Difference between pages "Metro" and "Translations:Metro/134/en"

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{{#layout:doc}}{{#widget:AddThis}}[[Metro]] is the build system for Funtoo Linux and [[Gentoo Linux]] stages. It automates the bootstrapping process.
This tutorial will take you through installing, setting up and running [[Metro]].
These other Metro documents are also available:
{{#ask: [[Category:Metro]]
= Preface =
== How Metro Works ==
Metro is the Funtoo Linux automated build system, and is used to build Funtoo Linux stage tarballs.
[[Metro]] cannot create a stage tarball out of thin air. To build a new stage tarball, [[Metro]] must use an existing, older stage tarball called a "seed" stage. This seed stage typically is used as the ''build environment'' for creating the stage we want.
[[Metro]] can use two kinds of seed stages. Traditionally, [[Metro]] has used a stage3 as a seed stage. This stage3 is then used to build a new stage1, which in turn is used to build a new stage2, and then a new stage3. This is generally the most reliable way to build [[Gentoo Linux]] or Funtoo Linux, so it's the recommended approach.
{{fancyimportant|'''After switching metro builds to Funtoo profile, Gentoo stages are no longer provided'''!}}
== Seeds and Build Isolation ==
Another important concept to mention here is something called ''build isolation''. Because [[Metro]] creates an isolated build environment, and the build environment is explicitly defined using existing, tangible entities -- a seed stage and a portage snapshot -- you will get consistent, repeatable results. In other words, the same seed stage, portage snapshot and build instructions will generate an essentially identical result, even if you perform the build a month later on someone else's workstation.
== Local Build ==
Say you wanted to build a new <tt>pentium4</tt> stage3 tarball. The recommended method of doing this would be to grab an existing <tt>pentium4</tt> stage3 tarball to use as your seed stage. [[Metro]] will be told to use this existing <tt>pentium4</tt> stage3 to build a new stage1 for the same <tt>pentium4</tt>. For this process, the generic <tt>pentium4</tt> stage3 would provide the ''build environment'' for creating our new stage1. Then, the new stage1 would serve as the build environment for creating the new <tt>pentium4</tt> stage2. And the new <tt>pentium4</tt> stage2 would serve as the build environment for creating the new <tt>pentium4</tt> stage3.
In the [[Metro]] terminology this is called a '''local build''', which means a stage3 of a given architecture is used to seed a brand new build of the same architecture. Incidentally this will be the first exercise we are going to perform in this tutorial.
A week later, you may want to build a brand new <tt>pentium4</tt> stage3 tarball. Rather than starting from the original <tt>pentium4</tt> stage3 again, you'd probably configure [[Metro]] to use the most-recently-built <tt>pentium4</tt> stage3 as the seed. [[Metro]] has built-in functionality to make this easy, allowing it to easily find and track the most recent stage3 seed available.
== Remote Build ==
[[Metro]] can also perform '''remote build''', where a stage3 of a different, but binary compatible, architecture is used as a seed to build a different architecture stage3. Consequentiality the second exercise we are going to perform in this tutorial will be to build a <tt>core2 32bit</tt> stage3 tarball from the <tt>pentium4</tt> stage3 tarball we have just built.
TODO: add caveats about what archs can be seeded and what can be not (maybe a table?)
== Tailored Build ==
Last, it's also worthy noting that both in <tt>local</tt> and <tt>remote builds</tt>, [[Metro]] can be configured to add and/or remove individual packages to the final tarball.
Let's say you can't live without <tt>app-misc/screen</tt>, at the end of this tutorial, we will show how to have your tailored stage3 to include it.
== Installing Metro ==
'''The recommended and supported method''' is to use the Git repository of [[Metro]]. 
Ensure that {{Package|dev-vcs/git}} and {{Package|dev-python/boto}} (optional; required for EC2 support) are installed on your system:
# ##i##emerge dev-vcs/git
# ##i##emerge dev-python/boto
Next, clone the master git repository as follows:
# ##i##cd /root
# ##i##git clone git://github.com/funtoo/metro.git
# ##i##cp /root/metro/metro.conf ~/.metro
You will now have a directory called <tt>/root/metro</tt> that contains all the [[Metro]] source code.
Metro is now installed. It's time to customize it for your local system.
= Configuring Metro =
{{Note|Metro is not currently able to build Gentoo stages. See {{Bug|FL-901}}.}}
[[User:Drobbins|Daniel Robbins]] maintains [[Metro]], so it comes pre-configured to successfully build [[Funtoo Linux]] releases. Before reading further, you might want to customize some basic settings like the number of concurrent jobs to fit your hardware's capabilities or the directory to use for produced stage archives. This is accomplished by editing <tt>~/.metro</tt> which is the [[Metro]]'s master configuration file.
Please note that <code>path/install</code> must point to where metro was installed. Point <code>path/distfiles</code> to where your distfiles reside. Also set <code>path/mirror/owner</code> and <code>path/mirror/group</code> to the owner and group of all the files that will be written to the build repository directory, which by default (as per the configuration file) is at <code>/home/mirror/funtoo</code>. The cache directory normally resides inside the temp directory -- this can be modified as desired. The cache directory can end up holding many cached .tbz2 packages, and eat up a lot of storage. You may want to place the temp directory on faster storage, for faster compile times, and place the cache directory on slower, but more plentiful storage.
{{file|name=.metro|desc=Metro configuration|body=
# Main metro configuration file - these settings need to be tailored to your install:
[section path]
install: /root/metro
tmp: /var/tmp/metro
cache: $[path/tmp]/cache
distfiles: /var/src/distfiles
work: $[path/tmp]/work/$[target/build]/$[target/name]
[section path/mirror]
: /home/mirror/funtoo
owner: root
group: repomgr
dirmode: 775
[section portage]
[section emerge]
options: --jobs=4 --load-average=4 --keep-going=n
# This line should not be modified:
[collect $[path/install]/etc/master.conf]
== Arch and Subarch ==
In the following example we are creating a pentium4 stage 3 compiled for x86-32bit binary compatibility. Pentium4 is a subarch of the x86-32bit architecture. Once you have metro installed you may find a full list of each subarch in your <tt>/root/metro/subarch</tt> directory each subarch will have the file extension .spec
###i## ls /root/metro/subarch
# ls subarch/
amd64-bulldozer-pure64.spec  armv7a.spec          core-avx-i.spec        i686.spec        pentium.spec
amd64-bulldozer.spec        armv7a_hardfp.spec  core2_32.spec          k6-2.spec        pentium2.spec
amd64-k10-pure64.spec        athlon-4.spec        core2_64-pure64.spec    k6-3.spec        pentium3.spec
amd64-k10.spec              athlon-mp.spec      core2_64.spec          k6.spec          pentium4.spec
amd64-k8+sse3.spec          athlon-tbird.spec    corei7-pure64.spec      native_32.spec    pentiumpro.spec
amd64-k8+sse3_32.spec        athlon-xp.spec      corei7.spec            native_64.spec    prescott.spec
amd64-k8-pure64.spec        athlon.spec          generic_32.spec        niagara.spec      ultrasparc.spec
amd64-k8.spec                atom_32.spec        generic_64-pure64.spec  niagara2.spec    ultrasparc3.spec
amd64-k8_32.spec            atom_64-pure64.spec  generic_64.spec        nocona.spec      xen-pentium4+sse3.spec
armv5te.spec                atom_64.spec        generic_sparcv9.spec    opteron_64.spec  xen-pentium4+sse3_64.spec
armv6j.spec                  btver1.spec          geode.spec              pentium-m.spec
armv6j_hardfp.spec          btver1_64.spec      i486.spec              pentium-mmx.spec
= First stages build (local build) =
To get this all started, we need to bootstrap the process by downloading an initial seed stage3 to use for building and place it in its proper location in <tt>/home/mirror/funtoo</tt>, so that [[Metro]] can find it. We will also need to create some special &quot;control&quot; files in <tt>/home/mirror/funtoo</tt>, which will allow [[Metro]] to understand how it is supposed to proceed.
== Step 1: Set up pentium4 repository (local build) ==
Assuming we're following the basic steps outlined in the previous section, and building an unstable funtoo (<tt>funtoo-current</tt>) build for the <tt>pentium4</tt>, using a generic <tt>pentium4</tt> stage3 as a seed stage, then here the first set of steps we'd perform:
# ##i##install -d /home/mirror/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-32bit/pentium4
# ##i##install -d /home/mirror/funtoo/funtoo-current/snapshots
# ##i##cd /home/metro/mirror/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-32bit/pentium4
# ##i##install -d 2011-12-13
# ##i##cd 2011-12-13
# ##i##wget -c http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-32bit/pentium4/2011-12-13/stage3-pentium4-funtoo-current-2011-12-13.tar.xz
# ##i##cd ..
# ##i##install -d .control/version
# ##i##echo "2011-12-13" > .control/version/stage3
# ##i##install -d .control/strategy
# ##i##echo local >  .control/strategy/build
# ##i##echo stage3 > .control/strategy/seed
OK, let's review the steps above. First, we create the directory <tt>/home/mirror/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-32bit/pentium4</tt>, which is where Metro will expect to find unstable <tt>funtoo-current</tt> pentium4 builds -- it is configured to look here by default. Then we create a specially-named directory to house our seed x86 stage3. Again, by default, Metro expects the directory to be named this way. We enter this directory, and download our seed x86 stage3 from funtoo.org. Note that the <tt>2010-12-24</tt> version stamp matches. Make sure that your directory name matches the stage3 name too. Everything has been set up to match Metro's default filesystem layout.
Next, we go back to the <tt>/home/mirror/metro/funtoo-current/x86-32bit/pentium4</tt> directory, and inside it, we create a <tt>.control</tt> directory. This directory and its subdirectories contain special files that Metro references to determine certain aspects of its behavior. The <tt>.control/version/stage3</tt> file is used by Metro to track the most recently-built stage3 for this particular build and subarch. Metro will automatically update this file with a new version stamp after it successfully builds a new stage3. But because Metro didn't actually ''build'' this stage3, we need to set up the <tt>.control/version/stage3</tt> file manually. This will allow Metro to find our downloaded stage3 when we set up our pentium4 build to use it as a seed. Also note that Metro will create a similar <tt>.control/version/stage1</tt> file after it successfully builds an pentium4 funtoo-current stage1.
We also set up <tt>.control/strategy/build</tt> and <tt>.control/strategy/seed</tt> files with values of <tt>local</tt> and <tt>stage3</tt> respectively. These files define the building strategy Metro will use when we build pentium4 funtoo-current stages. With a build strategy of <tt>local</tt>, Metro will source its seed stage from funtoo-current pentium4, the current directory. And with a seed strategy of <tt>stage3</tt>, Metro will use a stage3 as a seed, and use this seed to build a new stage1, stage2 and stage3.
== Step 2: Building the pentium4 stages ==
Incidentally, if all you wanted to do at this point was to build a new pentium4 funtoo-current stage1/2/3 (plus openvz and vserver templates). You would begin the process by typing:
# ##i##cd /root/metro
# ##i##scripts/ezbuild.sh funtoo-current pentium4
If you have a slow machine, it could take several hours to be completed because several "heavy" components like gcc or glibc have to be recompiled in each stage. Once a stage has been successfully completed, it is placed in the <tt>"${METRO_MIRROR}/funtoo-current/x32-bit/pentium4/YYYY-MM-DD"</tt> subdirectory, where <tt>YYYY-MM-DD</tt> is today's date at the time the <tt>ezbuild.sh</tt> script was started or the date you put on the ezscript.sh command line.
= Building for another binary compatible architecture (remote build) =
As written above, [[Metro]] is able to perform '''remote build''' building different architecture stage3 from a binary compatible seeding stage3 (e.g. using a pentium4 stage3 to seed a <tt>Intel Core2 32bits</tt> stage3).
In the Metro terminology this is called a '''remote build''' (a stage 3 of a different, but binary compatible, architecture is used as a seed).
What's not compatible? You can't use a <tt>Sparc</tt> architecture to generate an <tt>x86</tt> or <tt>ARM</tt> based stage and vice-versa. If you use a 32bit stage then you don't want to seed a 64bit build from it. Be sure that you are using a stage from the same architecture that you are trying to seed. Check [http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/funtoo/funtoo-current/ Funtoo-current FTP Mirror] for a stage that is from the same Architecture that you will be building. 
{{Note|Often, one build (ie. funtoo-current) can be used as a seed for another build such as funtoo-stable. However, hardened builds require hardened stages as seeds in order for the build to complete successfully.}}
== Step 1: Set up Core_2 32bit repository ==
In this example, we're going to use this pentium4 funtoo-current stage3 to seed a new Core_2 32bit funtoo-current build. To get that done, we need to set up the pentium4 build directory as follows:
# ##i## cd /home/mirror/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-32bit
# ##i##install -d core2_32
# ##i##cd core2_32
# ##i##install -d .control/strategy
# ##i##echo remote > .control/strategy/build
# ##i##echo stage3 > .control/strategy/seed
# ##i##install -d .control/remote
# ##i##echo funtoo-current > .control/remote/build
# ##i##echo x86-32bit > .control/remote/arch_desc
# ##i##echo pentium4 > .control/remote/subarch
The steps we follow are similar to those we performed for a ''local build'' to set up our pentium4 directory for local build. However, note the differences. We didn't download a stage, because we are going to use the pentium4 stage to build a new Core_2 32bit stage. We also didn't create the <tt>.control/version/stage{1,3}</tt> files because Metro will create them for us after it successfully builds a new stage1 and stage3. We are still using a <tt>stage3</tt> seed strategy, but we've set the build strategy to <tt>remote</tt>, which means that we're going to use a seed stage that's not from this particular subdirectory. Where are we going to get it from? The <tt>.control/remote</tt> directory contains this information, and lets Metro know that it should look for its seed stage3 in the <tt>/home/mirror/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-32bit/pentium4</tt> directory. Which one will it grab? You guessed it -- the most recently built ''stage3'' (since our seed strategy was set to <tt>stage3</tt>) that has the version stamp of <tt>2010-12-24</tt>, as recorded in <tt>/home/mirror/funtoo-current/x86-32bit/pentium4/.control/version/stage</tt>. Now you can see how all those control files come together to direct Metro to do the right thing.
{{Note|<code>arch_desc</code> should be set to one of: <code>x86-32bit</code>, <code>x86-64bit</code> or <code>pure64</code> for PC-compatible systems. You must use a 32-bit build as a seed for other 32-bit builds, and a 64-bit build as a seed for other 64-bit builds.}}
== Step 2: Building the Core_2 32bit stages ==
Now, you could start building your new Core_2 32bit stage1/2/3 (plus openvz and vserver templates) by typing the following:
# ##i##/root/metro/scripts/ezbuild.sh funtoo-current core2_32
In that case, the produced stages are placed in the <tt>/home/mirror/funtoo/funtoo-current/x32-bit/core2_32/YYYY-MM-DD</tt> subdirectory.
== Step 3: The Next Build ==
At this point, you now have a new Core_2 32bit stage3, built using a "remote" pentium4 stage3. Once the first remote build completes successfully, metro will automatically change <code>.control/strategy/build</code> to be <code>local</code> instead of <code>remote</code>, so it will use the most recently-built Core_2 32bit stage3 as a seed for any new Core_2 32bit builds from now on.
= Build your own tailored stage3 =
Metro can be easily configured for building custom stage3 by including additional packages. Edit the following configuration file <tt>/root/metro/etc/builds/funtoo-current/build.conf</tt>:
[collect ../../fslayouts/funtoo/layout.conf]
[section release]
author: Daniel Robbins <drobbins@funtoo.org>
[section target]
compression: xz
[section portage]
SYNC: $[snapshot/source/remote]
[section profile]
format: new
path: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu
arch: $[:path]/arch/$[target/arch_desc]
build: $[:path]/build/current
flavor: $[:path]/flavor/core
[section version]
python: 2.7
[section emerge]
[section snapshot]
type: live
compression: xz
[section snapshot/source]
type: git
branch: funtoo.org
# branch to have checked out for tarball:
branch/tar: origin/master
name: ports-2012
remote: git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012.git
options: pull
[section metro]
options/stage: cache/package
target: gentoo
[section baselayout]
services: sshd
[section multi]
snapshot: snapshot
[section files]
motd/trailer: [
>>> Send suggestions, improvements, bug reports relating to...
>>> This release:                  $[release/author]
>>> Funtoo Linux (general):        Funtoo Linux (http://www.funtoo.org)
>>> Gentoo Linux (general):        Gentoo Linux (http://www.gentoo.org)
[collect ../../multi-targets/$[multi/mode:zap]]
= Building Gentoo stages =

Latest revision as of 17:33, July 12, 2015