Difference between pages "GUID Booting Guide" and "Install/pt-br/Kernel"

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{{Article
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<noinclude>
|Keywords=GPT, GUID, UEFI, EFI, Linux, Funtoo, Gentoo
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{{InstallPart|Kernel Installation}}
|Article Category=General
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</noinclude>
|Author=Drobbins
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=== Kernel ===
}}
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== Introduction ==
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GPT, which stands for GUID Partition Table, is a disk partitioning scheme that was introduced by Intel for Itanium architecture systems, as part of EFI, the Extensible Firmware Interface. While you are probably not using an Itanium architecture computer, and you are likely using a BIOS-based rather than an EFI-based system, you still may want to use GPT partitioning. Why? Because the standard MBR-based partitioning scheme only supports system disks that are less than 2TiB in size. On modern systems, especially systems with hardware RAID logical volumes, it is very easy to go beyond the 2TiB limit. GUID partition tables support disks that are larger than 2TiB in size.
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Starting mid-May 2015, Funtoo Linux stage3's include a pre-built {{c|debian-sources}} kernel to make installation faster and easier. To see if debian-sources is installed, type:
  
=== GPT Technology Overview ===
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{{console|body=
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(chroot) # ##i##emerge -s debian-sources
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Searching...   
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[ Results for search key : ##b##debian-sources##!b## ]
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[ Applications found : ##b##1##!b## ]
  
This section contains a technical overview of GPT technology.
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*  ##b##sys-kernel/debian-sources##!b##
 
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      ##g##Latest version available:##!g## 3.19.3
GUID partition tables support up to 512 partitions. GPT data structures are stored in the first sectors of the drive with a secondary copy stored at the end of the drive. This allows the partitioning scheme of your disk to be recovered in situations where the primary partition table has been corrupted.
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      ##g##Latest version installed:##!g## 3.19.3
 
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      ##g##Size of files:##!g## 81,292 kB
For compatibility with legacy partitioning tools, GPT partitioning tools typically rewrite the MBR partition table (generally located in the first sector of the disk) in a way those tools will interpret it like ''"This disk has only one partition (of an unknown type) covering the whole disk".''
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      ##g##Homepage:##!g##      http://www.debian.org
 
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      ##g##Description:##!g##  Debian Sources (and optional binary kernel)
It is possible to convert an existing MBR-partitioned disk to GPT format using the <tt>gdisk</tt> command. Please carefully read the <tt>gdisk</tt> man page before using this capability, as it is potentially dangerous, particularly if you are performing it on your boot disk.
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      ##g##License:##!g##      GPL-2
 
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{{ important|Funtoo Linux fully supports GPT on x86-32bit and x86-64-bit systems.
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}}
 
}}
  
=== Booting GPT ===
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If a version is listed under {{c|Latest version installed}}, then debian-sources is already pre-built for you and you can skip the rest of the Kernel section, and proceed to the [[#Installing a Bootloader|Installing a Bootloader section]].
  
If you decide to use a GPT-based partitioning scheme for your system disk, either out of necessity due to a 2TiB+ disk, or because you want to try GPT out, then the question arises -- how do you get the darn thing to boot? This is where the new <tt>GRUB</tt> boot loader comes in. The new {{c|GRUB}} (version 2.0, found at <tt>sys-boot/grub</tt>) is a redesign of the original {{c|GRUB}} (version 0.9x, now called {{c|sys-boot/grub-legacy}} in Funtoo) boot-loader that includes very mature support for booting from GPT-based disks.
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==== Building the Kernel ====
  
Now, let's take a look at how to get GPT-based booting working under Funtoo Linux.
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If you need to build a kernel for Funtoo Linux, please follow these steps:
  
== Getting Started ==
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{{Fancynote|1=
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See [[Funtoo Linux Kernels]] for a full list of kernels supported in Funtoo Linux. We recommend <code>debian-sources</code> for new users.}}
  
The first thing you'll need to do is to use a LiveCD. I recommend [http://www.sysresccd.org/Main_Page System Rescue CD] for this task as it is Gentoo-based and includes all the proper tools. Go ahead and boot the LiveCD, and then get to the point where you are ready to partition your system disk.
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{{fancyimportant|1=
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<code>debian-sources</code> with <code>binary</code> USE flag requires at least 14GB free in <code>/var/tmp</code> and takes around 1 hour to build on a Intel Core i7 Processor.}}
  
At this point, you have two choices as to what partitioning tool to use. You can use either <tt>gdisk</tt> or <tt>parted</tt>. <tt>gdisk</tt> is a very nice <tt>fdisk</tt>-like partitioning tool that supports GPT partitioning. It is rather new software but seems to work quite well. The other tool you can use, GNU <tt>parted</tt>, has been around for a while and is more mature, but is harder to use.
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Let's emerge our kernel:
  
We'll take a look at how to create partitions using <tt>gdisk</tt>. Alternatively, <code>cgdisk</code>, curses-based gdisk for users familiar with cfdisk or <code>sgdisk</code>, command-line tool can be used for creating and managing GPT partitions.
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<console>
 
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(chroot) # ##i##emerge debian-sources
== Partitioning Using Gdisk ==
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</console>
 
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OK, the first step is using <tt>gdisk</tt> is to start it up, specifying the disk you want to modify:
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{{console|body=# ##i##gdisk /dev/sda}}
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You should find <tt>gdisk</tt> very familiar to <tt>fdisk</tt>. Here is the partition table we want to end up with:
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{{console|body=Command (? for help): ##i##p
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Disk /dev/sda: 312581808 sectors, 149.1 GiB
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Disk identifier (GUID): 17
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Partition table holds up to 128 entries
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First usable sector is 34, last usable sector is 312581774
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Total free space is 0 sectors (0 bytes)
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Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size      Code  Name
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  1              34          204833  100.0 MiB  0700  Linux/Windows data
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  2          204834          270369  512.0 kiB  EF02  BIOS boot partition
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  3          270370        1318945  512.0 MiB  8200  Linux swap
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  4        1318946      312581774  148.4 GiB  0700  Linux/Windows data
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Command (? for help): }}
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Above, you'll see that we have a 100 MiB boot partition, a 512 kiB &quot;BIOS boot partition&quot;, 512 MiB of swap, and the remaining disk used by a 148.4 GiB root partition.
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The one new thing here is the &quot;BIOS boot partition.&quot; What is it? In GRUB-speak, this BIOS boot partition is basically the location of the meat of GRUB's boot loading code - the quivalent of the <tt>stage1_5</tt> and <tt>stage2</tt> files in legacy GRUB. Since GPT-based partition tables have less &quot;bonus&quot; space than their MBR equivalents, and explicit partition of code <tt>EF02</tt> is required to hold the guts of the boot loader.
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In all other respects, the partition table is similar to that of an MBR-based disk. We have a boot and root partition with code <tt>0700</tt>, and a Linux swap partition with code <tt>8200</tt>. One this partition table has been written to disk and appropriate <tt>mkfs</tt> and <tt>mkswap</tt> commands are issued, <tt>/dev/sda1</tt> will be used to hold <tt>/boot</tt>, <tt>/dev/sda2</tt> will be used by the new GRUB directly, <tt>/dev/sda3</tt> will house our swap and <tt>/dev/sda4</tt> will hold our root filesystem.
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Go ahead and create filesystems on these partitions, and then mount the root and boot filesystems to <tt>/mnt/gentoo</tt> and <tt>/mnt/gentoo/boot</tt> respectively. Now go ahead and unpack a stage3 tarball to <tt>/mnt/gentoo</tt> and chroot in as you normally do.
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== Configuring The Kernel ==
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Your kernel will need a couple of extra GPT-related options enabled in order for it to make sense of your GPT partitions and find your filesystems.
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{{kernelop|title=Enable the block layer,Partition Types|desc=
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[*] Advanced Partition Selection (PARTITION_ADVANCED)
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[*] EFI GUID Partition Support (EFI_PARTITION)
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}}
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If you are using a non-Funtoo distribution then you may need to append a proper <tt>rootfstype=</tt> option to your kernel boot options to allow Linux to properly mount the root filesystem when <tt>Advanced Partition Selection</tt> is enabled. [[Boot-Update]] does this for you automatically.
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Now just go ahead and compile and install your kernel, and copy it to <tt>/boot/bzImage</tt>.
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== Booting The System ==
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To get the system booted, you will want to first edit <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> inside the chroot so that it reflects the partitions and filesystems you just created. For Funtoo Linux systems, this is done by emerging {{c|boot-update}}, which is the universal boot loader configurator for Funtoo Linux.
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{{console|body=# ##i##emerge boot-update}}
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[[Boot-Update]] is a front-end for the GRUB 1.9x boot loader and provides a necessary simplified configuration interface. <tt>boot-update</tt> is used to generate boot loader configuration files. But before we get to <tt>boot-update</tt>, we first need to install GRUB to your hard disk. This is done as follows:
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{{console|body=# ##i##grub-install /dev/sda}}
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<tt>grub-install</tt> will detect and use <tt>/dev/sda2</tt> and use it to store its boot loader logic.
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Now it's time to create an <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt> file. For more information on all available options, consult the [[Boot-Update]] guide -- I'll show you a sample configuration for the sample GPT partition scheme above:
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{{file|name=/etc/boot.conf|body=boot {
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        generate grub
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        default bzImage
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}
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&quot;Funtoo Linux&quot; {
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        kernel bzImage
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}
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}}
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Once <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt> has been created, then type:
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{{console|body=# ##i##boot-update}}
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Once <code>emerge</code> completes, you'll have a brand new kernel and initramfs installed to <code>/boot</code>, plus kernel headers installed in <code>/usr/src/linux</code>, and you'll be ready to configure the boot loader to load these to boot your Funtoo Linux system.
This will auto-generate a <tt>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</tt> file for you, and you will now be able to reboot into Funtoo Linux using a GPT partitioning scheme.
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For more information on all the options available for <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt>, please consult the [[Boot-Update]] guide.
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{{fancynote|NVIDIA card users: the <code>binary</code> USE flag installs the Nouveau drivers which cannot be loaded at the same time as the proprietary drivers, and cannot be unloaded at runtime because of KMS. You need to blacklist it under <code>/etc/modprobe.d/</code>.}}
  
[[Category:Articles]]
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{{fancynote|For an overview of other kernel options for Funtoo Linux, see [[Funtoo Linux Kernels]]. There may be modules that the Debian kernel doesn't include, a situation where [http://www.funtoo.org/wiki/Funtoo_Linux_Kernels#Using_Debian-Sources_with_Genkernel genkernel] would be useful. Also be sure to see [[:Category:Hardware Compatibility|hardware compatibility]] information.}}
{{ArticleFooter}}
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Revision as of 19:06, May 28, 2015


Note

This is a template that is used as part of the Installation instructions which covers: Kernel Installation. Templates are being used to allow multiple variant install guides that use most of the same re-usable parts.


Kernel

Starting mid-May 2015, Funtoo Linux stage3's include a pre-built debian-sources kernel to make installation faster and easier. To see if debian-sources is installed, type:

(chroot) # emerge -s debian-sources
Searching...    
[ Results for search key : debian-sources ]
[ Applications found : 1 ]

*  sys-kernel/debian-sources
      Latest version available: 3.19.3
      Latest version installed: 3.19.3
      Size of files: 81,292 kB
      Homepage:      http://www.debian.org
      Description:   Debian Sources (and optional binary kernel)
      License:       GPL-2


If a version is listed under Latest version installed, then debian-sources is already pre-built for you and you can skip the rest of the Kernel section, and proceed to the Installing a Bootloader section.

Building the Kernel

If you need to build a kernel for Funtoo Linux, please follow these steps:

Note

See Funtoo Linux Kernels for a full list of kernels supported in Funtoo Linux. We recommend debian-sources for new users.

Important

debian-sources with binary USE flag requires at least 14GB free in /var/tmp and takes around 1 hour to build on a Intel Core i7 Processor.

Let's emerge our kernel:

(chroot) # emerge debian-sources

Once emerge completes, you'll have a brand new kernel and initramfs installed to /boot, plus kernel headers installed in /usr/src/linux, and you'll be ready to configure the boot loader to load these to boot your Funtoo Linux system.

Note

NVIDIA card users: the binary USE flag installs the Nouveau drivers which cannot be loaded at the same time as the proprietary drivers, and cannot be unloaded at runtime because of KMS. You need to blacklist it under /etc/modprobe.d/.

Note

For an overview of other kernel options for Funtoo Linux, see Funtoo Linux Kernels. There may be modules that the Debian kernel doesn't include, a situation where genkernel would be useful. Also be sure to see hardware compatibility information.