Difference between pages "Funtoo:About/pt-br" and "Package:Boot-Update"

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(Visão do Projeto)
 
 
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= Visão do Projeto =
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{{Ebuild
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|Summary=Funtoo Core Boot Framework for global boot loader configuration
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|CatPkg=sys-boot/boot-update
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|Maintainer=Drobbins
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|Repository=Funtoo Overlay
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|Organization=Funtoo Technologies
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|Overlay=Funtoo
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}}
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Funtoo boot-update provides a unified mechanism for configuring the GRUB 1.9x ({{Package|sys-boot/grub}}) and GRUB 0.97 ({{Package|sys-boot/grub-legacy}}) boot loaders. It is the recommended, official way to configure Funtoo Linux systems for booting.
  
Daniel Robbins originalmente escreveu a [[ Gentoo Linux Philosophy|Filosofia Gentoo Linux]], e nisso definiu o conceito de uma ferramenta ideal assim sendo algo que "simplesmente funciona", não fica no caminho do usuário, e responde a vontade do usuário ao invés de forçar o usuário a trabalhar de um jeito particular.
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== Current Version ==
  
Funtoo Linux é um projeto de pessoas que concordam filosofia da ferramenta ideal, e que são ''apaixonados'' pelo nosso desejo de melhorar a tecnologia de ser tão próximo desse ideial quanto possível. O foco de nossos esforços é o melhoramento contínuo da distribuição Gentoo Linux.
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* {{Package|sys-boot/boot-update}}
  
O foco do desenvolvimento do Funtoo Linux é atualmente direcionado ao sistema central, significando qualquer coisa em um stage3, portage, core languages, kernels, aplicações de servidor, e em cima do X11 e gerenciadores de janelas simples, e incluindo ambientes desktop como o GNOME e o KDE.
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== Man Pages ==
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Consult the following man pages for detailed, up-to-date information on configuration file settings and command-line arguments:
  
== Foco, Foco, Foco ==
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* boot-update(8)
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* boot.conf(5)
  
Desenvolvedores deveriam utilizar esses princípios gerais para determinar em quais prioridades focar primeiro. -Essas areas abaixo estão listadas em ordem de prioridade, então o próximo parágrafo é a principal prioridade (top priority), seguido pela próxima prioridade, etc. Só por que algo é prioridade mais baixa não significa que é "menos importante" - somente significa tratar as coisas de prioridades mais altas (higher-priority) antes.
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{{:Install/BootLoader}}
  
=== Ele controe? ===
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=== GRUB 0.97 (grub-legacy) Quick Start ===
  
* '''Ele constrói confiavelmente?'''
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If using <code>sys-boot/grub-legacy-0.97</code>, perform the following steps:
  
O primeiro teste - o software constrói a partir do código fonte corretamente? Isso não se trata somente de emergir ebuilds no seu sistema -- do stage builds work with no issues using Metro? If not, this needs to be fixed first. Funtoo Linux continually builds updated operating system releases, and these must build reliably at all times. The focus here is for 100% correct and efficient builds using Metro, and then emerging initial applications on a Funtoo Linux system.
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* Partition disk using MBR partitions '''(GPT not supported)'''
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* Install kernel/initrd to <code>/boot</code>
  
=== Does It Run? ===
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<console>
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###i## emerge sys-boot/boot-update
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###i## emerge ">=sys-boot/grub-legacy-0.97-r11"
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###i## grub-install-legacy /dev/sda
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</console>
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Due to an issue with <code>grub-legacy</code>, you may see the following message:
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<console>
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###i## grub-install-legacy /dev/sda
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The file /boot/grub-legacy/stage1 not read correctly.
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</console>
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Should you receive this message, you will have to install <code>grub-legacy</code> from the grub shell.
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Assuming <code>/boot</code> is the partition <code>/dev/sda1</code> and you want to install grub to the MBR, you would run the following:
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<console>
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###i## grub-legacy
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root (hd0,0)
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setup (hd0)
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quit
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</console>
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When adjusting to fit your setup, remember 'root' is the location of your boot partition, 'setup' is where you want to install grub, and don't forget about grub's unique naming conventions for hard drives / partitions. For more information run:
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<console>
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###i## info grub-legacy
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</console>
  
* '''Does it Run Well?'''
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Ensure that <code>/etc/fstab</code> is correct, and edit <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> to reflect your installation.
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Ensure a <code>generate grub-legacy</code> setting in the <code>boot</code> section. Then run:
  
OK, it builds. Does it run properly? Does it work? This is pretty vague, so let's put some specifics here. When installing Funtoo Linux from a stage3, does everything work? What complications or failures were encountered on initial install? These should be fixed, or work-arounds should be put in place, and long-term fixes should be worked on to improve the user experience. Remember that the focus of Funtoo Linux is on the core system - this is the stuff you touch when you first install Funtoo Linux. You should regularly re-install Funtoo Linux to check for any issues and prioritize user install issues and the initial user experience.
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<console>
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###i## boot-update
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</console>
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This will auto-generate the <code>/boot/grub-legacy/grub.conf</code> required for booting. Note that <code>grub-legacy-0.97-r11</code> and later stores <code>grub.conf</code> in the <code>/boot/grub-legacy</code> directory.
  
=== Can I Use It? ===
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Re-run <code>boot-update</code> every time your available kernels / initrds or <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> configuration changes.
  
* '''Easily?'''
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[[Category:Projects]]
* '''For Real Work?'''
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[[Category:Funtoo features]]
 
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{{EbuildFooter}}
OK, it builds, and it runs. But can I actually perform tasks with the tool? How easy or hard is it to perform these tasks? The technology (and documentation) must be designed to support the user in performing these tasks, rather than forcing the user to jump through hoops to get something set up correctly. Things should be automated as much as possible without taking control away from the user. Reasonable, secure defaults that are suitable for production workloads must be used for all applications. Things should emerge without blockers or missing features that must be enabled manually by the user. And a pet peeve - if emerge stops to tell the user that they must define a USE variable to continue, this is something that should be fixed one way or another. Then, when everything is said and done, it should work.
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=== Is It Documented? ===
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* '''For free software projects, documentation is key.'''
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If software builds, runs and works, others still may not be able to use it until proper documentation is available. Upstream documentation isn't always complete or easy to understand, so often additional user documentation is required. If manual steps are required, they should be documented clearly and correctly. The documentation option of choice is the Funtoo wiki as well as man pages.
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For source code, verbose comments should be used. You may be working on the code now, but someone else might be working on it six months from now. Developers are expected to write clear comments that are sufficiently non-technical and provide the necessary context to allow less experienced developers to understand critical parts of code, and ideally '''all''' parts of the code. Please see [[Coding Standards]].
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=== Is It Well-Designed? ===
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* '''Optimized?'''
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* '''Maintainable?'''
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It builds and runs, and I can use it to perform real work. But is the system well-designed? Does it work reliably? Are all available patches and fixes in place to ensure a reliable computing experience? Is Funtoo Linux providing the best technology possible to users? And is this technology easy to maintain? Remember, all things being equal, less code is better than more code because it is easier to maintain. Are there verbose comments in code where necessary?
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=== Are We Getting Better? ===
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OK, we're doing all of the above steps. Here is the next test - are we getting better? Is the quality, security, usability and maintainability of the distribution improving over time, or is it going up, and then going down, and we're not really making any forward progress? The ultimate goal at the end of the day is to make forward progress in the quality of the distribution. This requires better automation, better tools, better processes, and investment in research and development and new ways of doing things. It also requires the right attitude. If we are doing a lot of work and the overall quality of the distribution is not improving, then our efforts are not making a long-term difference, even though they may be addressing immediate bugs and issues. We must ensure that our efforts are worthwhile, and they are making a positive long-term difference in the quality of the distribution.
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=== What is The Real Problem? ===
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Building on this theme - when a bug is encountered, what is the ''real'' problem, or ''root cause''? Strategic thinking as well as in-depth troubleshooting is required to identify the root cause of a problem. Should we just fix root causes? No, this is impractical, because doing this takes a lot of time. Instead, workarounds are often used to quickly restore quality to acceptable levels. However, just implementing workarounds is dangerous, because bugs tend to multiply while the underlying issue goes unresolved. The proper solution is to implement workarounds but to not lose focus on the need to address the underlying issues, or root causes, of the problem. In fact, much of the focus of Funtoo Linux is on this last step - aggressively fixing a bunch of immediate issues so we can start to address the deeper problems once and for all...
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=== Architecture ===
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...and addressing root causes of problems often requires a significant change in software architecture. Funtoo Linux is a project that is not afraid of making significant, even aggressive, architectural changes in order to fix problems. This is what our users expect us to do, and ''as long as these changes are properly tested, managed, planned, automated and communicated to users'', they will not get upset. As stated in the previous paragraph, the Funtoo Linux project is zealous about addressing these core architectural issues -- but we need to get a handle on the more fundamental challenges first. Once workarounds are in place, we'll take a stab at some core system change that will pay dividends well into the future.
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== Examples ==
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Below, you will find examples of existing efforts that have aligned with these goals. This section will give you a feel for how real projects can be started that align with the Funtoo Linux vision defined above.
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=== Boot-Update ===
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[[Boot-Update]] was designed by Daniel Robbins to provide a more elegant way to configure boot loaders under Funtoo Linux. This project was prioritized for several reasons. For one, it had to do with the initial installation experience (see [[#Does it Run?]]) Also, lack of GRUB2 support, as well as GPT/GUID support, was identified as a critical weakness in current Gentoo Linux functionality (see [[#Is it Well-Designed?]]) Because of this, a new unified configurator was written which uses <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt> as the global boot loader configuration file. This represented a change in boot loader architecture (see [[#Architecture]]) under Funtoo Linux, in order to improve usability and flexibilty over existing solutions, and to attempt to reduce or eliminate a class of problems related to boot loader configuration, which is especially troublesome with GRUB2.
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=== Metro ===
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[[Metro]] was designed by Daniel Robbins and is used to address the "[[#Does It Build?]]" question. The existing solution, catalyst, was difficult to maintain (see [[#Is It Well-Designed?]]), so Metro was developed to provide a new mechanism for building OS releases.
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=== Forked Ebuilds ===
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Not all improvements involve large software development efforts. In fact, the majority of fixes involve relatively small fixes to ebuilds. These fixes are often made to fix a Metro build failure (see [[#Does it Build?]]) or address some quality issue (see [[#Is It Well-Designed?]]). The <tt>www-servers/nginx</tt> ebuild was improved to provide better default settings for production systems, with corresponding changes made to <tt>sys-libs/pam</tt> to allow this to work. <tt>dev-lang/python</tt> contains fixes to ensure that Metro builds complete properly and a valid <tt>/usr/bin/python</tt> symlink always exists.
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=== OpenVZ ===
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OpenVZ support is a specific priority of Funtoo Linux. Funtoo Linux maintains a patched <tt>sys-cluster/vzctl</tt> with various patches to fix a variety of problems. In addition, <tt>openvz-rhel6-stable</tt> and <tt>openvz-rhel5-stable</tt> ebuilds have been created to ease installation of production-quality OpenVZ kernels (see [[#Can I Use It?]]) In addition, [[OpenVZ]] documentation exists on the wiki (see [[#Can I Use It?]])
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[[Category:QA]]
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Revision as of 18:18, January 11, 2015

sys-boot/boot-update


Current Maintainer(s):Daniel Robbins
Source Repository:Repository:Funtoo Overlay


Summary: Funtoo Core Boot Framework for global boot loader configuration


News

Drobbins

IP Space Migration Continues

All Funtoo user containers in the 8.28 IP space will be moving into our new IP space (172.97) over the next few days. If you have DNS set up -- be sure to watch your container and update to the new IP! container.host.funtoo.org DNS will be updated after the move.
2015-08-27 by Drobbins
Drobbins

Funtoo Hosting IP Move

Funtoo user containers with IPs in the 72.18.x.x range will be gradually migrating to new IP addresses this week. If you have DNS entries for your containers, please be aware that your DNS will need to be updated.
2015-08-11 by Drobbins
Drobbins

New ARM Stages

New ARM Stages, built with a new toolchain, are now hitting mirrors. Existing ARM users should re-install using these stages (dated Aug 3, 2015 or later,) rather than upgrade using emerge.
2015-08-06 by Drobbins
More...

Boot-Update

Tip

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Funtoo boot-update provides a unified mechanism for configuring the GRUB 1.9x (sys-boot/grub (package not on wiki - please add)) and GRUB 0.97 (sys-boot/grub-legacy (package not on wiki - please add)) boot loaders. It is the recommended, official way to configure Funtoo Linux systems for booting.

Current Version

Man Pages

Consult the following man pages for detailed, up-to-date information on configuration file settings and command-line arguments:

  • boot-update(8)
  • boot.conf(5)

Installing a Bootloader

These install instructions show you how to use GRUB to boot using BIOS (old-school) or UEFI (new-school). As of boot-update-1.7.2, now in Portage, the steps are very similar.

First, emerge boot-update. This will also cause grub-2 and efibootmgr to be merged, since they are dependencies:

(chroot) # emerge boot-update

Then, edit /etc/boot.conf using nano and specify "Funtoo Linux genkernel" as the default setting at the top of the file, replacing "Funtoo Linux".

/etc/boot.conf should now look like this:

/etc/boot.conf
boot {
	generate grub
	default "Funtoo Linux genkernel" 
	timeout 3 
}

"Funtoo Linux" {
	kernel bzImage[-v]
}

"Funtoo Linux genkernel" {
	kernel kernel[-v]
	initrd initramfs[-v]
	params += real_root=auto 
} 

"Funtoo Linux better-initramfs" {
	kernel vmlinuz[-v]
	initrd /initramfs.cpio.gz
}

If you are booting a custom or non-default kernel, please read man boot.conf for information on the various options available to you.

Old School (BIOS) MBR

When using "old school" BIOS booting, run the following command to install GRUB to your MBR, and generate the /boot/grub/grub.cfg configuration file that GRUB will use for booting:

(chroot) # grub-install --target=i386-pc --no-floppy /dev/sda
(chroot) # boot-update

New School (UEFI) Boot Entry

If you're using "new school" UEFI booting, run of the following sets of commands, depending on whether you are installing a 64-bit or 32-bit system. This will add GRUB as a UEFI boot entry.

For x86-64bit systems:

(chroot) # grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda
(chroot) # boot-update

For x86-32bit systems:

(chroot) # grub-install --target=i386-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda
(chroot) # boot-update

First Boot, and in the future...

OK -- you are ready to boot!

You only need to run grub-install when you first install Funtoo Linux, but you need to re-run boot-update every time you modify your /etc/boot.conf file or add new kernels to your system. This will regenerate /boot/grub/grub.cfg so that you will have new kernels available in your GRUB boot menu, the next time you reboot.

GRUB 0.97 (grub-legacy) Quick Start

If using sys-boot/grub-legacy-0.97, perform the following steps:

  • Partition disk using MBR partitions (GPT not supported)
  • Install kernel/initrd to /boot
# emerge sys-boot/boot-update
# emerge ">=sys-boot/grub-legacy-0.97-r11"
# grub-install-legacy /dev/sda

Due to an issue with grub-legacy, you may see the following message:

# grub-install-legacy /dev/sda
The file /boot/grub-legacy/stage1 not read correctly.

Should you receive this message, you will have to install grub-legacy from the grub shell. Assuming /boot is the partition /dev/sda1 and you want to install grub to the MBR, you would run the following:

# grub-legacy
root (hd0,0)
setup (hd0)
quit

When adjusting to fit your setup, remember 'root' is the location of your boot partition, 'setup' is where you want to install grub, and don't forget about grub's unique naming conventions for hard drives / partitions. For more information run:

# info grub-legacy

Ensure that /etc/fstab is correct, and edit /etc/boot.conf to reflect your installation. Ensure a generate grub-legacy setting in the boot section. Then run:

# boot-update

This will auto-generate the /boot/grub-legacy/grub.conf required for booting. Note that grub-legacy-0.97-r11 and later stores grub.conf in the /boot/grub-legacy directory.

Re-run boot-update every time your available kernels / initrds or /etc/boot.conf configuration changes.