Difference between pages "GUID Booting Guide" and "Pt-br/Flavors and Mix-ins"

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{{Article
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== Flavors (Sabores) ==
|Keywords=GPT, GUID, UEFI, EFI, Linux, Funtoo, Gentoo
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|Article Category=General
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|Author=Drobbins
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}}
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== Introduction ==
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GPT, which stands for GUID Partition Table, is a disk partitioning scheme that was introduced by Intel for Itanium architecture systems, as part of EFI, the Extensible Firmware Interface. While you are probably not using an Itanium architecture computer, and you are likely using a BIOS-based rather than an EFI-based system, you still may want to use GPT partitioning. Why? Because the standard MBR-based partitioning scheme only supports system disks that are less than 2TiB in size. On modern systems, especially systems with hardware RAID logical volumes, it is very easy to go beyond the 2TiB limit. GUID partition tables support disks that are larger than 2TiB in size.
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Um sistema pode possuir somente um flavor profile habilitado de cada vez. Os flavors a seguir estão disponíveis:
  
=== GPT Technology Overview ===
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;minimal: Esse flavor define o flavor mínimo possível. Ele atualmente contem somente padrões para todos os flavors do Funtoo Linux flavors.
  
This section contains a technical overview of GPT technology.
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;core: O core flavor é o minimal flavor mais as opções de USE razoáveis, e é utilizado para os builds do stage3.
  
GUID partition tables support up to 512 partitions. GPT data structures are stored in the first sectors of the drive with a secondary copy stored at the end of the drive. This allows the partitioning scheme of your disk to be recovered in situations where the primary partition table has been corrupted.
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;server: O server flavor é destinado para servidores, mas desta vez somente para rastrear core.
  
For compatibility with legacy partitioning tools, GPT partitioning tools typically rewrite the MBR partition table (generally located in the first sector of the disk) in a way those tools will interpret it like ''"This disk has only one partition (of an unknown type) covering the whole disk".''
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;workstation: O workstation flavor é um sistema desktop mínimo. Ele inclui o core flavor mais esses mix-ins: '''X''', '''audio''', '''dvd''', '''media''', '''console-extras'''
  
It is possible to convert an existing MBR-partitioned disk to GPT format using the <tt>gdisk</tt> command. Please carefully read the <tt>gdisk</tt> man page before using this capability, as it is potentially dangerous, particularly if you are performing it on your boot disk.
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;desktop: O desktop flavor é um sistema desktop completo de recursos, menos ambiente desktop (adicione KDE, GNOME ou XFCE como um mix-in.) Ele inclui o '''workstation''' flavor mais '''printing''' support.
  
{{ important|Funtoo Linux fully supports GPT on x86-32bit and x86-64-bit systems.
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== Mix-ins ==
}}
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=== Booting GPT ===
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Um sistema pode ter quaisquer número de mix-ins habilitados de cada vês. Os mix-ins a seguir estão disponíveis:
  
If you decide to use a GPT-based partitioning scheme for your system disk, either out of necessity due to a 2TiB+ disk, or because you want to try GPT out, then the question arises -- how do you get the darn thing to boot? This is where the new <tt>GRUB</tt> boot loader comes in. The new {{c|GRUB}} (version 2.0, found at <tt>sys-boot/grub</tt>) is a redesign of the original {{c|GRUB}} (version 0.9x, now called {{c|sys-boot/grub-legacy}} in Funtoo) boot-loader that includes very mature support for booting from GPT-based disks.
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;audio: Habilita as configurações do núcleo (core) relacionadas a áudio, atualmente relacionadas ao ALSA.
  
Now, let's take a look at how to get GPT-based booting working under Funtoo Linux.
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;console-extras: Habilita coisas que são boas de ter para sistemas de somente console (console-only systems). Atualmente habilitando gpm em USE.
  
== Getting Started ==
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;dvd: Configurações USE relacionadas a drives óticos -- Uso de CDR/DVD-ROM/RW.
  
The first thing you'll need to do is to use a LiveCD. I recommend [http://www.sysresccd.org/Main_Page System Rescue CD] for this task as it is Gentoo-based and includes all the proper tools. Go ahead and boot the LiveCD, and then get to the point where you are ready to partition your system disk.
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;gnome: Configurações do USE e do package.use necessárias para instalar e utilizar (merge) o GNOME.
  
At this point, you have two choices as to what partitioning tool to use. You can use either <tt>gdisk</tt> or <tt>parted</tt>. <tt>gdisk</tt> is a very nice <tt>fdisk</tt>-like partitioning tool that supports GPT partitioning. It is rather new software but seems to work quite well. The other tool you can use, GNU <tt>parted</tt>, has been around for a while and is more mature, but is harder to use.
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;hardened: Habilita suporte hardened.
  
We'll take a look at how to create partitions using <tt>gdisk</tt>. Alternatively, <code>cgdisk</code>, curses-based gdisk for users familiar with cfdisk or <code>sgdisk</code>, command-line tool can be used for creating and managing GPT partitions.
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;kde: Configurações de USE e de package.use necessárias para instalar e utilizar (merge) o KDE.
  
== Partitioning Using Gdisk ==
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;media: USE settings related to audio/video media encoding. Can be for desktops or servers.
  
OK, the first step is using <tt>gdisk</tt> is to start it up, specifying the disk you want to modify:
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;print: Habilita a capacidade de impressão (printing).
  
{{console|body=# ##i##gdisk /dev/sda}}
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;rhel5-compat: Configurações necessárias para a execução de um sistema que utiliza um kernel baseado no Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5-based kernel.
You should find <tt>gdisk</tt> very familiar to <tt>fdisk</tt>. Here is the partition table we want to end up with:
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{{console|body=Command (? for help): ##i##p
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;vmware-guest: Configurações relacionadas ao uso do Funtoo Linux como um convidado (guest) na máquina virtual VMWare.
Disk /dev/sda: 312581808 sectors, 149.1 GiB
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Disk identifier (GUID): 17
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Partition table holds up to 128 entries
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First usable sector is 34, last usable sector is 312581774
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Total free space is 0 sectors (0 bytes)
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Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size      Code  Name
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;X: Configurações relacionadas ao sistema X Window e ao suporte a hardware.
  1              34          204833  100.0 MiB  0700  Linux/Windows data
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  2          204834          270369  512.0 kiB  EF02  BIOS boot partition
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  3          270370        1318945  512.0 MiB  8200  Linux swap
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  4        1318946      312581774  148.4 GiB  0700  Linux/Windows data
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Command (? for help): }}
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;xfce: Configurações USE necessárias para instalação e utilização (merging) do XFCE.
  
Above, you'll see that we have a 100 MiB boot partition, a 512 kiB &quot;BIOS boot partition&quot;, 512 MiB of swap, and the remaining disk used by a 148.4 GiB root partition.
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[[Category:Portage]]
 
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[[Category:Funtoo features]]
The one new thing here is the &quot;BIOS boot partition.&quot; What is it? In GRUB-speak, this BIOS boot partition is basically the location of the meat of GRUB's boot loading code - the quivalent of the <tt>stage1_5</tt> and <tt>stage2</tt> files in legacy GRUB. Since GPT-based partition tables have less &quot;bonus&quot; space than their MBR equivalents, and explicit partition of code <tt>EF02</tt> is required to hold the guts of the boot loader.
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In all other respects, the partition table is similar to that of an MBR-based disk. We have a boot and root partition with code <tt>0700</tt>, and a Linux swap partition with code <tt>8200</tt>. One this partition table has been written to disk and appropriate <tt>mkfs</tt> and <tt>mkswap</tt> commands are issued, <tt>/dev/sda1</tt> will be used to hold <tt>/boot</tt>, <tt>/dev/sda2</tt> will be used by the new GRUB directly, <tt>/dev/sda3</tt> will house our swap and <tt>/dev/sda4</tt> will hold our root filesystem.
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Go ahead and create filesystems on these partitions, and then mount the root and boot filesystems to <tt>/mnt/gentoo</tt> and <tt>/mnt/gentoo/boot</tt> respectively. Now go ahead and unpack a stage3 tarball to <tt>/mnt/gentoo</tt> and chroot in as you normally do.
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== Configuring The Kernel ==
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Your kernel will need a couple of extra GPT-related options enabled in order for it to make sense of your GPT partitions and find your filesystems.
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{{kernelop|title=Enable the block layer,Partition Types|desc=
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[*] Advanced Partition Selection (PARTITION_ADVANCED)
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[*] EFI GUID Partition Support (EFI_PARTITION)
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}}
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If you are using a non-Funtoo distribution then you may need to append a proper <tt>rootfstype=</tt> option to your kernel boot options to allow Linux to properly mount the root filesystem when <tt>Advanced Partition Selection</tt> is enabled. [[Boot-Update]] does this for you automatically.
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Now just go ahead and compile and install your kernel, and copy it to <tt>/boot/bzImage</tt>.
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== Booting The System ==
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To get the system booted, you will want to first edit <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> inside the chroot so that it reflects the partitions and filesystems you just created. For Funtoo Linux systems, this is done by emerging {{c|boot-update}}, which is the universal boot loader configurator for Funtoo Linux.
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{{console|body=# ##i##emerge boot-update}}
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[[Boot-Update]] is a front-end for the GRUB 1.9x boot loader and provides a necessary simplified configuration interface. <tt>boot-update</tt> is used to generate boot loader configuration files. But before we get to <tt>boot-update</tt>, we first need to install GRUB to your hard disk. This is done as follows:
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{{console|body=# ##i##grub-install /dev/sda}}
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<tt>grub-install</tt> will detect and use <tt>/dev/sda2</tt> and use it to store its boot loader logic.
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Now it's time to create an <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt> file. For more information on all available options, consult the [[Boot-Update]] guide -- I'll show you a sample configuration for the sample GPT partition scheme above:
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<pre>boot {
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        generate grub
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        default bzImage
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}
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&quot;Funtoo Linux&quot; {
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        kernel bzImage
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}</pre>
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Once <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt> has been created, then type:
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{{console|body=# ##i##boot-update}}
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This will auto-generate a <tt>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</tt> file for you, and you will now be able to reboot into Funtoo Linux using a GPT partitioning scheme.
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For more information on all the options available for <tt>/etc/boot.conf</tt>, please consult the [[Boot-Update]] guide.
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[[Category:Articles]]
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{{ArticleFooter}}
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Latest revision as of 20:19, March 25, 2015

Flavors (Sabores)

Um sistema pode possuir somente um flavor profile habilitado de cada vez. Os flavors a seguir estão disponíveis:

minimal
Esse flavor define o flavor mínimo possível. Ele atualmente contem somente padrões para todos os flavors do Funtoo Linux flavors.
core
O core flavor é o minimal flavor mais as opções de USE razoáveis, e é utilizado para os builds do stage3.
server
O server flavor é destinado para servidores, mas desta vez somente para rastrear core.
workstation
O workstation flavor é um sistema desktop mínimo. Ele inclui o core flavor mais esses mix-ins: X, audio, dvd, media, console-extras
desktop
O desktop flavor é um sistema desktop completo de recursos, menos ambiente desktop (adicione KDE, GNOME ou XFCE como um mix-in.) Ele inclui o workstation flavor mais printing support.

Mix-ins

Um sistema pode ter quaisquer número de mix-ins habilitados de cada vês. Os mix-ins a seguir estão disponíveis:

audio
Habilita as configurações do núcleo (core) relacionadas a áudio, atualmente relacionadas ao ALSA.
console-extras
Habilita coisas que são boas de ter para sistemas de somente console (console-only systems). Atualmente habilitando gpm em USE.
dvd
Configurações USE relacionadas a drives óticos -- Uso de CDR/DVD-ROM/RW.
gnome
Configurações do USE e do package.use necessárias para instalar e utilizar (merge) o GNOME.
hardened
Habilita suporte hardened.
kde
Configurações de USE e de package.use necessárias para instalar e utilizar (merge) o KDE.
media
USE settings related to audio/video media encoding. Can be for desktops or servers.
print
Habilita a capacidade de impressão (printing).
rhel5-compat
Configurações necessárias para a execução de um sistema que utiliza um kernel baseado no Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5-based kernel.
vmware-guest
Configurações relacionadas ao uso do Funtoo Linux como um convidado (guest) na máquina virtual VMWare.
X
Configurações relacionadas ao sistema X Window e ao suporte a hardware.
xfce
Configurações USE necessárias para instalação e utilização (merging) do XFCE.