Difference between pages "ZFS Install Guide" and "FLOP:Release Engineering"

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== Introduction ==
+
'''Jonathan Vasquez (fearedbliss)'''
  
This tutorial will show you how to install Funtoo on ZFS (rootfs). This tutorial is meant to be an "overlay" over the [[Funtoo_Linux_Installation|Regular Funtoo Installation]]. Follow the normal installation and only use this guide for steps 2, 3, and 8.
+
'''Version 0.2'''
  
=== Introduction to ZFS ===
+
== Introduction ==
  
Since ZFS is a new technology for Linux, it can be helpful to understand some of its benefits, particularly in comparison to BTRFS, another popular next-generation Linux filesystem:
+
This is a proposal to implement a strong release engineering infrastructure for Funtoo Linux. Funtoo currently is _only_ a rolling-release distro and does not have the _option_ to also be non-rolling. In order to create a more stable Funtoo system, this proposal will be offering a few things that we can do to make that happen.
  
* On Linux, the ZFS code can be updated independently of the kernel to obtain the latest fixes. btrfs is exclusive to Linux and you need to build the latest kernel sources to get the latest fixes.
+
The below proposals will not change Funtoo from a rolling-release system to a non-rolling release system. It will simply add the option to be non-rolling. Funtoo will also not be a binary distro. It will still be a source based distro but it will also have the ability to use binaries for a few select packages (Basically the Gentoo Reference Platform will be restarted and improved).
  
* ZFS is supported on multiple platforms. The platforms with the best support are Solaris, FreeBSD and Linux. Other platforms with varying degrees of support are NetBSD, Mac OS X and Windows. btrfs is exclusive to Linux.
+
I believe that this will also make running Funtoo for users that want further stability and/or users that are running Funtoo as a server in an enterprise environment/or otherwise, more feasible.
  
* ZFS has the Adaptive Replacement Cache replacement algorithm while btrfs uses the Linux kernel's Last Recently Used replacement algorithm. The former often has an overwhelmingly superior hit rate, which means fewer disk accesses.
+
The following things are proposed:
  
* ZFS has the ZFS Intent Log and SLOG devices, which accelerates small synchronous write performance.
+
* Semi-rolling release model for Funtoo-'''RELEASE''' and Funtoo-'''STABLE''' (Funtoo-'''CURRENT''' will stay rolling release)'''
 +
* A Complete Core OS'''
 +
* A set of monitored applications that will be checked for stability and consistency'''
  
* ZFS handles internal fragmentation gracefully, such that you can fill it until 100%. Internal fragmentation in btrfs can make btrfs think it is full at 10%. Btrfs has no automatic rebalancing code, so it requires a manual rebalance to correct it.
+
== Semi-rolling Time Based Releases ==
  
* ZFS has raidz, which is like RAID 5/6 (or a hypothetical RAID 7 that supports 3 parity disks), except it does not suffer from the RAID write hole issue thanks to its use of CoW and a variable stripe size. btrfs gained integrated RAID 5/6 functionality in Linux 3.9. However, its implementation uses a stripe cache that can only partially mitigate the effect of the RAID write hole.
+
The semi-rolling release model is a hybrid between a rolling release and just a regular release. This means that instead of bring new packages in all the time (rolling release), and instead of just completely freezing everything and bringing new packages/features every X months, we can have a middle ground where we can branch the Funtoo-'''CURRENT''' git branch and then focus on stabilizing that tree. Once we stabilize it, people can use it without having to worry about major version upgrades. The user can then use this branch until another branch later in the future is created. The user can then easily upgrade to the new branch by switching their SYNC variable.  
  
* ZFS send/receive implementation supports incremental update when doing backups. btrfs' send/receive implementation requires sending the entire snapshot.
+
So essentially it is a slow rolling-release (or semi-rolling or rolling-release with speed bumps).
  
* ZFS supports data deduplication, which is a memory hog and only works well for specialized workloads. btrfs has no equivalent.
+
Names for Funtoo's 3 git branches:
 +
* Funtoo-'''CURRENT''' (Latest Developments - HEAD. This is the normal funtoo-current tree.)
  
* ZFS datasets have a hierarchical namespace while btrfs subvolumes have a flat namespace.
+
* Funtoo-'''RELEASE''' (Just a release in a specific point in time - a branch of Funtoo-'''CURRENT''' is created, frozen, and stabilize.)
  
* ZFS has the ability to create virtual block devices called zvols in its namespace. btrfs has no equivalent and must rely on the loop device for this functionality, which is cumbersome.
+
* Funtoo-'''STABLE''' (This is the same as a '''RELEASE''' but it is supported for a longer period of time).
  
The only area where btrfs is ahead of ZFS is in the area of small file
+
=== Which branch is for what person? ===
efficiency. btrfs supports a feature called block suballocation, which
+
The Funtoo-'''CURRENT''' branch is for people who want to be on the bleeding edge all the time. You will get the latest updates, and here is where all the development happens. Your system might not be fully stable all the time, and things might fail to compile. This is literally the traditional Gentoo rolling-release model. If you are used to using Gentoo/Funtoo, and want to continue using your system the way it has always been, this is the branch for you.
enables it to store small files far more efficiently than ZFS. It is
+
possible to use another filesystem (e.g. reiserfs) on top of a ZFS zvol
+
to obtain similar benefits (with arguably better data integrity) when
+
dealing with many small files (e.g. the portage tree).
+
  
=== Disclaimers ===
+
The Funtoo-'''RELEASE''' branch is for people who want to be rolling and receive new features but be more stable than Funtoo-'''CURRENT''' by using a frozen portage tree at a specific point in time that is audited for stability.
  
{{fancywarning|This guide is a work in progress. Expect some quirks.}}
+
The Funtoo-'''STABLE''' branch is for people who prefer stability and don't need the latest features that are in the '''RELEASE''' branches. This branch is frozen for a longer period of time.
{{fancyimportant|'''Since ZFS was really designed for 64 bit systems, we are only recommending and supporting 64 bit platforms and installations. We will not be supporting 32 bit platforms'''!}}
+
  
== Video Tutorial ==
+
=== Example of 4 month RELEASE cycle, and a 2 year STABLE cycle ===
 
+
For the branch developments: Let's picture a 4 month RELEASE cycle (semi-rolling), and a 2 years STABLE cycle. If we expand this starting from January 2013, we would get the following releases over two years:
As a companion to the installation instructions below, a YouTube video tutorial is now available:
+
 
+
{{#widget:YouTube|id=SWyThdxNoP8|width=640|height=360}}
+
 
+
== Downloading the ISO (With ZFS) ==
+
In order for us to install Funtoo on ZFS, you will need an environment that already provides the ZFS tools. Therefore we will download a customized version of System Rescue CD with ZFS included.
+
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
Name: sysresccd-4.0.1_zfs_0.6.2.iso  (545 MB)
+
Funtoo-13.1-STABLE  (January 2013)
Release Date: 2014-02-25
+
Funtoo-13.2-RELEASE (May 2013)
md5sum 01f4e6929247d54db77ab7be4d156d85
+
Funtoo-13.3-RELEASE (September 2013)
 +
Funtoo-14.1-RELEASE (January 2014)
 +
Funtoo-14.2-RELEASE (May 2014)
 +
Funtoo-14.3-RELEASE (September 2014)
 +
Funtoo-15.1-STABLE  (January 2015)
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
 +
This gives you 2 STABLE releases in two years and 5 RELEASEs in between. That's a total of 7 releases. STABLE releases only get bugfixes and security updates. RELEASE are for people that want to get the latest bleeding edge stuff, but still want to be stable within RELEASEs.
  
'''[http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/funtoo/distfiles/sysresccd/ Download System Rescue CD with ZFS]'''<br />
+
For people that are used to the normal Gentoo/Funtoo stuff, you could just stay on the Funtoo-CURRENT branch.
 
+
== Creating a bootable USB from ISO (From a Linux Environment) ==
+
After you download the iso, you can do the following steps to create a bootable USB:
+
 
+
<console>
+
Make a temporary directory
+
# ##i##mkdir /tmp/loop
+
 
+
Mount the iso
+
# ##i##mount -o ro,loop /root/sysresccd-4.0.1_zfs_0.6.2.iso /tmp/loop
+
 
+
Run the usb installer
+
# ##i##/tmp/loop/usb_inst.sh
+
</console>
+
 
+
That should be all you need to do to get your flash drive working.
+
 
+
== Booting the ISO ==
+
 
+
{{fancywarning|'''When booting into the ISO, Make sure that you select the "Alternate 64 bit kernel (altker64)". The ZFS modules have been built specifically for this kernel rather than the standard kernel. If you select a different kernel, you will get a fail to load module stack error message.'''}}
+
 
+
== Creating partitions ==
+
There are two ways to partition your disk: You can use your entire drive and let ZFS automatically partition it for you, or you can do it manually.
+
 
+
We will be showing you how to partition it '''manually''' because if you partition it manually you get to create your own layout, you get to have your own separate /boot partition (Which is nice since not every bootloader supports booting from ZFS pools), and you get to boot into RAID10, RAID5 (RAIDZ) pools and any other layouts due to you having a separate /boot partition.
+
 
+
==== gdisk (GPT Style) ====
+
 
+
'''A Fresh Start''':
+
 
+
First lets make sure that the disk is completely wiped from any previous disk labels and partitions.
+
We will also assume that <tt>/dev/sda</tt> is the target drive.<br />
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##sgdisk -Z /dev/sda
+
</console>
+
 
+
{{fancywarning|This is a destructive operation and the program will not ask you for confirmation! Make sure you really don't want anything on this disk.}}
+
 
+
Now that we have a clean drive, we will create the new layout.
+
 
+
First open up the application:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##gdisk /dev/sda
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
+
<console>
+
Command: ##i##n ↵
+
Partition Number: ##i##↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+250M ↵
+
Hex Code: ##i##↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Create Partition 2''' (BIOS Boot Partition):
+
<console>Command: ##i##n ↵
+
Partition Number: ##i##↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+32M ↵
+
Hex Code: ##i##EF02 ↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Create Partition 3''' (ZFS):
+
<console>Command: ##i##n ↵
+
Partition Number: ##i##↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##↵
+
Hex Code: ##i##bf00 ↵
+
 
+
Command: ##i##p ↵
+
 
+
Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size      Code  Name
+
  1            2048          514047  250.0 MiB  8300  Linux filesystem
+
  2          514048          579583  32.0 MiB    EF02  BIOS boot partition
+
  3          579584      1953525134  931.2 GiB  BF00  Solaris root
+
 
+
Command: ##i##w ↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
 
+
=== Format your /boot partition ===
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 -m 1 /dev/sda1
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== Encryption (Optional) ===
+
If you want encryption, then create your encrypted vault(s) now by doing the following:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/sda3
+
# ##i##cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda3 vault_1
+
</console>
+
 
+
{{fancywarning|On some machines, a combination of ZFS and LUKS has caused instability and system crashes.}}
+
 
+
=== Create the zpool ===
+
We will first create the pool. The pool will be named `tank` and the disk will be aligned to 4096 (using ashift=12)
+
<console># ##i##zpool create -f -o ashift=12 -o cachefile= -O compression=on -m none -R /mnt/funtoo tank /dev/sda3</console>
+
 
+
{{fancyimportant|If you are using encrypted root, change '''/dev/sda3 to /dev/mapper/vault_1'''.}}
+
 
+
{{fancynote| If you have a previous pool that you would like to import, you can do a: '''zpool import -f -R /mnt/funtoo <pool_name>'''.}}
+
 
+
=== Create the zfs datasets ===
+
We will now create some datasets. For this installation, we will create a small but future proof amount of datasets. We will have a dataset for the OS (/), and your swap. We will also show you how to create some optional datasets: <tt>/home</tt>, <tt>/var</tt>, <tt>/usr/src</tt>, and <tt>/usr/portage</tt>.
+
 
+
<console>
+
Create some empty containers for organization purposes, and make the dataset that will hold /
+
# ##i##zfs create -p tank/funtoo
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/ tank/funtoo/root
+
 
+
Optional, but recommended datasets: /home
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/home tank/funtoo/home
+
 
+
Optional datasets: /usr/src, /usr/portage/{distfiles,packages}
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/src tank/funtoo/src
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage -o compression=off tank/funtoo/portage
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/distfiles tank/funtoo/portage/distfiles
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/packages tank/funtoo/portage/packages
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== Create your swap zvol ===
+
For modern machines that have greater than 4 GB of RAM, A swap size of 2G should be enough. However if your machine doesn't have a lot of RAM, the rule of thumb is either 2x the RAM or RAM + 1 GB.
+
 
+
For this tutorial we will assume that it is a newer machine and make a 2 GB swap.
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##zfs create -o sync=always -o primarycache=metadata -o secondarycache=none -o volblocksize=4K -V 2G tank/swap
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== Format your swap zvol ===
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkswap -f /dev/zvol/tank/swap
+
# ##i##swapon /dev/zvol/tank/swap
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now we will continue to install funtoo.
+
 
+
== Installing Funtoo ==
+
 
+
=== Pre-Chroot ===
+
 
+
<console>
+
Go into the directory that you will chroot into
+
# ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
+
 
+
Make a boot folder and mount your boot drive
+
# ##i##mkdir boot
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 boot
+
</console>
+
 
+
[[Funtoo_Linux_Installation|Now download and extract the Funtoo stage3 ...]]
+
 
+
Once you've extracted the stage3, do a few more preparations and chroot into your new funtoo environment:
+
 
+
<console>
+
Bind the kernel related directories
+
# ##i##mount -t proc none proc
+
# ##i##mount --rbind /dev dev
+
# ##i##mount --rbind /sys sys
+
 
+
Copy network settings
+
# ##i##cp -f /etc/resolv.conf etc
+
 
+
Make the zfs folder in 'etc' and copy your zpool.cache
+
# ##i##mkdir etc/zfs
+
# ##i##cp /etc/zfs/zpool.cache etc/zfs
+
 
+
Chroot into Funtoo
+
# ##i##env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== In Chroot ===
+
 
+
<console>
+
Create a symbolic link to your mountpoints
+
# ##i##ln -sf /proc/mounts /etc/mtab
+
 
+
Sync your tree
+
# ##i##emerge --sync
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== Add filesystems to /etc/fstab ===
+
 
+
Before we continue to compile and or install our kernel in the next step, we will edit the <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> file because if we decide to install our kernel through portage, portage will need to know where our <tt>/boot</tt> is, so that it can place the files in there.
+
 
+
Edit <tt>/etc/fstab</tt>:
+
  
 +
=== Example of 3 month RELEASE cycle, and a 2 year STABLE cycle ===
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
# <fs>                  <mountpoint>    <type>          <opts>          <dump/pass>
+
Funtoo-13.1-STABLE  (January 2013)
 
+
Funtoo-13.2-RELEASE (April 2013)
/dev/sda1              /boot          ext2            defaults        0 2
+
Funtoo-13.3-RELEASE (July 2013)
/dev/zvol/tank/swap    none            swap            sw              0 0
+
Funtoo-13.4-RELEASE (October 2013)
 +
Funtoo-14.1-RELEASE (January 2014)
 +
Funtoo-14.2-RELEASE (April 2014)
 +
Funtoo-14.3-RELEASE (July 2014)
 +
Funtoo-14.4-RELEASE (October 2014)
 +
Funtoo-15.1-STABLE  (January 2015)
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
== Kernel Configuration ==
+
If we have have a 3 month (semi-rolling) cycle, we would end up with 2 STABLE releases and 7 RELEASEs within two years. This is a total of 9 releases.
To speed up this step, you can install a pre-configured/compiled kernel called '''bliss-kernel'''. This kernel already has the correct configurations for ZFS and a variety of other scenarios. It's a vanilla kernel from kernel.org without any external patches.
+
  
To install {{Package|sys-kernel/bliss-kernel}} type the following:
+
=== What will these branches contain? What will they focus on? ===
 +
Funtoo-'''RELEASE''' and Funtoo-'''STABLE''' branches will only focus on the stability of specific packages that we are deciding to maintain at a specific point in time. All outside packages can be installed and maintained by outside package mantainers.
  
<console>
+
== A Complete Core OS ==
# ##i##emerge bliss-kernel
+
An operating system is not just a stage3 tarball. The stage3 will not boot by itself, but rather needs the user to compile a kernel and install a bootloader. We should have a well tested default kernel that is tested for stability. This will speed up deployments and will provide predictability for kernel modules, and other applications that rely on a kernel. We will also need to provide a way for the system to boot this kernel. Thus a default bootloader should be provided.
</console>
+
  
Now make sure that your <tt>/usr/src/linux symlink</tt> is pointing to this kernel by typing the following:
+
'''Core OS:'''
 +
* stage3 (Minimal @system applications needed for a functional Funtoo base system)
 +
* kernel (bliss-kernel can become the base of funtoo-kernel - or another kernel you think is good)
 +
* bootloader (a default bootloader to provide a seamless, fast, and easy deployment experience)
  
<console>
+
== Monitored Set of Applications ==
# ##i##eselect kernel list
+
In order for us to make a release stable, we will need to monitor a set of applications that we believe are essential for people that want to install servers and desktops. All of the monitored applications should work fine, they should be able to compile with no bugs (If the user is compiling), and they will also have binaries available. (The binaries will be compiled with the default and recommended USE flags that Funtoo developers believe give a functional binary).  
Available kernel symlink targets:
+
[1]  linux-3.12.13-KS.02 *
+
</console>
+
  
You should see a star next to the version you installed. In this case it was 3.12.13-KS.02. If it's not set, you can type '''eselect kernel set #'''.
+
Proposed set of packages:
  
== Installing the ZFS userspace tools and kernel modules ==
+
'''Core Applications:'''
Emerge {{Package|sys-fs/zfs}}. This package will bring in {{Package|sys-kernel/spl}}, and {{Package|sys-fs/zfs-kmod}} as its dependencies:
+
* Critical packages of stage3 that provide the Funtoo base system.
  
<console>
+
'''Server Applications:'''
# ##i##emerge zfs
+
{| class="wikitable"
</console>
+
|-
 +
! Name !! Port
 +
|-
 +
| Apache || www-servers/apache
 +
|-
 +
| Nginx || www-servers/nginx
 +
|-
 +
| MariaDB || dev-db/mariadb
 +
|-
 +
| MySQL || dev-db/mysql
 +
|-
 +
| PostgreSQL || dev-db/postgre-server
 +
|-
 +
| SQLite || dev-db/sqlite
 +
|-
 +
| PHP || dev-lang/php
 +
|-
 +
| Python || dev-lang/python
 +
|-
 +
| Ruby || dev-lang/ruby
 +
|-
 +
| Perl || dev-lang/perl
 +
|-
 +
| DRBD || sys-cluster/drbd
 +
|-
 +
| Puppet || app-admin/puppet
 +
|-
 +
| Heartbeat || sys-cluster/heartbeat
 +
|-
 +
| Pacemaker || sys-cluster/pacemaker
 +
|-
 +
| Corosync || sys-cluster/corosync
 +
|-
 +
| phpmyadmin || dev-db/phpmyadmin
 +
|-
 +
| Fail2Ban || net-analyzer/fail2ban
 +
|-
 +
| nmap || net-analyzer/nmap
 +
|-
 +
| traceroute || net-analyzer/traceroute
 +
|-
 +
| Samba || net-fs/samba
 +
|-
 +
| NTP || net-misc/ntp
 +
|-
 +
| Dovecot || net-mail/dovecot
 +
|}
  
Check to make sure that the zfs tools are working. The <code>zpool.cache</code> file that you copied before should be displayed.
 
  
<console>
+
'''Desktop Applications:'''
# ##i##zpool status
+
{| class="wikitable"
# ##i##zfs list
+
|-
</console>
+
! Name !! Port
 +
|-
 +
| GNOME || gnome-base/gnome
 +
|-
 +
| KDE || kde-base/kde-meta
 +
|-
 +
| XFCE || xfce-base/xfce4-meta
 +
|-
 +
| Awesome || x11-wm/awesome
 +
|-
 +
| Ratpoison || x11-wm/ratpoison
 +
|-
 +
| Xmonad || x11-wm/xmonad
 +
|-
 +
| Openbox || x11-wm/openbox
 +
|-
 +
| Fluxbox || x11-wm/fluxbox
 +
|-
 +
| Firefox || www-client/firefox
 +
|-
 +
| Google Chrome || www-client/google-chrome
 +
|-
 +
| Chromium || www-client/chromium
 +
|-
 +
| Chrome Plugins for Chromium || www-plugins/chrome-binary-plugins
 +
|-
 +
| Google Talk Plugin || www-plugins/google-talkplugin
 +
|-
 +
| Adobe Flash Player || www-plugins/adobe-flash
 +
|-
 +
| OpenJDK || dev-java/icedtea
 +
|-
 +
| ISO Master || app-cdr/isomaster
 +
|-
 +
| LibreOffice || app-office/libreoffice
 +
|-
 +
| GIMP || media-gfx/gimp
 +
|-
 +
| VLC || media-video/vlc
 +
|-
 +
| Filezilla || net-ftp/filezilla
 +
|-
 +
| Pidgin || net-im/pidgin
 +
|-
 +
| Hexchat || net-irc/hexchat
 +
|}
  
If everything worked, continue.
+
'''Command Line & Tools Applications:'''
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
! Name !! Port
 +
|-
 +
| genlop || app-portage/genlop
 +
|-
 +
| gentoolkit || app-portage/gentoolkit
 +
|-
 +
| Dash || app-shells/dash
 +
|-
 +
| GNU Screen || app-misc/screen
 +
|-
 +
| hddtemp || app-admin/hddtemp
 +
|-
 +
| logrotate || app-admin/logrotate
 +
|-
 +
| pwgen || app-admin/pwgen
 +
|-
 +
| syslog-ng || app-admin/syslog-ng
 +
|-
 +
| sysstat || app-admin/sysstat
 +
|-
 +
| Parallel Bzip2 || app-arch/pbzip2
 +
|-
 +
| Parallel GZ || app-arch/pigz
 +
|-
 +
| Parallel XZ || app-arch/pxz
 +
|-
 +
| vim || app-editors/vim
 +
|-
 +
| nano || app-editors/nano
 +
|-
 +
| Telnet || net-misc/telnet-bsd
 +
|-
 +
| Ethtool || sys-apps/ethtool
 +
|-
 +
| GPT fdisk || sys-apps/gptfdisk
 +
|-
 +
| smartmon || sys-apps/smartmontools
 +
|-
 +
| ccache || dev-util/ccache
 +
|-
 +
| Mutt || mail-client/mutt
 +
|-
 +
| htop || sys-process/htop
 +
|-
 +
| lsof || sys-process/lsof
 +
|-
 +
| vixie-cron || sys-process/vixie-cron
 +
|}
  
== Installing & Configuring the Bootloader ==
+
Of course this is just a list of applications that I've deemed important for server and desktop users. More applications should be added so that we can filter mostly used and important applications, from other more fringe applications.
  
=== GRUB 2 (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
+
== Other ==
<console>
+
# ##i##emerge grub
+
</console>
+
  
You can check that grub is version 2.00 by typing the following command:
+
/etc/gentoo-release -> /etc/funtoo-release  (rename this file)
  
<console>
+
should contain information for the currently installed release:
# ##i##grub-install --version
+
grub-install (GRUB) 2.00
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now install grub to the drive itself (not a partition):
+
<console>
+
# ##i##grub-install /dev/sda
+
</console>
+
 
+
You should receive the following message:
+
 
+
<console>
+
Installation finished. No error reported.
+
</console>
+
 
+
You should now see some a grub directory with some files inside your /boot folder:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##ls -l /boot/grub
+
total 2520
+
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    1024 Jan  4 16:09 grubenv
+
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    8192 Jan 12 14:29 i386-pc
+
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    4096 Jan 12 14:28 locale
+
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2555597 Feb  4 11:50 unifont.pf2
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== Extlinux (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
+
To install extlinux, you can follow the guide here: [[Extlinux|Link to Extlinux Guide]].
+
 
+
=== LILO (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
+
To install lilo you can type the following:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##emerge lilo
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== boot-update ===
+
boot-update comes as a dependency of grub2, so if you already installed grub, it's already on your system!
+
 
+
==== Genkernel ====
+
If your using genkernel you must add 'real_root=ZFS=<root>' and 'dozfs' to your params.
+
Example entry for <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt>:
+
  
 +
Example:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
"Funtoo ZFS" {
+
Funtoo-13.1-STABLE  (January 2013)
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
+
Funtoo-13.2-RELEASE (May 2013)
        initrd initramfs-genkernel-x86_64[-v]
+
Funtoo-13.3-RELEASE (September 2013)
        params real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root
+
Funtoo-14.1-RELEASE (January 2014)
        params += dozfs=force
+
Funtoo-14.2-RELEASE (May 2014)
        # Also add 'params += crypt_root=/dev/sda3' if you used encryption
+
Funtoo-14.3-RELEASE (September 2014)
        # Adjust the above setting to your system if needed
+
Funtoo-15.1-STABLE  (January 2015)
}
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
==== Bliss Initramfs Creator ====
+
[[Category:Internals]]
If you used Bliss Initramfs Creator then all you need to do is add 'root=<root>' to your params.
+
[[Category:FLOP]]
Example entry for <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt>:
+
 
+
<pre>
+
"Funtoo ZFS" {
+
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
+
        initrd initrd[-v]
+
        params root=tank/funtoo/root quiet
+
        # If you have an encrypted device with a regular passphrase,
+
        # you can add the following line
+
        params += enc_root=/dev/sda3 enc_type=pass
+
}
+
</pre>
+
 
+
After editing /etc/boot.conf, you just need to run boot-update to update grub.cfg
+
 
+
<console>
+
###i## boot-update
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== bliss-boot ===
+
This is a new program that is designed to generate a simple, human-readable/editable, configuration file for a variety of bootloaders. It currently supports grub2, extlinux, and lilo.
+
 
+
You can install it via the following command:
+
<console>
+
# ##i##emerge bliss-boot
+
</console>
+
 
+
==== Bootloader Configuration ====
+
In order to generate our bootloader configuration file, we will first configure bliss-boot so that it knows what we want. The 'bliss-boot' configuration file is located in '''/etc/bliss-boot/conf.py'''. Open that file and make sure that the following variables are set appropriately:
+
 
+
<pre>
+
# This should be set to the bootloader you installed earlier: (grub2, extlinux, and lilo are the available options)
+
bootloader = "grub2"
+
 
+
# This should be set to the kernel you installed earlier
+
default = "3.12.13-KS.02"
+
</pre>
+
 
+
Scroll all the way down until you find 'kernels'. You will need to add the kernels and the options
+
you want for these kernels here. Below are a few configuration options depending if you are using
+
'''bliss-initramfs''' or '''genkernel'''.
+
 
+
===== Genkernel =====
+
 
+
<pre>
+
kernel = {
+
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root dozfs=force quiet',
+
}
+
</pre>
+
 
+
'''If you are using encryption you can add the crypt_root option:'''
+
 
+
<pre>
+
kernel = {
+
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root dozfs=force crypt_root=/dev/sda3 quiet',
+
}
+
</pre>
+
 
+
===== Bliss Initramfs Creator =====
+
<pre>
+
kernel = {
+
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'root=tank/funtoo/root quiet',
+
}
+
</pre>
+
 
+
'''If you are using encryption then you would let the initramfs know:'''
+
 
+
#"What type of encryption authentication you want to use? ('''enc_type=''')
+
::* pass = will ask for passphrase directly
+
::* key = a plain unencrypted key file
+
::* key_gpg = an encrypted key file
+
#"Where is the encrypted drive?" ('''enc_root=''')
+
#"Where is the root pool after it has been decrypted?" ('''root=''')
+
 
+
<pre>
+
kernel = {
+
    '3.12.13-KS.02' : 'root=tank/funtoo/root enc_root=/dev/sda3 enc_type=pass quiet',
+
}
+
</pre>
+
 
+
==== Generate the configuration ====
+
Now that we have configure our '''/etc/bliss-boot/conf.py''' file, we can generate our config. Simply run the following command:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##bliss-boot
+
</console>
+
 
+
This will generate a configuration file for the bootloader you specified previously in your current directory. You can check your config file before hand to make sure it doesn't have any errors. Simply open either: grub.cfg, extlinux.conf, or lilo.conf.
+
 
+
Once you have checked it for errors, place this file in the correct directory:
+
 
+
* grub2 = /boot/grub/
+
* extlinux = /boot/extlinux/
+
* lilo = /etc/lilo.conf
+
 
+
=== LILO (Optional if you are using another bootloader) ===
+
Now that bliss-boot generated the lilo.conf file, move that config file to its appropriate location
+
and install lilo to the MBR:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mv lilo.conf /etc
+
# ##i##lilo
+
 
+
You should see the following:
+
 
+
Warning: LBA32 addressing assumed
+
Added Funtoo + *
+
One warning was issued
+
</console>
+
 
+
== Create the initramfs ==
+
There are two ways to do this, you can use "genkernel" or "bliss-initramfs". Both will be shown.
+
 
+
=== genkernel ===
+
Install genkernel and run it:
+
<console>
+
# ##i##emerge genkernel
+
 
+
You only need to add --luks if you used encryption
+
# ##i##genkernel --zfs --luks initramfs
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== Bliss Initramfs Creator ===
+
If you are encrypting your drives, then add the "luks" use flag to your package.use before emerging:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##echo "sys-kernel/bliss-initramfs luks" >> /etc/portage/package.use
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now install the program and run it:
+
<console>
+
# ##i##emerge bliss-initramfs
+
 
+
You can either run it without any parameters to get an interactive menu
+
or you can pass the parameters directly. 1 = zfs, 6 = encrypted zfs, and the kernel name.
+
# ##i##bliss-initramfs 1 3.12.13-KS.02
+
</console>
+
 
+
=== Moving into the correct location ===
+
Place the file that was generated by the above applications into either your /boot folder (If you are using boot-update) or into your /boot/kernels/3.12.13-KS.02 folder (If you are using bliss-boot). For bliss-boot, the file needs to be called 'initrd' rather than 'initrd-3.12.13-KS.02'.
+
 
+
==== boot-update ====
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mv initrd-3.12.13-KS.02 /boot
+
</console>
+
 
+
==== bliss-boot ====
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mv initrd-3.12.13-KS.02 /boot/kernels/3.12.13-KS.02/initrd
+
</console>
+
 
+
== Final configuration ==
+
=== Add the zfs tools to openrc ===
+
<console># ##i##rc-update add zfs boot</console>
+
 
+
=== Clean up and reboot ===
+
We are almost done, we are just going to clean up, '''set our root password''', and unmount whatever we mounted and get out.
+
 
+
<console>
+
Delete the stage3 tarball that you downloaded earlier so it doesn't take up space.
+
# ##i##cd /
+
# ##i##rm stage3-latest.tar.xz
+
 
+
Set your root password
+
# ##i##passwd
+
>> Enter your password, you won't see what you are writing (for security reasons), but it is there!
+
 
+
Get out of the chroot environment
+
# ##i##exit
+
 
+
Unmount all the kernel filesystem stuff and boot (if you have a separate /boot)
+
# ##i##umount -l proc dev sys boot
+
 
+
Turn off the swap
+
# ##i##swapoff /dev/zvol/tank/swap
+
 
+
Export the zpool
+
# ##i##cd /
+
# ##i##zpool export tank
+
 
+
Reboot
+
# ##i##reboot
+
</console>
+
 
+
{{fancyimportant|'''Don't forget to set your root password as stated above before exiting chroot and rebooting. If you don't set the root password, you won't be able to log into your new system.'''}}
+
 
+
and that should be enough to get your system to boot on ZFS.
+
 
+
== After reboot ==
+
 
+
=== Forgot to reset password? ===
+
==== System Rescue CD ====
+
If you aren't using bliss-initramfs, then you can reboot back into your sysresccd and reset through there by mounting your drive, chrooting, and then typing passwd.
+
 
+
Example:
+
<console>
+
# ##i##zpool import -f -R /mnt/funtoo tank
+
# ##i##chroot /mnt/funtoo bash -l
+
# ##i##passwd
+
# ##i##exit
+
# ##i##zpool export -f tank
+
# ##i##reboot
+
</console>
+
 
+
==== Using bliss-initramfs ====
+
If you forgot to reset your password and are using '''bliss-initramfs''', you can add the ''su'' option to your bootloader parameters and the initramfs will throw you into the rootfs of your drive. In there you can run 'passwd' and then type 'exit'. Once you type 'exit', the initramfs will continue to boot your system as normal.
+
 
+
=== Create initial ZFS Snapshot ===
+
Continue to set up anything you need in terms of /etc configurations. Once you have everything the way you like it, take a snapshot of your system. You will be using this snapshot to revert back to this state if anything ever happens to your system down the road. The snapshots are cheap, and almost instant.
+
 
+
To take the snapshot of your system, type the following:
+
<console># ##i##zfs snapshot -r tank@install</console>
+
 
+
To see if your snapshot was taken, type:
+
<console># ##i##zfs list -t snapshot</console>
+
 
+
If your machine ever fails and you need to get back to this state, just type (This will only revert your / dataset while keeping the rest of your data intact):
+
<console># ##i##zfs rollback tank/funtoo/root@install</console>
+
 
+
{{fancyimportant|'''For a detailed overview, presentation of ZFS' capabilities, as well as usage examples, please refer to the [[ZFS_Fun|ZFS Fun]] page.'''}}
+
 
+
== Troubleshooting ==
+
 
+
=== Starting from scratch ===
+
If your installation has gotten screwed up for whatever reason and you need a fresh restart, you can do the following from sysresccd to start fresh:
+
 
+
<console>
+
Destroy the pool and any snapshots and datasets it has
+
# ##i##zpool destroy -R -f tank
+
 
+
Clean up the partition layout entirely and start from scratch from the beginning of the guide
+
 
+
This deletes the files from /dev/sda1 so that even after we zap, recreating the drive in the exact sector
+
position and size will not give us access to the old files in this partition.
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
+
# ##i##sgdisk -Z /dev/sda
+
</console>
+
 
+
Now start the guide again :).
+
 
+
[[Category:HOWTO]]
+
[[Category:Filesystems]]
+
[[Category:Featured]]
+
 
+
__NOTITLE__
+

Revision as of 20:57, 23 February 2014

Jonathan Vasquez (fearedbliss)

Version 0.2

Introduction

This is a proposal to implement a strong release engineering infrastructure for Funtoo Linux. Funtoo currently is _only_ a rolling-release distro and does not have the _option_ to also be non-rolling. In order to create a more stable Funtoo system, this proposal will be offering a few things that we can do to make that happen.

The below proposals will not change Funtoo from a rolling-release system to a non-rolling release system. It will simply add the option to be non-rolling. Funtoo will also not be a binary distro. It will still be a source based distro but it will also have the ability to use binaries for a few select packages (Basically the Gentoo Reference Platform will be restarted and improved).

I believe that this will also make running Funtoo for users that want further stability and/or users that are running Funtoo as a server in an enterprise environment/or otherwise, more feasible.

The following things are proposed:

  • Semi-rolling release model for Funtoo-RELEASE and Funtoo-STABLE (Funtoo-CURRENT will stay rolling release)
  • A Complete Core OS
  • A set of monitored applications that will be checked for stability and consistency

Semi-rolling Time Based Releases

The semi-rolling release model is a hybrid between a rolling release and just a regular release. This means that instead of bring new packages in all the time (rolling release), and instead of just completely freezing everything and bringing new packages/features every X months, we can have a middle ground where we can branch the Funtoo-CURRENT git branch and then focus on stabilizing that tree. Once we stabilize it, people can use it without having to worry about major version upgrades. The user can then use this branch until another branch later in the future is created. The user can then easily upgrade to the new branch by switching their SYNC variable.

So essentially it is a slow rolling-release (or semi-rolling or rolling-release with speed bumps).

Names for Funtoo's 3 git branches:

  • Funtoo-CURRENT (Latest Developments - HEAD. This is the normal funtoo-current tree.)
  • Funtoo-RELEASE (Just a release in a specific point in time - a branch of Funtoo-CURRENT is created, frozen, and stabilize.)
  • Funtoo-STABLE (This is the same as a RELEASE but it is supported for a longer period of time).

Which branch is for what person?

The Funtoo-CURRENT branch is for people who want to be on the bleeding edge all the time. You will get the latest updates, and here is where all the development happens. Your system might not be fully stable all the time, and things might fail to compile. This is literally the traditional Gentoo rolling-release model. If you are used to using Gentoo/Funtoo, and want to continue using your system the way it has always been, this is the branch for you.

The Funtoo-RELEASE branch is for people who want to be rolling and receive new features but be more stable than Funtoo-CURRENT by using a frozen portage tree at a specific point in time that is audited for stability.

The Funtoo-STABLE branch is for people who prefer stability and don't need the latest features that are in the RELEASE branches. This branch is frozen for a longer period of time.

Example of 4 month RELEASE cycle, and a 2 year STABLE cycle

For the branch developments: Let's picture a 4 month RELEASE cycle (semi-rolling), and a 2 years STABLE cycle. If we expand this starting from January 2013, we would get the following releases over two years:

Funtoo-13.1-STABLE  (January 2013)
Funtoo-13.2-RELEASE (May 2013)
Funtoo-13.3-RELEASE (September 2013)
Funtoo-14.1-RELEASE (January 2014)
Funtoo-14.2-RELEASE (May 2014)
Funtoo-14.3-RELEASE (September 2014)
Funtoo-15.1-STABLE  (January 2015)

This gives you 2 STABLE releases in two years and 5 RELEASEs in between. That's a total of 7 releases. STABLE releases only get bugfixes and security updates. RELEASE are for people that want to get the latest bleeding edge stuff, but still want to be stable within RELEASEs.

For people that are used to the normal Gentoo/Funtoo stuff, you could just stay on the Funtoo-CURRENT branch.

Example of 3 month RELEASE cycle, and a 2 year STABLE cycle

Funtoo-13.1-STABLE  (January 2013)
Funtoo-13.2-RELEASE (April 2013)
Funtoo-13.3-RELEASE (July 2013)
Funtoo-13.4-RELEASE (October 2013)
Funtoo-14.1-RELEASE (January 2014)
Funtoo-14.2-RELEASE (April 2014)
Funtoo-14.3-RELEASE (July 2014)
Funtoo-14.4-RELEASE (October 2014)
Funtoo-15.1-STABLE  (January 2015)

If we have have a 3 month (semi-rolling) cycle, we would end up with 2 STABLE releases and 7 RELEASEs within two years. This is a total of 9 releases.

What will these branches contain? What will they focus on?

Funtoo-RELEASE and Funtoo-STABLE branches will only focus on the stability of specific packages that we are deciding to maintain at a specific point in time. All outside packages can be installed and maintained by outside package mantainers.

A Complete Core OS

An operating system is not just a stage3 tarball. The stage3 will not boot by itself, but rather needs the user to compile a kernel and install a bootloader. We should have a well tested default kernel that is tested for stability. This will speed up deployments and will provide predictability for kernel modules, and other applications that rely on a kernel. We will also need to provide a way for the system to boot this kernel. Thus a default bootloader should be provided.

Core OS:

  • stage3 (Minimal @system applications needed for a functional Funtoo base system)
  • kernel (bliss-kernel can become the base of funtoo-kernel - or another kernel you think is good)
  • bootloader (a default bootloader to provide a seamless, fast, and easy deployment experience)

Monitored Set of Applications

In order for us to make a release stable, we will need to monitor a set of applications that we believe are essential for people that want to install servers and desktops. All of the monitored applications should work fine, they should be able to compile with no bugs (If the user is compiling), and they will also have binaries available. (The binaries will be compiled with the default and recommended USE flags that Funtoo developers believe give a functional binary).

Proposed set of packages:

Core Applications:

  • Critical packages of stage3 that provide the Funtoo base system.

Server Applications:

Name Port
Apache www-servers/apache
Nginx www-servers/nginx
MariaDB dev-db/mariadb
MySQL dev-db/mysql
PostgreSQL dev-db/postgre-server
SQLite dev-db/sqlite
PHP dev-lang/php
Python dev-lang/python
Ruby dev-lang/ruby
Perl dev-lang/perl
DRBD sys-cluster/drbd
Puppet app-admin/puppet
Heartbeat sys-cluster/heartbeat
Pacemaker sys-cluster/pacemaker
Corosync sys-cluster/corosync
phpmyadmin dev-db/phpmyadmin
Fail2Ban net-analyzer/fail2ban
nmap net-analyzer/nmap
traceroute net-analyzer/traceroute
Samba net-fs/samba
NTP net-misc/ntp
Dovecot net-mail/dovecot


Desktop Applications:

Name Port
GNOME gnome-base/gnome
KDE kde-base/kde-meta
XFCE xfce-base/xfce4-meta
Awesome x11-wm/awesome
Ratpoison x11-wm/ratpoison
Xmonad x11-wm/xmonad
Openbox x11-wm/openbox
Fluxbox x11-wm/fluxbox
Firefox www-client/firefox
Google Chrome www-client/google-chrome
Chromium www-client/chromium
Chrome Plugins for Chromium www-plugins/chrome-binary-plugins
Google Talk Plugin www-plugins/google-talkplugin
Adobe Flash Player www-plugins/adobe-flash
OpenJDK dev-java/icedtea
ISO Master app-cdr/isomaster
LibreOffice app-office/libreoffice
GIMP media-gfx/gimp
VLC media-video/vlc
Filezilla net-ftp/filezilla
Pidgin net-im/pidgin
Hexchat net-irc/hexchat

Command Line & Tools Applications:

Name Port
genlop app-portage/genlop
gentoolkit app-portage/gentoolkit
Dash app-shells/dash
GNU Screen app-misc/screen
hddtemp app-admin/hddtemp
logrotate app-admin/logrotate
pwgen app-admin/pwgen
syslog-ng app-admin/syslog-ng
sysstat app-admin/sysstat
Parallel Bzip2 app-arch/pbzip2
Parallel GZ app-arch/pigz
Parallel XZ app-arch/pxz
vim app-editors/vim
nano app-editors/nano
Telnet net-misc/telnet-bsd
Ethtool sys-apps/ethtool
GPT fdisk sys-apps/gptfdisk
smartmon sys-apps/smartmontools
ccache dev-util/ccache
Mutt mail-client/mutt
htop sys-process/htop
lsof sys-process/lsof
vixie-cron sys-process/vixie-cron

Of course this is just a list of applications that I've deemed important for server and desktop users. More applications should be added so that we can filter mostly used and important applications, from other more fringe applications.

Other

/etc/gentoo-release -> /etc/funtoo-release (rename this file)

should contain information for the currently installed release:

Example:

Funtoo-13.1-STABLE  (January 2013)
Funtoo-13.2-RELEASE (May 2013)
Funtoo-13.3-RELEASE (September 2013)
Funtoo-14.1-RELEASE (January 2014)
Funtoo-14.2-RELEASE (May 2014)
Funtoo-14.3-RELEASE (September 2014)
Funtoo-15.1-STABLE  (January 2015)