncing repositories. Replaced by ''sync-user'' key in repository configuration. Can be specified in <code>[DEFAULT]</code> section to apply to all repositories.
  
== Windows 7 ISO Images ==
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{{file|name=/etc/portage/make.conf|desc=Example old make.conf file|body=
 +
# user changed PORTDIR location
 +
PORTDIR="/var/db/repos/funtoo"
 +
PORTDIR_OVERLAY="/var/db/repos/foo /var/db/repos/bar"
  
In this tutorial, we are going to install Windows 7 Professional, 32-bit Edition. Microsoft provides a free download of the ISO DVD image, but this does require a valid license key for installation. You can download Windows 7 Professional, 32 bit at the following location:
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SYNC="git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git"
 +
SYNC_USER="oleg"
 +
SYNC_UMASK="022"
 +
}}
  
http://msft-dnl.digitalrivercontent.net/msvista/pub/X15-65804/X15-65804.iso
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{{file|name=/etc/portage/repos.conf|desc=Replacement repos.conf file|body=
 +
[DEFAULT]
 +
sync-user = oleg
 +
sync-umask = 022
  
{{fancynote|Windows 7 Professional, 32-bit Edition is a free download but requires a valid license key for installation.}}
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[funtoo]
 +
location = /var/db/repos/funtoo
 +
sync-type = git
 +
sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git
  
In addition, it's highly recommended that you download "VirtIO" drivers produced by Red Hat. These drivers are installed under Windows and significantly improve Windows 7 network and disk performance. You want to download the ISO file (not the ZIP file) at the following location:
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[foo]
 +
location = /var/db/repos/foo
 +
priority = 1
  
http://alt.fedoraproject.org/pub/alt/virtio-win/latest/images/
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[bar]
 +
location = /var/db/repos/bar
 +
priority = 2
 +
}}
  
== Create Raw Disk ==
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The <code>repos.conf</code> configuration can be further extended with ''sync-type'' and ''sync-uri'' for overlays to get ''emerge --sync'' updating them automatically.
  
In this tutorial, we are going to create a 30GB raw disk image for Windows 7. Raw disk images offer better performance than the commonly-used QCOW2 format. Do this as a regular user:
+
let's see a real example of tree and overlays added.  
 +
{{file|name=/etc/portage/repos.conf|desc=Replacement repos.conf file|body=
  
<console>
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[gentoo]
$ ##i##cd
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location = /usr/portage
$ ##i##qemu-img create -f raw win7.img 30G
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sync-type = git
</console>
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sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012.git
 
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We now have an empty virtual disk image called <tt>win7.img</tt> in our home directory.
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[funtoo-overlay]
 
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location = /root/git/funtoo-overlay
== QEMU script ==
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[funtoo-gnome]
Now, we'll create the following script to start our virtual machine and begin Windows 7 installation. Note that this script assumes that the two ISO files downloaded earlier were placed in the user's <tt>Downloads</tt> directory. Adjust paths as necessary if that is not the case. Also be sure to adjust the following parts of the script:
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location = /root/git/funtoo-gnome-overlay
 
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}}
* Adjust the name of <tt>VIRTIMG</tt> to match the exact name of the VirtIO ISO image you downloaded earlier
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funtoo-overlay and funtoo-gnome-overlay are an overlays added on top of regular portage tree.
* Adjust the <tt>smp</tt> option to use the number of CPU cores and threads (if your system has hyperthreading) of your Linux system's CPU.
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[[Category:Portage]]
 
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Use your favorite text editor to create the following script. Name it something like <tt>vm.sh</tt>:
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<syntaxhighlight lang="bash">
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#!/bin/sh
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export QEMU_AUDIO_DRV=alsa
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DISKIMG=~/win7.img
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WIN7IMG=~/Downloads/X15-65804.iso
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VIRTIMG=~/Downloads/virtio-win-0.1-74.iso
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qemu-system-x86_64 --enable-kvm -drive file=${DISKIMG},if=virtio -m 2048 \
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-net nic,model=virtio -net user -cdrom ${WIN7IMG} \
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-drive file=${VIRTIMG},index=3,media=cdrom \
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-rtc base=localtime,clock=host -smp cores=2,threads=4 \
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-usbdevice tablet -soundhw ac97 -cpu host -vga vmware
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</syntaxhighlight>
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Now, make the script executable:
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<console>
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$ ##i##chmod +x vm.sh
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</console>
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Here is a brief summary of what the script does. It starts the <tt>qemu-kvm</tt> program and instructs it to use KVM to accelerate virtualization. The display will be shown locally, in a window. If you are using the SPICE method, described later in this document, no window will appear, and you will be able to connect remotely to your running virtual machine.
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+
The system disk is the 30GB raw image you created, and we tell QEMU to use "virtio" mode for this disk, as well as "virtio" for network access. This will require that we install special drivers during installation to access the disk and enable networking, but will give us better performance.
+
 
+
To assist us in installing the VirtIO drivers, we have configured the system with two DVD drives -- the first holds the Windows 7 installation media, and the second contains the VirtIO driver ISO that we will need to access during Windows 7 installation.
+
 
+
The <tt>-usbdevice tablet</tt> option will cause our mouse and keyboard interaction with our virtual environment to be intuitive and easy to use.
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+
{{fancyimportant|1=
+
For optimal performance, adjust the script so that the <tt>-smp</tt> option specifies the exact number of cores and threads on your system -- on non-HyperThreading systems (AMD and some Intel), simply remove the <tt>,threads=X</tt> option entirely and just specify cores. Also ensure that the <tt>-m</tt> option provides enough RAM for Windows 7, without eating up all your system's RAM. On a 4GB Linux system, use <tt>1536</tt>. For an 8GB system, <tt>2048</tt> is safe.}}
+
 
+
== SPICE (Accelerated Remote Connection) ==
+
SPICE is a new technology that has been incorporated into QEMU, which allows the virtual machine to run on one system, and allows you to use <code>spicec</code>, the SPICE client, to connect to your remote virtual machine. In real-world use, you can run a SPICE server (via QEMU) and client on the same machine if you like, or have them on the same local area network, or have server and client connect over an Internet connection. Here are some important facts about SPICE:
+
* SPICE provides accelerated, optimized video updates over the network, similar to VNC
+
* QEMU can be configured to run a SPICE server, which you can connect to via <code>spicec</code>, the SPICE client. The SPICE client renders to a local window on your system.
+
* SPICE allows easy copying and pasting across operating systems -- for example, you can copy something in GNOME, paste it into the <code>spicec</code> window and have it appear on your Windows 7 system.
+
 
+
=== SPICE Setup ===
+
To set up SPICE, you need to perform the following changes to the "standard" steps described in this document:
+
# Emerge QEMU with the <code>spice</code> USE variable on the system that will be running the Windows 7 virtual machine.
+
# Emerge <code>spice</code> on the system that you will be using to connect to your remote Windows 7 virtual machine.
+
# In the <code>vm.sh</code> script, remove the existing <code>-vga vmware</code> <code>qemu-kvm</code> option, and add these options: <code>-vga qxl -device virtio-serial-pci -spice port=5900,password=mypass -device virtserialport,chardev=spicechannel0,name=com.redhat.spice.0 -chardev spicevmc,id=spicechannel0,name=vdagent</code>
+
# Run <code>vm.sh</code> as described in the next section on your remote server (your Windows 7 system will now boot, but you can't see the virtual machine display) and then connect to it by running the following command on your local system:
+
<console>
+
# ##i##spicec -h remotehost -p 5900 -w mypass
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</console>
+
The SPICE client window will appear locally and allow you to interact with your Windows 7 system.
+
 
+
== Starting Windows 7 Installation ==
+
 
+
Now, it's time to start Windows 7 installation. Run <tt>vm.sh</tt> as follows:
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+
<console>
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$ ##i##./vm.sh
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</console>
+
 
+
Windows 7 installation will begin. During the installation process, you will need to enter a valid license key, and also load ''both'' VirtIO drivers from Red Hat when prompted (Browse to the second DVD, then win7 directory, then x86).
+
 
+
After some time, Windows 7 installation will complete. You will be able to perform Windows Update, as by default, you will have network access if your host Linux system has network access.
+
 
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Enjoy your virtualized Windows 7 system!
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+
[[Category:Tutorial]]
+
[[Category:First Steps]]
+
[[Category:Virtualization]]
+
[[Category:KVM]]
+
[[Category:Official Documentation]]
+
[[Category:Articles]]
+

Revision as of 04:52, February 27, 2015

Warning

This article is a work-in-progress referring to a future Portage version. It does not apply to the current Funtoo Portage version. Please do not update your configuration yet.

Starting with Portage-2.3.8, a switch to a new repository configuration framework is complete and users may want to update their configuration files. This document aims to describe the goals for the new framework and how to use it.

Multiple repository layout

One of the most important changes is the switch from the old overlay layout to a new cleaner repository system. The new layout is more flexible and more predictable. For example, repositories can now use resources (eclasses, for example) provided by other repositories.

The old layout was based on the concept of one main tree and optionally a number of overlays. The main tree provided base system ebuilds, eclasses, profiles, while overlays mostly were able to provide their own ebuilds. The ebuild provided by overlays overrode the ebuilds in main tree to the extend of making it impossible to install the main tree version. Overlays could also provide eclasses for their own ebuilds and package.* entries that applied to all overlays and to the main tree. The Package Manager is responsible for updating the main tree, while overlays are managed externally.

The new layout is based on the concept of one or more configurable repositories. Each repository can either be stand-alone or depend upon other repositories. The distribution provides a repository called funtoo (a drop-in replacement for Gentoo's gentoo repository). Users can install more repositories at they will, the repositories providing their own ebuilds, eclasses and profiles as necessary and/or using them from other repositories. Users can explicitly choose the repository they want to install packages from. The Package Manager can update all repositories.

Portage configuration

New repository layout

The repository configuration should be stored in /etc/portage/repos.conf. It can be either a single file or a directory containing one or more .conf files.

The default configuration is installed as /usr/share/portage/config/repos.conf. This file is internal configuration file installed with portage ebuild and should not be modified. Instead, the configuration in /etc/portage/repos.conf can override the defaults specified there.

The configuration uses format similar to Windows .ini files. Each section heading (repository name in square brackets) signifies a single repository, followed by one or more key-value option pairs. For example, the following file copies default configuration for Funtoo repository:

/etc/portage/repos.conf/funtoo.conf - Example configuration override for Funtoo repository to move it to non-standard location
[funtoo]
# moved to non-standard location!
location = /var/db/repos/funtoo
sync-type = git
sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git
auto-sync = yes

The most useful repository configuration options are listed below:

location
Obligatory. Specifies the directory where repository is/will be stored. If Portage knows how to sync the repository and the location does not exist, it will be created on next emerge --sync. Otherwise, the directory must exist.
priority
Specifies the priority used for ordering ebuilds from different repositories. If two repositories provide an ebuild with matching versions, the repository with higher priority will be used.
auto-sync
Specifies whether emerge --sync should update the repository. Defaults to yes if sync-type is specified, no otherwise.
sync-depth
Specifies --depth for git clone. Used only on initial sync. Defaults to 1. Can be set to 0 to force full clone (not pass --depth at all).
sync-type
Specifies syncing/update method. Can be one of: cvs, git, rsync, svn.
sync-umask
Specifies the umask used when updating/syncing the repository.
sync-uri
Specifies remote URI from which the repository will be cloned/synced. Can use any syntax valid for a particular syncing method.
sync-user
Specifies the user[:group] used to update/sync the repository. If FEATURES=usersync is used, defaults to the credentials of directory owner.

Additionally a [DEFAULT] section may be specified. Options in this section are used as defaults for all repositories.

Migrating existing configurations

The new configuration format provides replacement for existing configuration done through /etc/portage/make.conf and environment variables. While the variables are still supported for backwards compatibility, users are recommended to move to the new configuration scheme. Funtoo portage ebuild is planned to make the migration unattended (repos.conf installed automatically to ease the config steps) with the following file:

/etc/portage/repos.conf/funtoo.conf
[funtoo]
location = /usr/portage
sync-type = git
sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git
auto-sync = yes

The following replacements are provided for existing variables:

PORTDIR
Used to specify main tree location. Replaced by location key in the section corresponding to the default repository ([funtoo] by default).
PORTDIR_OVERLAY
Used to specify locations of overlays. Each of the paths needs to be replaced with a separate repository section, with the path placed in location key. Additionally, priority may be used to force specific ordering of ebuild overrides.
SYNC
Used to specify URI for syncing the main repository, also implied a protocol for doing that. Replaced by the sync-uri and sync-type keys in the default repository section.
SYNC_UMASK
Used to specify umask for syncing repositories. Replaced by sync-umask key in repository configuration. Can be specified in [DEFAULT] section to apply to all repositories.
SYNC_USER
Used to specify user credentials for syncing repositories. Replaced by sync-user key in repository configuration. Can be specified in [DEFAULT] section to apply to all repositories.
/etc/portage/make.conf - Example old make.conf file
# user changed PORTDIR location
PORTDIR="/var/db/repos/funtoo"
PORTDIR_OVERLAY="/var/db/repos/foo /var/db/repos/bar"

SYNC="git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git"
SYNC_USER="oleg"
SYNC_UMASK="022"
/etc/portage/repos.conf - Replacement repos.conf file
[DEFAULT]
sync-user = oleg
sync-umask = 022

[funtoo]
location = /var/db/repos/funtoo
sync-type = git
sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git

[foo]
location = /var/db/repos/foo
priority = 1

[bar]
location = /var/db/repos/bar
priority = 2

The repos.conf configuration can be further extended with sync-type and sync-uri for overlays to get emerge --sync updating them automatically.

let's see a real example of tree and overlays added.

/etc/portage/repos.conf - Replacement repos.conf file
[gentoo]
location = /usr/portage
sync-type = git
sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012.git
 
[funtoo-overlay]
location = /root/git/funtoo-overlay
 
[funtoo-gnome]
location = /root/git/funtoo-gnome-overlay

funtoo-overlay and funtoo-gnome-overlay are an overlays added on top of regular portage tree.