Difference between pages "ZFS Install Guide" and "Flavors and Mix-ins/pt-br"

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== Introduction ==
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== Flavors (Sabores) ==
  
This tutorial will show you how to install Funtoo on ZFS (rootfs). This tutorial is meant to be an "overlay" over the [[Funtoo_Linux_Installation|Regular Funtoo Installation]]. Follow the normal installation and only use this guide for steps 2, 3, and 8.
+
Um sistema pode possuir somente um flavor profile habilitado de cada vez. Os flavors a seguir estão disponíveis:
  
=== Introduction to ZFS ===
+
;minimal: Esse flavor define o flavor mínimo possível. Ele atualmente contem somente padrões para todos os flavors do Funtoo Linux flavors.
  
Since ZFS is a new technology for Linux, it can be helpful to understand some of its benefits, particularly in comparison to BTRFS, another popular next-generation Linux filesystem:
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;core: O core flavor é o minimal flavor mais as opções de USE razoáveis, e é utilizado para os builds do stage3.
  
* On Linux, the ZFS code can be updated independently of the kernel to obtain the latest fixes. btrfs is exclusive to Linux and you need to build the latest kernel sources to get the latest fixes.
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;server: O server flavor é destinado para servidores, mas desta vez somente para rastrear core.
  
* ZFS is supported on multiple platforms. The platforms with the best support are Solaris, FreeBSD and Linux. Other platforms with varying degrees of support are NetBSD, Mac OS X and Windows. btrfs is exclusive to Linux.
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;workstation: O workstation flavor é um sistema desktop mínimo. Ele inclui o core flavor mais esses mix-ins: '''X''', '''audio''', '''dvd''', '''media''', '''console-extras'''
  
* ZFS has the Adaptive Replacement Cache replacement algorithm while btrfs uses the Linux kernel's Last Recently Used replacement algorithm. The former often has an overwhelmingly superior hit rate, which means fewer disk accesses.
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;desktop: O desktop flavor é um sistema desktop completo de recursos, menos ambiente desktop (adicione KDE, GNOME ou XFCE como um mix-in.) Ele inclui o '''workstation''' flavor mais '''printing''' support.
  
* ZFS has the ZFS Intent Log and SLOG devices, which accelerates small synchronous write performance.
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== Mix-ins ==
  
* ZFS handles internal fragmentation gracefully, such that you can fill it until 100%. Internal fragmentation in btrfs can make btrfs think it is full at 10%. Btrfs has no automatic rebalancing code, so it requires a manual rebalance to correct it.
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Um sistema pode ter quaisquer número de mix-ins habilitados de cada vês. Os mix-ins a seguir estão disponíveis:
  
* ZFS has raidz, which is like RAID 5/6 (or a hypothetical RAID 7 that supports 3 parity disks), except it does not suffer from the RAID write hole issue thanks to its use of CoW and a variable stripe size. btrfs gained integrated RAID 5/6 functionality in Linux 3.9. However, its implementation uses a stripe cache that can only partially mitigate the effect of the RAID write hole.
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;audio: Habilita as configurações do núcleo (core) relacionadas a áudio, atualmente relacionadas ao ALSA.
  
* ZFS send/receive implementation supports incremental update when doing backups. btrfs' send/receive implementation requires sending the entire snapshot.
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;console-extras: Habilita coisas que são boas de ter para sistemas de somente console (console-only systems). Atualmente habilitando gpm em USE.
  
* ZFS supports data deduplication, which is a memory hog and only works well for specialized workloads. btrfs has no equivalent.
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;dvd: Configurações USE relacionadas a drives óticos -- Uso de CDR/DVD-ROM/RW.
  
* ZFS datasets have a hierarchical namespace while btrfs subvolumes have a flat namespace.
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;gnome: Configurações do USE e do package.use necessárias para instalar e utilizar (merge) o GNOME.
  
* ZFS has the ability to create virtual block devices called zvols in its namespace. btrfs has no equivalent and must rely on the loop device for this functionality, which is cumbersome.
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;hardened: Habilita suporte hardened.
  
The only area where btrfs is ahead of ZFS is in the area of small file
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;kde: Configurações de USE e de package.use necessárias para instalar e utilizar (merge) o KDE.
efficiency. btrfs supports a feature called block suballocation, which
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enables it to store small files far more efficiently than ZFS. It is
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possible to use another filesystem (e.g. reiserfs) on top of a ZFS zvol
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to obtain similar benefits (with arguably better data integrity) when
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dealing with many small files (e.g. the portage tree).
+
  
For a quick tour of ZFS and have a big picture of its common operations you can consult the page [[ZFS Fun]].
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;media: USE settings related to audio/video media encoding. Can be for desktops or servers.
  
=== Disclaimers ===
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;print: Habilita a capacidade de impressão (printing).
  
{{fancywarning|This guide is a work in progress. Expect some quirks.}}
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;rhel5-compat: Configurações necessárias para a execução de um sistema que utiliza um kernel baseado no Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5-based kernel.
{{fancyimportant|'''Since ZFS was really designed for 64 bit systems, we are only recommending and supporting 64 bit platforms and installations. We will not be supporting 32 bit platforms'''!}}
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== Downloading the ISO (With ZFS) ==
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In order for us to install Funtoo on ZFS, you will need an environment that already provides the ZFS tools. Therefore we will download a customized version of System Rescue CD with ZFS included.  
+
  
<pre>
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;vmware-guest: Configurações relacionadas ao uso do Funtoo Linux como um convidado (guest) na máquina virtual VMWare.
Name: sysresccd-4.2.0_zfs_0.6.2.iso  (545 MB)
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Release Date: 2014-02-25
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md5sum 01f4e6929247d54db77ab7be4d156d85
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</pre>
+
  
 +
;X: Configurações relacionadas ao sistema X Window e ao suporte a hardware.
  
'''[http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/funtoo/distfiles/sysresccd/ Download System Rescue CD with ZFS]'''<br />
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;xfce: Configurações USE necessárias para instalação e utilização (merging) do XFCE.
  
== Creating a bootable USB from ISO (From a Linux Environment) ==
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[[Category:Portage]]
After you download the iso, you can do the following steps to create a bootable USB:
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[[Category:Funtoo features]]
 
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<console>
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Make a temporary directory
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# ##i##mkdir /tmp/loop
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Mount the iso
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# ##i##mount -o ro,loop /root/sysresccd-4.2.0_zfs_0.6.2.iso /tmp/loop
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Run the usb installer
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# ##i##/tmp/loop/usb_inst.sh
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</console>
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That should be all you need to do to get your flash drive working.
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== Booting the ISO ==
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{{fancywarning|'''When booting into the ISO, Make sure that you select the "Alternate 64 bit kernel (altker64)". The ZFS modules have been built specifically for this kernel rather than the standard kernel. If you select a different kernel, you will get a fail to load module stack error message.'''}}
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== Creating partitions ==
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There are two ways to partition your disk: You can use your entire drive and let ZFS automatically partition it for you, or you can do it manually.
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We will be showing you how to partition it '''manually''' because if you partition it manually you get to create your own layout, you get to have your own separate /boot partition (Which is nice since not every bootloader supports booting from ZFS pools), and you get to boot into RAID10, RAID5 (RAIDZ) pools and any other layouts due to you having a separate /boot partition.
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==== gdisk (GPT Style) ====
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'''A Fresh Start''':
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First lets make sure that the disk is completely wiped from any previous disk labels and partitions.
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We will also assume that <tt>/dev/sda</tt> is the target drive.<br />
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<console>
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# ##i##sgdisk -Z /dev/sda
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</console>
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{{fancywarning|This is a destructive operation and the program will not ask you for confirmation! Make sure you really don't want anything on this disk.}}
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Now that we have a clean drive, we will create the new layout.
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First open up the application:
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<console>
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# ##i##gdisk /dev/sda
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
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<console>
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Command: ##i##n ↵
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Partition Number: ##i##↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##+250M ↵
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Hex Code: ##i##↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 2''' (BIOS Boot Partition):
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<console>Command: ##i##n ↵
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Partition Number: ##i##↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##+32M ↵
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Hex Code: ##i##EF02 ↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 3''' (ZFS):
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<console>Command: ##i##n ↵
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Partition Number: ##i##↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##↵
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Hex Code: ##i##bf00 ↵
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Command: ##i##p ↵
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Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size      Code  Name
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  1            2048          514047  250.0 MiB  8300  Linux filesystem
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  2          514048          579583  32.0 MiB    EF02  BIOS boot partition
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  3          579584      1953525134  931.2 GiB  BF00  Solaris root
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Command: ##i##w ↵
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</console>
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=== Format your /boot partition ===
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<console>
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# ##i##mkfs.ext2 -m 1 /dev/sda1
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</console>
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=== Create the zpool ===
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We will first create the pool. The pool will be named  <code>tank</code>. Feel free to name your pool as you want.  We will use <code>ashift=12</code> option  which is used for a hard drives with a 4096 sector size.
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<console># ##i##  zpool create -f -o ashift=12 -o cachefile=/tmp/zpool.cache -O normalization=formD -m none -R /mnt/funtoo tank /dev/sda3 </console>
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=== Create the zfs datasets ===
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We will now create some datasets. For this installation, we will create a small but future proof amount of datasets. We will have a dataset for the OS (/), and your swap. We will also show you how to create some optional datasets as examples ones: <code>/home</code>,  <code>/usr/src</code>, and <code>/usr/portage</code>. 
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<console>
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Create some empty containers for organization purposes, and make the dataset that will hold /
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# ##i##zfs create -p tank/funtoo
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# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/ tank/funtoo/root
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Optional, but recommended datasets: /home
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# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/home tank/funtoo/home
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Optional datasets: /usr/src, /usr/portage/{distfiles,packages}
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# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/src tank/funtoo/src
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# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage -o compression=off tank/funtoo/portage
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# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/distfiles tank/funtoo/portage/distfiles
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# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/packages tank/funtoo/portage/packages
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</console>
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== Installing Funtoo ==
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+
=== Pre-Chroot ===
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<console>
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Go into the directory that you will chroot into
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# ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
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Make a boot folder and mount your boot drive
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# ##i##mkdir boot
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# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 boot
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</console>
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[[Funtoo_Linux_Installation|Now download and extract the Funtoo stage3 ...]]
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Once you've extracted the stage3, do a few more preparations and chroot into your new funtoo environment:
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<console>
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Bind the kernel related directories
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# ##i##mount -t proc none proc
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# ##i##mount --rbind /dev dev
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# ##i##mount --rbind /sys sys
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Copy network settings
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# ##i##cp -f /etc/resolv.conf etc
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Make the zfs folder in 'etc' and copy your zpool.cache
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# ##i##mkdir etc/zfs
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# ##i##cp /tmp/zpool.cache etc/zfs
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Chroot into Funtoo
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# ##i##env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l
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</console>
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{{:Install/PortageTree}}
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=== Add filesystems to /etc/fstab ===
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Before we continue to compile and or install our kernel in the next step, we will edit the <code>/etc/fstab</code> file because if we decide to install our kernel through portage, portage will need to know where our <code>/boot</code> is, so that it can place the files in there.
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Edit <code>/etc/fstab</code>:
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{{file|name=/etc/fstab|desc= |body=
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# <fs>                  <mountpoint>    <type>          <opts>          <dump/pass>
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/dev/sda1              /boot          ext2            defaults        0 2
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}}
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== Kernel Configuration ==
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...wip
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== Installing the ZFS userspace tools and kernel modules ==
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Emerge {{Package|sys-fs/zfs}}. This package will bring in {{Package|sys-kernel/spl}}, and {{Package|sys-fs/zfs-kmod}} as its dependencies:
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<console>
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# ##i##emerge zfs
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</console>
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Check to make sure that the zfs tools are working. The <code>zpool.cache</code> file that you copied before should be displayed.
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<console>
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# ##i##zpool status
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# ##i##zfs list
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</console>
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If everything worked, continue.
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== Create the initramfs ==
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=== genkernel ===
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Install genkernel and run it:
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<console>
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# ##i##emerge genkernel
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You only need to add --luks if you used encryption
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# ##i##genkernel --zfs --luks initramfs
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</console>
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== Installing & Configuring the Bootloader ==
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=== GRUB 2  ===
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<console>
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# ##i##emerge grub
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</console>
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Now install grub to the drive itself (not a partition):
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<console>
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# ##i##grub-install /dev/sda
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</console>
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=== boot-update ===
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boot-update comes as a dependency of grub2, so if you already installed grub, it's already on your system!
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==== Genkernel ====
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If your using genkernel you must add 'real_root=ZFS=<root>' and 'dozfs' to your params.
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Example entry for <code>/etc/boot.conf</code>:
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{{file|name=/etc/boot.conf|desc= |body=
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"Funtoo ZFS" {
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        kernel kernel[-v]
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        initrd initramfs-genkernel-x86_64[-v]
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        params real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root
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        params += dozfs=force
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}
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}}
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After editing /etc/boot.conf, you just need to run boot-update to update grub.cfg
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<console>
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###i## boot-update
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</console>
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== Final configuration ==
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=== Add the zfs tools to openrc ===
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<console># ##i##rc-update add zfs boot</console>
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=== Clean up and reboot ===
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We are almost done, we are just going to clean up, '''set our root password''', and unmount whatever we mounted and get out.
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<console>
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Delete the stage3 tarball that you downloaded earlier so it doesn't take up space.
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# ##i##cd /
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# ##i##rm stage3-latest.tar.xz
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+
Set your root password
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# ##i##passwd
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>> Enter your password, you won't see what you are writing (for security reasons), but it is there!
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Get out of the chroot environment
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# ##i##exit
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Unmount all the kernel filesystem stuff and boot (if you have a separate /boot)
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# ##i##umount -l proc dev sys boot
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Turn off the swap
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# ##i##swapoff /dev/zvol/tank/swap
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Export the zpool
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# ##i##cd /
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# ##i##zpool export tank
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Reboot
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# ##i##reboot
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</console>
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{{fancyimportant|'''Don't forget to set your root password as stated above before exiting chroot and rebooting. If you don't set the root password, you won't be able to log into your new system.'''}}
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and that should be enough to get your system to boot on ZFS.
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== After reboot ==
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=== Forgot to reset password? ===
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==== System Rescue CD ====
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If you aren't using bliss-initramfs, then you can reboot back into your sysresccd and reset through there by mounting your drive, chrooting, and then typing passwd.
+
 
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Example:
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<console>
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# ##i##zpool import -f -R /mnt/funtoo tank
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# ##i##chroot /mnt/funtoo bash -l
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# ##i##passwd
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# ##i##exit
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# ##i##zpool export -f tank
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# ##i##reboot
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</console>
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=== Create initial ZFS Snapshot ===
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Continue to set up anything you need in terms of /etc configurations. Once you have everything the way you like it, take a snapshot of your system. You will be using this snapshot to revert back to this state if anything ever happens to your system down the road. The snapshots are cheap, and almost instant.
+
 
+
To take the snapshot of your system, type the following:
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<console># ##i##zfs snapshot -r tank@install</console>
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+
To see if your snapshot was taken, type:
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<console># ##i##zfs list -t snapshot</console>
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+
If your machine ever fails and you need to get back to this state, just type (This will only revert your / dataset while keeping the rest of your data intact):
+
<console># ##i##zfs rollback tank/funtoo/root@install</console>
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+
{{fancyimportant|'''For a detailed overview, presentation of ZFS' capabilities, as well as usage examples, please refer to the [[ZFS_Fun|ZFS Fun]] page.'''}}
+
 
+
== Troubleshooting ==
+
 
+
=== Starting from scratch ===
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If your installation has gotten screwed up for whatever reason and you need a fresh restart, you can do the following from sysresccd to start fresh:
+
 
+
<console>
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Destroy the pool and any snapshots and datasets it has
+
# ##i##zpool destroy -R -f tank
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+
This deletes the files from /dev/sda1 so that even after we zap, recreating the drive in the exact sector
+
position and size will not give us access to the old files in this partition.
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
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# ##i##sgdisk -Z /dev/sda
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</console>
+
 
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Now start the guide again :).
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+
[[Category:HOWTO]]
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[[Category:Filesystems]]
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[[Category:Featured]]
+
[[Category:Install]]
+
 
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__NOTITLE__
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Revision as of 20:19, March 25, 2015

Flavors (Sabores)

Um sistema pode possuir somente um flavor profile habilitado de cada vez. Os flavors a seguir estão disponíveis:

minimal
Esse flavor define o flavor mínimo possível. Ele atualmente contem somente padrões para todos os flavors do Funtoo Linux flavors.
core
O core flavor é o minimal flavor mais as opções de USE razoáveis, e é utilizado para os builds do stage3.
server
O server flavor é destinado para servidores, mas desta vez somente para rastrear core.
workstation
O workstation flavor é um sistema desktop mínimo. Ele inclui o core flavor mais esses mix-ins: X, audio, dvd, media, console-extras
desktop
O desktop flavor é um sistema desktop completo de recursos, menos ambiente desktop (adicione KDE, GNOME ou XFCE como um mix-in.) Ele inclui o workstation flavor mais printing support.

Mix-ins

Um sistema pode ter quaisquer número de mix-ins habilitados de cada vês. Os mix-ins a seguir estão disponíveis:

audio
Habilita as configurações do núcleo (core) relacionadas a áudio, atualmente relacionadas ao ALSA.
console-extras
Habilita coisas que são boas de ter para sistemas de somente console (console-only systems). Atualmente habilitando gpm em USE.
dvd
Configurações USE relacionadas a drives óticos -- Uso de CDR/DVD-ROM/RW.
gnome
Configurações do USE e do package.use necessárias para instalar e utilizar (merge) o GNOME.
hardened
Habilita suporte hardened.
kde
Configurações de USE e de package.use necessárias para instalar e utilizar (merge) o KDE.
media
USE settings related to audio/video media encoding. Can be for desktops or servers.
print
Habilita a capacidade de impressão (printing).
rhel5-compat
Configurações necessárias para a execução de um sistema que utiliza um kernel baseado no Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5-based kernel.
vmware-guest
Configurações relacionadas ao uso do Funtoo Linux como um convidado (guest) na máquina virtual VMWare.
X
Configurações relacionadas ao sistema X Window e ao suporte a hardware.
xfce
Configurações USE necessárias para instalação e utilização (merging) do XFCE.